Academic Culture and Writing Nina Nellemann Rasmussen ([email protected]) Centre for Internationalisation and Parallel Language Use (CIP) www.cip.ku.dk Date: 2/2 2018 Place: 23.0.50 02/11/2020 Outline 1. Danish academic culture 2. Academic writing 2 02/11/2020 3 Danish academic culture Multicultural classrooms are common at many
universities around the world. When students immerse themselves in a foreign academic culture, they often experience differences that can be quite pronounced. Academi c The differences will seem more extreme if you come from a markedly different academic culture. 02/11/2020 - minute discussion How would you characterise your own academic culture in terms of, for example, interaction with teachers, level of formality and independence, assessment, and attendance? Do you expect the Danish academic culture to be (very) similar or (very) different? 4
02/11/2020 Student-teacher relations 1.Little hierarchy and non-authoritarian relations: informal address among teachers and students; students and teachers consider each other equals; students expected to engage in dialogue of equals with teachers and supervisors. 5 02/11/2020 The difference in teaching and learning styles, compared to my experience in Spain, already became apparent in my first group work experience at UCPH. Our group was sitting together when the teacher walked in from the street with her bag
casually strewn over her shoulder and started to engage us in a dialogue about how to solve the task at hand. This kind of teacher-mediated group work, a cornerstone in my programme, is the main ingredient in a pedagogy that I highly value because it stimulates my process of looking for answers with peers. To me, this is made possible by a flat system, where teachers approach students as equals and seem to want to construct knowledge with them. Emma, Spain (http://cip.ku.dk/english/reflections/) 6 02/11/2020 Expectations of student behaviour (in learning activities, at the exam, etc.) 2. Autonomy, independence and critical thinking:
students are responsible for planning their studies and managing their time; emphasis on critical and independent thinking students encouraged to express their opinion on the themes discussed during the courses; students are expected to be able to analyse and discuss material, both in class, in group work and in the final examination (oral exams!). 7 02/11/2020 I find it really stimulating here because the atmosphere is, even though I have a lot to study, it is like relaxing. And I see maybe in Italy it is not the same because you just go to lessons and you listen and here instead you are very erm, teachers want you to
talk, want you to give your opinion and in Italy if you, when you do the exam you have to be careful what you say. Lucilla, Italy (Larsen, 2013, p. 117) 8 02/11/2020 Teaching formats (Ulriksen, 2014) 9 02/11/2020 Teaching formats 10
02/11/2020 On the (sometimes reticent) local students You might have to work a bit harder than expected to establish good socio-academic relationships with local students. Danes are hard to get close to. They seem very content to stick to their friends from high school (and occasionally university), so making friends with Danes is hard. I have heard this from nearly every foreigner. 11 02/11/2020
12 Larsen (2013) Sanne: Do you communicate a lot with the Danish students? Andrea: Mmm yeah sometimes yeah. They are all very nice, but even if you try.I did this PowerPoint presentation with a girl and its just the work and thats it. She is really really lovely and the others as well if you have a discussion in class but after the work is done erm yeah 02/11/2020 Some useful advice
participate actively in projects and discussions; join as many activities and clubs as possible; learn some Danish (rdgrd med flde); make an effort to meet and socialize with the rather reticent Danes; embrace the uniqueness and idiosyncrasies of Danish (academic) culture; learn to drink buckets of coffee and eat mountains of cake; lose any inhibitions about speaking freely and openly to teachers. 13 02/11/2020 Academic Writing 1) Academic language and style 1) 2) 3) 4)
