High Coherent Flux and Full Polarization Control NSLS-II

High Coherent Flux and Full Polarization Control NSLS-II

High Coherent Flux and Full Polarization Control NSLS-II CSX Project Beamline Cecilia Snchez-Hanke with acknowledgements to the CSX BAT and NSLS-II XFD team NSLS-II EFAC Review April 23, 2009 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 1 High coherent flux and full polarization control BAT H. Ade, D. A. Arena, S.L. Hulbert, Y. Idzerda, S. Kevan, C. Snchez-Hanke and S. Wilkins CSX Beamline Advisory Team * Rubn Reininger, Scientific Answers & Solutions, Madison, WI 2 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES Outline 1. 2. Scientific Mission Beamline Overview 3. 4. EFAC comments 1st BAT meeting 5. 6. 7. Other design issues Cost and Schedule Conclusions Beamline Requirements and Specifications

Optics and beamline layout (major changes since last EFAC meeting) comments action items 3 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 1. Scientific Mission Complementary scientific programs on two branches: Full Polarization Control and High Coherent Flux Surfaces / Buried Interfaces in SCS Imaging Complexity/inhomogeities Diffraction Microscopy Coherent Imaging Soft Matter Magnetic Interfaces Dynamics 4 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 2.1. High coherent flux and full polarization control branches

Specifications Requirements ~ 200 to 2000 eV energy range high coherent flux (maximize) circular and linear polarization with fast-switching capability up to kHz spot size on sample: ~4 m horiz. x ~5 m vert. (2-) >95% overlap of the two polarized beams on sample Flux: ~2 x 1013 photons/sec/0.1%bw A high degree of stability, of both the electron beam and the beamline optics, to provide: Full polarization control branch High coherent branch Stable intensity and polarization (desire 1:103 stability) Stable beam position (desire <10% of focused beam spot size at the sample) Stable beam overlap in fast-switching mode (desire <5% of focused beam spot size at the sample, which equates to <2.5% beam position wander, as a fraction of the focused beam spot size) 5 Stable intensity (desire 1:104 stability) Stable beam (desire <10% of the pinhole size) BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 2.2. Soft Coherent X-ray Beamline since last EFAC review Changes: SGM branchline specifically for coherent studies minimum number of reflections. Full polarization control branch with flexible control of flux (polarization &

switching). Move branching mirror into FE now also provides focusing High coherent flux branch Full polarization control branch SGM mono 6 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES CSX beamline real-space layout High coherent flux branch Full polarization control branch 7 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES CSX beamline real-space layout Full polarization control branch High coherent flux branch 8 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 3. Response to Comments from EFAC Comment Response Combining both programs into a single beamline has compromised the capabilities of both branches to some degree Calculations show both branches performance should be best in their own class Canting the IDs and its use as single device. On going studies regarding the

The phasing of the two undulators will be important and further canting and the phasing of the IDs. studies are needed. Problem related with straight section length, front end, and floor space Specific comments on beamline design details: need of multiple mirrors requires careful planning and design, the power load on the mirrors should be check, soft x-ray range allows for much tolerance for the slope errors than a hard xray mirrors Various step process, design and FEA (in first mirrors) will go hand by hand. Mirrors and gratings tolerances are being checked. Collaboration with metrology R&D Care has to be taken during the design phase to make sure that the coherence is preserved at the sample with the maximum flux Both branches optical design will request to have wave front analysis 9 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 4. 1st BAT meeting in January 2009 Goals: a) provide guidance to finalize the optical design b) provide guidance for beamline operation schemes c) provide guidance for endstations Agenda talks: a) Ruben Reininger Beamline optics and layout Toshi Tanabe CSX beamline IDs Steve Hulbert Undulator-overlaping issues b) Paul Steadman c) Konstantine Kaznatcheev 10 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 4. BAT recommendations: action items (29) Many items are related with each other:

