Motion, Speed, Velocity and Acceleration VECTORS AND SCALORS ORIGIN - POINT AT WHICH BOTH VARIABLES ARE AT 0 (ZERO) MAGNITUDE SIZE VECTORS DIRECTION (represented by arrows) SCALARS QUANTITIES W/OUT DIRECTION
(ex distance m, time s, temp C) RESULTANT SUM OF VECTORS 6m east plus 2 m east = 8m east Resulatant subtracting vectors A - B = A+(-B) A = 20 m west
B = 5 m east 15m Time Interval/Displacement Time interval - change in time =final time initial time . formula Displacement
- Change in distance = final distance initial distance formula Motion Motion an objects change in position relative to a reference point
Reference Point The Earths surface is used as a common reference point A moving object can be used as a
reference point as well Speed Speed is the distance traveled divided by the time interval during which the motion occurred Normally, objects do not travel at a constant speed
Average Speed total distance total time Which Distance? Farmer Jones drives 6 miles down a straight road. he turns around and drives 4 miles back. What was his average speed for this trip if it took 1 hour?
Your answer to this problem depends on your interpretation of "distance traveled". You could say: The total distance traveled by Farmer Jones is 10 miles. Therefore his average speed is 10 mi/hr.
The net distance traveled by Farmer Jones is 2 miles. Therefore, his average speed is 2 mi/hr. There are good reasons to use either interpretation - it's mostly a matter of preference. We will interpret "distance traveled" to be net distance (also called displacement). Farmer Jones' average speed was 2 mi/hr. Velocity Velocity
is the speed of an object in a particular direction Imagine two birds leave the same tree at the same time. The both fly at 10km/hr for 5 minutes. Why dont they end up at the same place? Velocity Velocity
appears to be very similar to speed, however, when describing the velocity of an object you need to provide a magnitude and a direction Magnitude the speed of the object Direction the direction the object is moving Pg 43 demo
Velocity Ex) A bus has a velocity of 35miles/hr heading west Resultant Velocity An object can have a resultant velocity
if it is experiencing more than one motion. For example if a person walks down the center of a bus while it is in motion there are two velocities occurring. 1. The movement of the bus 2. The movement of the person inside the bus Example
15 m/s + 1 m/s = 14 m/s
Example 15 m/s + 1 m/s =
16 m/s Acceleration Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes over time An object accelerates if its speed, direction, or both change
Average acceleration = final velocity starting velocity time it takes to change velocity Acceleration Example A car on the highway is traveling 55 mi/hr
and it passes another car. In order to pass, the car has to accelerate to 65 mi/hr. The car reaches this velocity 40 seconds later. What is the average acceleration of the car? Acceleration and Velocity As velocity increases, so does
acceleration As velocity decreases, so does acceleration When direction changes, so does acceleration When there is a constant velocity, there is no acceleration
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