Cohesion/coherence Sentence length and structure Vocabulary The most common errors 2) Structure 3) Positioning 14 02/11/2020 Academic language and style List what you think are the three biggest language problems when writing a paper in English? 15 02/11/2020 A survey of 100 PhD students produced the following
categories: vocabulary in general 20% phrasal verbs 20% false friends 15% prepositions and adverbs 10% conditionals 10% sentence length 6% past perfect, past perfect continuous, future perfect 5% word order 4% ambiguity 0% 16 02/11/2020 Aspects that native-speaking referees and professional editors most frequently complain about: sentence length (6%) word order (4%) ambiguity (0%) Most common causes of journal papers being rejected:
problems with syntax clarity general readability (Wallwork, 2016, pp. 12-13) 17 02/11/2020 18 So how do you achieve clarity and readability? 1) Make sure your writing hangs together (cohesion/coherence) 2) Avoid redundancy (conciseness) 3) Keep sentences short and simple (25 words) 4) Use a verb rather than a noun 5) Choose Latinate words (Wallwork)
02/11/2020 19 Cohesion It is important that your text flows or coheres. One way of securing flow is by following a progression from old or given information to new information. Placing relevant old information in early position establishes a content connection backward and provides a forward content link that establishes the context. 02/11/2020 Compare the two versions of the following text. Which seems clearer? Why? a) Because the naming power of words was distrusted by Locke, he repeated himself often. Seventeenth-century theories of language, especially Wilkinss scheme for a universal language involving the creation of countless symbols for countless meanings, had centered on this
naming power. A new era in the study of language that focused on the ambiguous relationship between sense and reference begins with Lockes distrust. b) Locke often repeated himself because he distrusted the naming power of words. This naming power had been central to seventeenth-century theories of language, especially Wilkinss scheme for a universal language involving the creation of countless symbols for countless meanings. Lockes distrust begins a new era in the study of language, one that focused on the ambiguous relationship between sense and reference. 20 02/11/2020 Sentences begin with information a Apply the first six or seven words test: reader could not predict. a) Because the naming power of words was distrusted by Locke, he repeated himself often. Seventeenth-century
theories of language, especially Wilkinss scheme for a universal language involving the creation of countless symbols for countless meanings, had centered on this naming power. A new era in the study of language that Sentences begin focused on the ambiguous relationship between sense with familiar or and reference begins with Lockes distrust. repeated/old information. b) Locke often repeated himself because he distrusted the naming power of words. This naming power had been central to seventeenth-century theories of language, especially Wilkinss scheme for a universal language involving the creation of countless symbols for countless meanings. Lockes distrust begins a new era in the study of language, one that focused on the ambiguous relationship between sense and reference. 21
02/11/2020 Another way of ensuring flow is by inserting connective words and phrases: Comparison: in comparison, in contrast, similarly... Time: At first, next, later, in the end, eventually... Contrast: but, still, however, yet, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, in spite of this... Addition: what is more, moreover, furthermore, in addition, also Reason: for this reason, owing to this, therefore... Result: as a result, consequently, so, therefore, thus, accordingly... Order: first, second, in the first place, firstly, to begin with, secondly, lastly, finally Example: for example, for instance, such as... Explanation: in other words, that is to say... Attitude: naturally, of course, certainly, strangely enough, oddly enough, luckily, (un)fortunately, admittedly, undoubtedly... Summary: finally, in conclusion, in short, to sum up...