Switching scheme, real state at straight section, IDs performance (period) relates with optics performance, requires of FEA analysis and new cost estimates. Items Status Beamline IDs Energy range > 270 eV (linear vert.) Need/required QEPU to eliminate higher harmonics EPU49 is current choice, under study the beamline performance with this selection. R&D for QEPU Beamline operation schemes Fast switching, dual or single operation Operation schemes are limited by length of the straight as well as the insertion of an ID phaser Pending final decision for fast switching scheme. Need to contact BESSY and ESRF to investigate phaser Beamline optics : a) high coherent flux , b) full polarization control Recommendation to assign R & D for gratings* and optics** First optics need to repeat FEA analysis and specially a) wave front analysis for coherence preservation Concern Zeiss stop grating fabrication, searching for collaborations to obtain state of the art gratings Ruben Reininger is keeping in contact with group in Germany willing to start a company. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 11 4. BAT recommendations: action items (29) List of other Items

Status Analysis for ZP positioning in coherence branch Same analysis as for nanofocus hard x-ray beamline Vibration analysis for optics and end-stations Need evaluation Detector requirements for beamline/endstations Preliminary list includes area detectors (fast read out) and photon counting detectors, list keeps growing Error analysis in full polar. branch with 6 degrees of freedom in first optics, specially energy shifts Request has to go to Ruben Reininger BPMs and diagnostics specific for soft x-rays In contact with Diamond ID6 and BLADE beamlines and PETRA-III soft x-ray beamline 12 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES APPLE-II Period Choice Chart Minimal (for 11.5 mm Gap) and Maximal Photon Energies of the Fundamental Harmonic vs Undulator Period for 3 GeV Electron Energy BAT conditions for the selection of the Oleg Chubar & Toshi Tanabe EPU period: Min hv vert 270 eV High energy Period length

47mm 48mm 49mm Min hv lin horiz 180 eV 170 eV Min hv circ 260 eV 230 220 eV 180 eV Min hv lin vert 310 eV 280 eV 260 eV 220 eV Min hv lin 45deg 440 eV 400 eV 380 eV 320 eV

Max hv (K=0.2) 1780 eV 1740 eV 1710 eV 1630 eV 160 eV 49 mm period 51mm 270 eV 140 eV Magnet Parameters: Br = 1.25 (NdFeB) Transverse Dimensions: 38 mm x 38 mm or 30 mm x 30 mm Horizontal Gap: 1 mm BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 13 APPLE-II Period Choice Chart Minimal (for 11.5 mm Gap) and Maximal Photon Energies of the Fundamental Harmonic vs Undulator Period for 3 GeV Electron Energy Oleg Chubar & Toshi Tanabe figure with comparison brightness for different EPU periods 49 mm period 1700 eV BAT needs EPU45 performance Magnet Parameters: Br = 1.25 (NdFeB)

Transverse Dimensions: 38 mm x 38 mm or 30 mm x 30 mm Horizontal Gap: 1 mm BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES 14 CSX full polarization control branch: switching using static canted EPUs Single beam mode: x2 flux Fixed polarization selection Linear (sigma OR pi) Circular (left OR right) Static canted beam mode, fast switchable using chopper Fast-switching polarization selection 0.16 mrad 15 Linear (sigma AND pi) Circular (left AND right) BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES CSX source usage modes (cond) Source Usage Mode Undulators Coherent branch Not shared In line (phased) M0 mirror inserted

Not shared In line (phased) or canted Shared Canted: upstream undulator pointing inboard, downstream undulator pointing outboard Polarization Control Branch M0 mirror retracted; use dedicated optics for either (a) in-line (phased) undulators as a single source or (b) canted undulators with different polarizations selected by chopper M0 mirror inserted in Use downstream undulator upstream undulator beam beam; use upstream undulator beam 16 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES Real estate problem in the low-straight 2 x EPUs (APPLE II) canted by 0.16 mrad (horizontal plane) Number of periods Period length Kmax 44

