Magnitude- amount of energy released Frequency-interval between ocurrence Magnitude-Frequency Concept Greater the magnitude=less frequent it is The bulk of the processes that form the earth surface is of
moderate magnitude and frequency Geological Cycles
Tectonic Cycles Rock cycle
Hydrological cycle Biogeochemical cycles Tectonic Cycle Tectonic Cycles-creation, movement and destruction of
tectonic plates Rock Cycle This is a subcycle of all the other geological cycles
Hydrological cycle The movement and state changes of all the water on earth. Biogeochemical Cycling of elements through all the major spheres
(hydrosphere, bioshpere, lithosphere, and atmosphere) Earths Internal Plate tectonics
Plate Boundaries Divergent Convergent Transform
Hotspots Characterized by volcanic centers resulting from hot material produced deep in the mantle.
Island formation Yellowstone Hotspot What is a topographic map?
A topographic map, also known as a contour map, is a map that shows the shape of the land using contour line. It is a map that shows and elevation field, meaning how high and low the ground is in relation to sea level.
What are contour lines? Contour lines are lines that connect points that are of the same elevation. They show the exact elevation, the shape of the land, and the steepness of the lands slope.
Contour lines never touch or cross. What is a benchmark? A benchmark is a point where exact elevation is known and is marked with a brass or aluminum plate. It is marked BM on
the map with the elevation numbers given in feet. Benchmarks are useful to help determine contour lines. Other Topographic Terms Map scale compares distances on the map with distances on
earth. Legend explains symbols used on the map. Index contours contour lines that are labeled to help you find the contour interval.
What is a contour interval? A contour interval is the difference in elevation between two contour lines that are side by side. Remember that a contour interval is not the distance between the two lines to get the distance you need to use the map
scale. What if my contour lines are close together? If the contour lines are close together, then that indicates that
area has a steep slope. What if my contour lines are far apart? If the contour lines are far apart, then that indicates the land
has a gentle slope (low slope). What do the dark colored contour lines mean? The dark colored contour lines represent every fifth contour
line to make it easier to read the map. What do depressions in the map look like? A depression, such as the inside of a dead volcano, is represented by Hachure lines.
Hachure lines are regular contour lines with small segments sticking out from it. The first hachure line is at the same elevation as the contour line before it.
More on Contour Lines Contour lines form Vs that point upstream when they cross a stream. It is important to remember that they point in the opposite direction as the flow of water.
What do the colors on the topographic map represent? Blue lines/shapes - represent water features, such as streams and lakes.
Brown contour lines Black Roads, buildings, railroads, other man made objects. Green Woodland areas Red - Highways
Now that I know what a topographic map is, how do I read it? First determine the contour interval (the distance between each contour line) Then determine the map scale (usually at the bottom of the map)
Identify any hills or depressions Use the legend to identify man made features. Reading a topographic map cont. Look for areas where the contour lines are close together
they indicate a steep area. Look for areas where the contour lines are spread apart they indicate a gentle slope.
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