22 02/11/2020 23 But use them sparingly: [In any case] I agree that it is nice to create some variety. [However] Apart from if and and, which are frequently found within a short distance of each other, most other conjunctions do not need to be used in close proximity with each other. [For example] If you find a paragraph in which in addition appears at the beginning of three sentences, then the solution is not to replace in addition with furthermore and moreover. [Rather] The solution is to reorganize the paragraph so that in addition is only needed once. [In fact] English often just leaves conjunctions out. We can make our own connections, thank you. 02/11/2020
24 Notice the natural links (logical development of ideas, repetition of keywords or synonyms) in the following Introduction: The use and effects of cohesive devices in student writing has been of interest for some time (xxxx), but their impact on essay quality is unclear. For instance, the presence of local cohesive devices (i.e., devices related to sentence level cohesion such as connectives or word overlap between sentences) in writing produced by adult first language (L1) writers is often associated with judgments of lower writing quality (xxxx). In contrast to L1 writing studies, a number of studies examining adult second language (L2) writing report positive correlations between the presence of local cohesive devices and writing quality (xxxx). There are several unexplored explanations for these differential findings. One such explanation rests on differences in links between writing quality and the production of local cohesive devices, global cohesive devices (i.e., devices related to cohesion between larger chunks of texts such as word overlap between paragraphs in a text), and text cohesive devices (i.e., devices related to cohesion across an entire text such as the ratio of pronouns to nouns [givenness] and word repetition [lexical diversity] in the text). Recent computational studies have reported differences between local and global cohesive devices and their relation to writing quality for L1 writers, with local cohesion negatively related to writing quality and global cohesion positively related to writing quality (xxxx). No studies, to our knowledge, however, have explicitly examined differences between local, global, and text cohesive devices in L2 writing. Understanding differences between these types of cohesive devices in L2 writing may help to better explain L2 writing proficiency and differing expectations
for L2 writers on the part of expert raters. Beyond examining the relations between cohesive devices and writing quality, there has also been an interest in investigating the longitudinal development of cohesive devices for both L1 learners (xxxx) and L2 learners (xxxx). However, more research concerning the development of cohesive devices has been conducted for L1 writers than L2 writers resulting in a paucity of available information about cohesion development in L2 learners. To our knowledge, studies examining the development of local, global, and text cohesive devices in L2 learners are infrequent, and none of these links the development of these cohesive devices with judgments of writing quality. 02/11/2020 25 Avoid redundancy (omit needless Make it easy for the reader by using the minimum number of words) words: Our research [activity] initially focused [attention] on [the process of] designing the architecture. The [task of] analysis is not [a] straightforward [operation], and there is a [serious] danger that [the presence of] errors in
the text This should be avoided since it [is] generally [the case that it will] fails. X showed a better performance than Y X performed better than Y the tendency among researchers to focus on researchers tend to has the intention of becoming intends to 02/11/2020 Keep sentences short and simple The average length of a sentence in English has become shorter and shorter over the centuries. In Shakespeares time it was about 45 words, 150 years ago it was about 29 words, and todays experts recommend between 15 and 18 words.
(Wallwork, 2016, p. 57) 26 02/11/2020 Ideally, each sentence should contain only one piece of information and should be no more than 25 words long. The following sentence is from an Abstract. Is it easy to read? The aim of our study was firstly to assess changes in the level of tolerance of natives of one country towards immigrants over the course of a 50-year period in order to be able to advise governmental agencies on how to develop strategies based on those countries that have been more successful in reducing racism as already investigated in previous studies, but not in such a systematic way, and secondly to establish correlations with data from the USA, which until now have been reported only sporadically. (86 words)
27 02/11/2020 28 Put the four sentences on your handout in the most logical order. And you should end up with this: We assessed changes in the level of tolerance of natives of one country towards immigrants over the course of a 50-year period. The main aim was to be able to advise governmental agencies on how to develop strategies based on those countries that have been more successful in reducing racism. This aspect has already been investigated in previous studies, but not in a systematic way. The second aim was to establish correlations with data from the USA, which until now have been reported only sporadically.
(22, 28, 15, 20) (Wallwork, 2016, p. 58) 02/11/2020 29 Keep your subjects short and subject and verb close to each other: We assessed The main aim was This aspect has already been investigated The second aim was Excerpt from a published article! Hello verb, where art thou? This national snapshot of Canadian public libraries microblogging organizing decisions, their management policies and practices and their insights into the benefits and challenges of this microblogging practice within the larger public library program in combination with the preliminary follower analysis of a random sample of followers in one large Canadian public library together lay a firm foundation for this future work.