Length: 2m 45 mm 4.33 (linear mode), 2.69 (circular mode) Low- straight section (6.7 m long, as of May 2008) Need space for 2 insertion devices plus 3-5 canting magnets Need space for BPMs August 2007 J. Skaritka courtesy 17 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES CSX front end layout Non-standard items needed: adjustable white beam apertures Items not needed: No need for differential pumping section (windowless, ultra-high vacuum beamline) 17.85 m 18.25 m 18.85m 19.35 m 19.65 m 20.15 m 20.50 m 24.15 m 24.85 m 27.05 m SGV - slow gate valve FAPM - fixed aperture mask XBPM - photon BPM (non-absorbing) x two beams CO - lead collimator PS - photon shutter M0 mirror * move to the beamline front end SS - safety shutter ** 18 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

CSX beamline optics layout optics specifications vs metrology Top view Sample Entrance slit Exit pinhole inside chamber Toroidal M1 Spherical grating Cylindrical M1 Side view Side View Beamline Source to M1 Planar M0 High flux fast switching branch 29.50 m M1 to entrance slit Plane grating VLS High flux coherent branch 20.50 m 12.50 m M1 to M2 ~ 2.43 m M1 to grating ~ 2.50 m 13.60 m Grating to exit slit

~10.00 m ~ 2.09 m Exit slit to M3 ~ 1.20 m M3 to M4 0.75 m M4 to sample 1.00 m Total Plane M2 Exit Slit Plane Ellipticals M3, M4 Sample Fast Switching: change M1 and M3 Horizontal Focusing by M4 -- ~52:1 100 nrad RMS planes 500 nrad RMS Elliptical, cylinder meridional In_Sync currently (April 16th 2009) ~45.00 m 19 Plane

200 nrad RMS Sagital cylinder 500 nrad RMS BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES Energy resolution vs Slope errors 20 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES Coherent branch endstation Status Currently final assembly soon moved to X1A Technique Soft X-ray Diffraction Microscopy Coherent scattering imaging retrieval Experimental capabilities In-vacuum diffraction chamber 30 nm zone plate Polarization analysis Temperature control down to 5K 21 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES Polarization control endstation Status Experimental capabilities Under construction;

Chamber is in hause as many of the other parts will serve NSLS X13A user community prior to NSLS-II starts operations In vacuum diffractometer Magnet 1 Tesla (in x, y and z) Sample transfer Sample temperature down to ~20 K Future Motorized multiple pinholes Polarization analyzer 22 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES Undulator Beamline 4: Coherent Soft X-ray Scattering (CXS) Total Estimated Cost ($ x 1000) WBS Dictionary: All activity related to the design, construction, and commissioning (without beam) of an insertion device soft x-ray beamline covering an energy range between 200 to 2000 eV, with the capability to perform experiments using the coherent part of the photon beam, and switchable Material and labor costs recovered by removal of Material and labor costs estimated*** for high polarization. one branch coherent flux branch Bottoms up Contingency Direct $ ~ $ 361 k Branching mirror * ~ $ 338 k WBS Water-cooled Descriptionexit slit * ~ $ 999

k M3Beamline and M4 4refocusing mirrors * Undulator Coherent Soft X-ray Scattering (CXS) ~ $ 350 k Labor (115k + 115k + 120k) ** First Optic Enclosure -------------------------------------------------------------- & Transport ~ $ 2,048 Layout k Total recovered costs ~ $ 543 k Non-Labor (Mtrl, Trvl, Act) Total with Contingency M0Total Mirror * % $ Value Burdened & ~ $ 673 k Water-cooled entrance & exit slits * Escalated ~ $ 650 k Grating chamber 11,709 44 16,869 ~ $ 6,792 360 k Labor (120k x 3) ** 5,160 129 173 2 48 221 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- FTEs Labor

22.6 1,799 0.2 13 1.0 79 Utilities 1.0 61 White Beam Apertures 0.5 40 149 256 1 31 287 First Mirrors (M0 & M1) 1.2 90 768 1,094 6