02/11/2020 30 Keep subject and verb close to each other: A vast amount of research on different techniques using fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) as the source of extraction and the benefits and potentials of using these techniques (27 words!) have already been conducted. A vast amount of research has examined different techniques... And avoid unnecessarily long modifier phrases (highlighted in red):
Because most existing studies have examined only a single stage of the supply chain, for example, productivity at the farm, or efficiency of agricultural markets, in isolation from the rest of the supply chain (34 words!), policymakers have been unable to assess how problems identified at a single stage of the 02/11/2020 31 Which of the following sentences do you find easier to read: S1) In Figure 8, the transport stream-function averaged over the whole simulation period is shown for EXP1 and EXP2. S2) Figure 8 shows the transport stream-function for EXP1 and EXP2 averaged over the whole simulation period. Now lets look at how the two sentences are structured:
S1) In Figure 8 // the transport stream-function // averaged over the whole simulation period // is shown for EXP1 and EXP2. (4 parts) S2) Figure 8 shows the transport stream-function for EXP1 and EXP2 // averaged over the whole simulation period. (2 parts) S2 is normal English word order: there are only two parts. 02/11/2020 Use a verb rather than a noun This improves readability and conciseness. Example: a) This was used in the calculation of the values. b) This was used to calculate the values. a) This allows the transfer of the money to be performed. b) This allows us to transfer the money/This allows the money to be transferred. a) A comparison was made between the USA and the Russian Federation. b) The USA was compared to the Russian Federation. a) The Russian Federation showed a much better performance than the USA.
b) The Russian Federation performed much better than the USA. 32 02/11/2020 Vocabulary Words, words, words! Which ones should you choose? English heavily influenced by French and Latin: cordial reception vs hearty welcome investigate vs look into require
vs need respond vs answer Words of French and Latin origin are considered more formal, more educated and also more precise. 33 02/11/2020 Avoid using weak (Germanic) multi-word verbs if there is a stronger and more precise one-word (French/Latin) synonym:
build up blow up get better/worse do away with put out put up with put off put together go up go down accumula te explode/detonate/
enlarge improve/ deteriorate abolish/eliminate/ obviate extinguis h tolerate deter/postpone/ procrastinate assemble/compose/ synthesise increase/escalate decrease/decline/ diminish
34 02/11/2020 35 Exercise! Replace the informal multi-word verbs with more formal equivalents: a) The use of touch screen voting systems could get rid of many problems associated with traditional paper-based ballots. The use of touch screen voting systems could eliminate b) Researchers have come up with a number of models to describe the effect of certain cola drinks on dental enamel erosion. Researchers have created/developed/devised/proposed a number of models c) AIDS researchers have run into a variety of unexpected problems in their efforts to develop an effective medicine. AIDS researchers have encountered/faced a variety of unexpected problems in their efforts
d) Rice and aquatic products make up a major part of the diet of the people in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Rice and aquatic products constitute a major part of the diet of the people in 02/11/2020 36 e) Researchers put this trend down to globalisation, privatisation, accountability, and demographic changes in the graduate student population. Researchers attribute this trend to globalisation, privatisation, accountability, and. f) The tenant was thrown out after failing to pay his rent on time. The tenant was evicted after failing to pay his rent on time. g) Raising taxes has been shown to reduce revenue to the government and make the job situation worse. Raising taxes has been shown to reduce revenue to the government and exacerbate the job situation. h) Problems with the new data management software showed up soon after it was launched.