591 1,685 Monochromator (M2 + gratings) 1.6 125 1,068 1,538 4 615 2,153 Exit Slits 2.1 149 673 1,082 4 455 1,537 Polarization Selection Components 0.5 41 127 237

3 81 317 Branching Mirror 0.9 73 361 585 5 246 831 Refocusing Mirror 2.1 160 2,014 2,703 6 1,460 4,162 Personnel Safety System 0.4 24 35

94 .24 23 117 Equipment Protection System 0.6 37 67 162 2 39 201 Endstation 1 3.2 245 1,110 1,837 10 735 2,572 Beamline Controls Beamline Control Station Beamline Management 33

199 4 92 291 100 k Total for 238coherent 1 branch 48 ~ $ 2,226 285 0 1 42 159 * Includes0diagnostics, transport,90and vacuum117 hardware ** includes0 labor for and 0installation 34 0 specification,25procurement, 34QA testing, 0 *** rough7.2 estimates, need to be refined 660 44 1,358 2 657 2,015 23 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

Beamline Budget Program: NSLS_EV8 Run Date: 4/13/2009 Description: NSLS_EV8 Status Date: 3/31/2009 Approval: Program Manager Functional Manager Cost Account Manager Cost Account BE[2] FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 Cumulative Undulator Beamline 4, Coherent Soft X-ray Scattering (CXS) ACT Historic Actual Costs DIRECT BCWS 43,777 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 43,777 BE[2] Totals: BCWS 43,777 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 43,777 LABOR FTE BCWS 0 0.98 2.25 3.50 4.34 5.65 6.24 1.25 24.21 DIRECT BCWS 0 74,832 189,961 285,069 339,309 428,696 462,672 85,545 1,866,085 INDIRECTS BCWS 0 64,717 175,620 277,001 351,114 471,525 539,986 105,772 1,985,735 BE[2] Totals: BCWS 0 139,549 365,581 562,070 690,424 900,222 1,002,658 191,317 3,851,820 TRAVEL DIRECT BCWS 0 3,043 4,269 4,269 56,919 0 3,000 0 71,500 INDIRECTS BCWS

0 427 755 916 14,422 0 1,005 0 17,524 BE[2] Totals: BCWS 0 3,470 5,024 5,185 71,341 0 4,005 0 89,024 MATERIAL DIRECT BCWS 0 0 17,396 9,962 2,818,930 2,981,832 254,423 26,293 6,108,836 INDIRECTS BCWS 0 0 3,076 2,137 463,068 604,235 64,059 9,928 1,146,503 BE[2] Totals: BCWS 0 0 20,472 12,099 3,281,998 3,586,067 318,482 36,221 7,255,339 Grand Totals: BCWS 43,777 143,019 391,077 579,354 4,043,762 4,486,288 1,325,145 227,538 11,239,960

With the final design BAT recommends new cost estimates 24 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES CSX Beamline: Status and Plans Polarization control branch of beamline design in good shape (Ruben Reininger) End station(s) to be transferred from NSLS (currently in design/manufacture) Coherent branch conceptual design needs to be finalize (Ruben Reininger, Sept. 2009) Thermal FEA analysis required for first mirrors of both branches Review of fast switching options: baseline optical design is based on static canted sources analysis of relative accelerator (real estate) and beamline risks, costs, and benefits of each scheme scheme 25 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES Summary Design of a unique best-in-class high performance dual branch soft x-ray beamline with flexibility to perform world class science in the soft x-ray energy range (270 to 1700eV) Coherent branch: high coherent photon flux (~1014 ph/s), with resolving power of the order of 1000 - uses both insertion devices in phase as one, with a reduced number of optics Polarization control branch: high photon flux (2 x 10 13 ph/s) with ~ 104 power resolution - uses both insertion devices with opposite polarizations, - Fast switches between polarizations 26 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

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