Problems with the new data management software appeared/emerged/materialised/surfaced soon after it was launched. i) Exercise, work habits and daily movement patterns are also looked at to find out if something is contributing to a particular problem. Exercise, work habits and daily movement patterns are also examined/analysed/considered to determine/establish if something is 02/11/2020 Collocations are pairs or groups of words that are often used together and sound natural to native speakers: *Give important questions vs. Raise important questions *Raise a debate vs. Ignite/generate/trigger/ provoke/fuel a debate
*Make research vs. Do research *Warm debate vs. Heated debate *Deeply disagree vs. Strongly disagree *Recur to another strategy vs. Adopt/resort to/employ/ choose/use another strategy *Keep to requirements vs. Meet requirements 37 02/11/2020
Be aware of collocations when you are reading/listening to English Check collocations in dictionaries / collocations dictionaries e.g. Oxford Collocations Dictionary (CD-ROM) Longmans Dictionary of Contemporary English (CDROM) Macmillan Collocations Dictionary (book only) Collocations link http://www.just-the-word.com/ 38 02/11/2020 39 Fixed expressions: on the whole, with respect to, in the case of, in terms of, for the most part, with the exception of, to some extent, with regard to, a great deal of, a wide range of, as a rule, from the point of view of Examples of some of the phraseological nuts and bolts of academic writing:
The Academic Phrasebank: http ://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/ 02/11/2020 40 The most common errors: punctuation Correct punctuation is important! Rachel Ray finds inspiration in cooking her family and her dog. Rachel Ray finds inspiration in cooking, her family, and her dog. 02/11/2020 41 Subject-verb agreement Subjects and verbs must agree in number: 1. The purpose of the monorails have changed from one of carrying food to one of carrying people to work in crowded urban
areas. have has 2. The shortage of available infants and the availability of children with special needs has changed the focus of adoption for many parents. has have 3. Recent discoveries about the weather reveals that several cycles are involved. 02/11/2020 Other common errors Apostrophe: students vs students informants vs
informants participants vs participants Spelling: effect vs affect their vs there then
vs than principle vs principal loose vs lose 42 02/11/2020 Structure: Introduction 43
02/11/2020 44 Moves in research paper introductions: Move 1: Establishing a research territory a) by showing that the general research area is important, central, interesting, problematic, or relevant in some way; b) by introducing and reviewing items of previous research in the area. Move 2: Establishing a niche by indicating a gap in the previous research or by extending previous knowledge in some way. Move 3: Occupying the niche c) by outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present research; d) by listing research questions or hypotheses (PISF*); e) by announcing principal findings (PISF); f) by stating the value of the present research (PISF); g) by indicating the structure of the RP (PISF). *PISF = probable in some fields
02/11/2020 45 The development and use of cohesive devices in L2 writing and their relations to the judgments of essay quality Move 1: Showing Move 2: Indicating importance of of research The use and effects cohesive devices in student writing has been of interest for some time (McCutchen & gap in research. areaWitte + placing it 1981), in a but their impact on essay quality is unclear. Perfetti, 1982; & Faigley, For instance, the presence of
local cohesive devices (i.e., devices related to sentence level cohesion such as connectives or word overlap research context. between sentences) in writing produced by adult first language (L1) writers is often associated with judgments of lower writing quality (Crossley & McNamara, 2010, 2011; Evola, Mamer, & Lentz, 1980; McCulley, 1985). In contrast to L1 writing studies, a number of studies examining adult second language (L2) writing report positive correlations between the presence of local cohesive devices and writing quality (Jafarpur, 1991; Yang & Sun, 2012). There are several unexplored explanations for these differential findings. One such explanation rests on differences in links between writing quality and the production of local cohesive devices, global cohesive devices (i.e., devices related to cohesion between larger chunks of texts such as word overlap between paragraphs in a text), and text cohesive devices (i.e., devices related to cohesion across an
entire text such as the ratio of pronouns to nouns [givenness] and word repetition [lexical diversity] in the text). Recent computational studies have reported differences between local and global cohesive devices and their relation to writing quality for L1 writers, with local cohesion negatively related to writing quality and global cohesion positively related to writing quality (Crossley & McNamara, 2011; Crossley, Roscoe, McNamara, & Graesser, 2011). No studies, to our knowledge, however, have explicitly examined differences between local, global, and text cohesive devices in L2 writing. Understanding differences between these types of cohesive devices in L2 writing may help to better explain L2 writing proficiency and differing expectations for L2 writers on the part of expert raters. Beyond examining the relations between cohesive devices and writing quality, there has also been an interest in investigating the longitudinal development of cohesive devices for both L1 learners (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987; Berninger, Fuller, &Whitaker, 1996; Hayes & Flower, 1980; Myhill, 2008) and L2 learners (Crossley, Salsbury, & McNamara, 2010a; Crossley, Salsbury, McNamara, & Jarvis, 2010; Yang & Sun, 2012). However, more research concerning the development of cohesive devices has been conducted for L1 writers than L2 writers resulting in a paucity of available information about cohesion development in L2 learners. To our knowledge, studies examining the development of local, global, and text cohesive devices in L2 learners are infrequent, and none of these links the development of these cohesive devices with judgments of writing quality. Move 3:text Outlining This study addresses these gaps by examining the development of local, global, and cohesive value devices
in L2 learners in conjunction with examining the relations such developments have+ onpurpose human judgments of writing of research. quality (both judgments of overall writing proficiency and more fine-grained judgments of text coherence). Such an approach affords the opportunity to examine not only growth in the use of cohesive devices by L2 learners, but also links between such growth and expert judgments of essay quality. To do so, we use computational indices of local, global, and text cohesive devices to examine how the production of cohesive devices change over time in L2 writers (i.e., longitudinal growth) and how the use of cohesive devices are related to human ratings of L2 writing. 02/11/2020 46 Discussion The Discussion (What does it mean?) goes beyond the results and deals with the claims made earlier. It contains all or some of the following moves: Move 1: Background information research purposes, theory, methodology Move 2: Summarizing and reporting key results
Move 3: Commenting on the key results making claims, explaining the results, comparing the new work with previous studies, offering alternative explanations Move 4: Stating the limitations of the study Move 5: Making recommendations for future implementation and/or future research (Swales & Feak, 2012, p. 368) 02/11/2020 Academic Writing at the Graduate Level: Improving the Curriculum through 47 Background Faculty information Collaboration The purpose of this collaborative self-study was to examine how academic writing was being addressed in a college of education at a large Midwestern regional university in the United States . Like Uchiyama and Radin (2009), we found curriculum mapping to be a useful tool for identifying strengths and weaknesses in how we were
addressing student scholarship. While our surveys indicated that emphasis-area faculty believed they were addressing academic-writing skills in their courses, the curriculum map proved otherwise. The matrix, based on curriculum documents provided by the faculty, clearly identified the lack of academic writing in six of the seven masters-degree programs. This lack of attention to academic writing was also noted by the students. Commentin These findings offered evidence that, although we bemoan the quality of academic writing, we seem to do little to the g on address the quality of writing in a systematic way at the very point where scholarly style and identity is being key results. shaped (Rose & McClafferty 2001, p27). Even faculty who had been skeptical of the process of curriculum mapping acknowledged the benefits of the process once they saw the completed matrix. Our findings also revealed, as cautioned by Bath et al. (2004), that students perceptions and experiences may differ from the perspectives reported by faculty. For example, while emphasis-area faculty reported that they were addressing theory, research and academic writing, students reported that they had received this instruction primarily in the core courses, not the emphasis courses. When presented with this information, some faculty suggested that as long as writing skills were being addressed in the core courses, perhaps they need not be addressed in the emphasis areas. Our faculty, like those elsewhere, seemed to assume that graduate students either already possessed the necessary writing skills or were being taught those skills somewhere elseSummarisin in their graduate program (Green & Bowser 2002; Gunn, Hearne & Sibthorpe 2011; McMillen, Garcia & Bolin 2010). g and
However, the research literature reveals a lack of conclusive evidence that generic skills like academic reporting writing will automatically transfer from one course to others (Gunn, Hearne & Sibthorpe 2011). On the contrary, key results. repeated application is necessary for metacognitive skills to transfer from one situation to another (Osman & Hannafin 1994). Academic-writing skills need to be integrated into the entire graduate program. Furthermore, certain academic-writing skills seem to be more commonly lacking than others, according to researchers. Howard, Serviss and Rodrigue (2010, p187) have concluded that students extensive use of direct quotations and patchwriting, in place of paraphrasing and summary, may call into question their understanding of the research. The findings of this study also revealed that some instructors and their students believed academic writing was irrelevant to their role as practitioners. Such a separation of research and practice was noted many years ago by Schn (1983), who posited that. (Bair & Mader, 2013, pp. 9-10) 02/11/2020 Compare the following: Lager at its best
Unrivalled quality and flavour The worlds best (Wallwork, 2016, p. 152) 48 02/11/2020 49 Positioning It is essential for academic writers to control their claims carefully and position themselves appropriately in relation to their own and other research. They do this by means of hedging and boosting.
Hedges display uncertainty, deference, modesty, or respect for colleagues views. They make statements less dogmatic. Boosters, on the other hand, show confidence in the authors claims and results. There are many grammatical resources that allow writers to hedge, boost, and generally evaluate ideas, such as verb tenses, modal verbs, adverbs, and conditionals. 02/11/2020 Hedging Examples of hedging from the literature: Understanding differences betweenmay help to better explain Discontinuities in any of these dimensionscan cause a break in
the presence of local cohesive devices is often associated with The longitudinal analysis generally indicates that it is possible then that human raters Since these features are already automated, they could also be used to develop Furthermore, certain academic-writing skills seem to be more some faculty suggested that as long as..., perhaps they need not be addressed (Bair & Mader, 2013, pp. 9-10; Crossley, S. A. et al., 2016, pp. 1-2) 50 02/11/2020 Boosting Examples of boosting from the literature: The matrix, based on, clearly identified the lack of repeated application is necessary for metacognitive skills to transfer Our experience highlighted the fact that we cannot leave the development of graduate writing to chance.
It needs to be infused into the curriculum, It is vital that all involved share a However, they did demonstrate in their use of more implicit cohesive Such a finding counters many recent investigations into L1 writers use of both local and global cohesion is associated with 51 02/11/2020 Remember to always cite your sources! 52 02/11/2020 Editing checklist 1. Remember that writing is a process: focus more on content and structure first and then attend to language
later. 2. When you are ready to edit/proofread your paper (or somebody elses), pay special attention to: a) b) c) d) Structure (overall + sections & paragraphs) Cohesion (does the text flow?) Style (clear, concise and precise) Sentence length (are sentences relatively short and simple?) e) Vocabulary (formality and precision) f) Punctuation (never comma before that!) g) Subject-verb agreement h) Spelling (e.g. -ise vs -ize) 53 02/11/2020 54
Tools and links Free dictionary: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ Online dictionary: http://www.dictionary.com Collocations: http://www.just-the-word.com/ The Academic Phrasebank: http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/ Academic Writing in English: http://sana.aalto.fi/awe/index.html Using English for Academic Purposes: http://www.uefap.com/ Purdue Online Writing Lab: Punctuation: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/6/ Guidelines on structure: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/iatl/reinvention/contributors/topti ps/structure/ 02/11/2020 55 References Bair, M. A. & Mader, C.E. (2013). Academic writing at the graduate level: Improving the curriculum through faculty collaboration. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 10 (1), 1-13, http://ro.uow.edu.au/jutlp/vol10/iss1/4 Booth, W.C., Colomb, G.G. & Willams, J.M. (2008). The craft of research (3rd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago
Press. Caplan, N. A. (2012). Grammar choices for graduate and professional writers. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. Cavanagh, M. F. (2016). Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 48 (3), 247-259. Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K. & McNamara, D. S. (2016). The development and use of cohesive devices in L2 writing and their relations to judgments of essay quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 1-16. Larsen, S. (2013). Re-contextualising academic writing in English. Case studies of international students in Denmark. PhD thesis, University of Copenhagen. Pinker, S. (2014). The sense of style. UK: Penguin Random House. Swales, J.M. & Feak, C.B. (2012). Academic writing for graduate students (3rd ed.). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Michigan Series in English for Academic and Professional Purposes. Ulriksen, L. (2014). God undervisning p de videregende uddannelser. Denmark: Frydenlund. Wallwork, A. (2016). English for academic research: A guide for teachers. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Wallwork, A. (2016). English for writing research papers (2nd ed.). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.