Module 1

Module 1

Module 1 Discovering Psychology INTRODUCTION Growing up in a strange world Autism especially abnormal or impaired development in social interactions, such as hiding to avoid people, not making eye contact, and not wanting to be touched

Autism is marked by difficulties in communicating, such as grave problems in developing spoken language or in initiating conversations DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY What do psychologists study? Psychology the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes Behaviors

refers to observable actions or responses in both humans and animals Mental processes not directly observable, refer to a wide range of complex mental processes, such as thinking, imagining, studying, and dreaming GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY

Describe Explain Predict Control GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY (CONT.) Describe

first goal of psychology is to describe the different ways that organisms behave Explain second goal of psychology is to explain the cause of behavior GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY (CONT.) Predict third goal of psychology is to predict how organisms will behave in certain situations

Control the fourth goal of psychology is to control an organisms behavior ANSWERING QUESTIONS How do psychologists answer questions? Approaches to understanding behavior include: Biological Cognitive Behavioral

Psychoanalytic Humanistic Cross cultural ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.) Biological approach focuses on how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environments to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions, and coping techniques

Examples: Autism Autism runs in families; supported by the findings in identical twins If one twin has autism, there is a high 90% chance the other twin will exhibit signs for autistic behavior ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.) Cognitive approach examines how we process, store, and use information

and how this information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel Cognitive neuroscience: Involves taking pictures and identifying the structures and functions of the living brain during the performance of a wide variety of mental or cognitive processes, such as thinking, planning, naming, and recognizing objects ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.)

Behavioral approach studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environments reward or punish these behaviors some behaviorists, such as Albert Bandura, disagree with strict behaviorism formulated a theory that includes mental or cognitive processes in addition to observable behaviors Social Cognitive Approach: behaviors are influenced not only by environmental

events and reinforcers but also by observation, imitation, and thought processes ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.) Psychoanalytic approach Based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly influence the development of later personality traits and psychological problems stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors, and the

development of personality traits and psychological problems later in life ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.) Humanistic approach emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment

ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.) Cross-cultural approach examines the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning of a cultures members Differences in how countries diagnose autism: United States: symptoms described 60 years ago first thought to be caused by environmental factors, (cold parents)

1960s changed to searching for biological problems Diagnoses begins at 2-3 years of age HISTORICAL APPROACHES How did psychology begin? Structuralism: Elements of the Mind Functionalism: Functions of the Mind Gestalt Approach: Sensations versus Perceptions Behaviorism: Observable Behaviors

Module 2 Psychology & Science ANSWERING QUESTIONS Research methods Survey Case study Experiment

ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.) Researchers use all three methods survey case study experiment each method provides a different kind of information SURVEYS Survey way to obtain information by asking many individuals

answer a fixed set of questions about particular subjects SURVEYS (CONT.) Disadvantages information can contain errors results can be biased Advantage efficient way to obtain much information from a large number of people

CASE STUDY Case study an in-depth analysis of the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, experiences, behaviors, or problems of a single individual Personal Case Study: Testimonial statement in support of a particular viewpoint based on detailed observation of a persons own personal experience Error and Bias: Self-fulfilling Prophecy

A strong belief or making a statement (prophecy) about a future behavior and then acting, usually unknowingly, to fulfill or carry out the behavior CASE STUDY (CONT.) Disadvantage detailed information about a particular person may not apply to others Advantage detailed information allows greater understanding of a

particular persons life EXPERIMENT Experiment a method for identifying cause-and-effect relationships by following a set of rules and guidelines that minimize the possibility of error, bias, and chance occurrences EXPERIMENT (CONT.)

Disadvantage information obtained in one experimental situation or laboratory setting may not apply to other situations Advantage has the greatest potential for identifying cause-andeffect relationships with less error and bias than either surveys or case studies CULTURAL DIVERSITY: USE OF PLACEBOS Placebo intervention, such as taking a pill, receiving

and injection, or undergoing an operation, that resembles medical therapy but which in fact, has no medical effects Placebo effect change in the patients illness that is attributable to an imagined treatment rather than to a medical treatment CULTURAL DIVERSITY: USE OF PLACEBOS (CONT.)

researchers believe that placebos work by reducing tension and distress and by creating powerful selffulfilling prophecies individuals think and behave as if the drug, actually a placebo, is effective CULTURAL DIVERSITY: USE OF PLACEBOS (CONT.) Placebo examples Rhino Horn Bear Gallbladders

Tiger Bones Cough Medication CORRELATION Correlation an association or relationship between the occurrence of two or more events Correlation coefficient a number that indicates the strength of a relationship between two or more events: the closer the number is

to 1.00 or +1.00, the greater is the strength of the relationship CORRELATION CORRELATION (CONT.) Perfect positive correlation coefficient +1.00 means that an increase in one event is always matched by an equal increase in a second event Positive correlation coefficient

indicates that as one event tends to increase, the second event tends to, but does not always, increase increases from +0.01 to +0.99 indicate a strengthening of the relationship between the occurrence of two events CORRELATION (CONT.) Zero correlation indicates that there is no relationship between the occurrence of one event and the occurrence of a

second event Negative correlation coefficient indicates that as one event tends to increase, the second event tends to, but does not always, decrease -0.01 to -0.99 indicates a strengthening in the relationship of one event increasing and the other decreasing CORRELATION (CONT.) Perfect negative correlation coefficient

-1.00 means that an increase in one event is always matched by an equal decrease in a second event correlations such as 1.00 are virtually never found in applied psychological research DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH What is the best technique for answering a question? Questionnaires and interviews Laboratory experiments Standardized tests

Animal models DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.) Interview technique for obtaining information by asking questions, ranging from open-ended to highly structured, about a subjects behaviors and attitudes, usually in a one-on-one situation Questionnaire

technique for obtaining information by asking subjects to read a list of written questions and check off specific answers DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.) Laboratory experiments techniques to gather information about the brain, genes, or behavior with the least error and bias by using a controlled environment that allows careful

observation and measurement Standardized tests technique to obtain information by administering a psychological test that has been given to hundreds of people and shown to reliably measure thought patterns, personality traits, emotions, or behaviors DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.) Animal Models

involves examining or manipulating some behavioral, genetic, or physiological factor that closely approximates some human problem, disease, or condition Example: human stem cell transplants in mice with spinal cord injuries DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.)

Choosing research settings Naturalistic setting Laboratory setting DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.) Naturalistic setting relatively normal environment in which researchers gather information by observing individuals behaviors without attempting to change or control the situation

Laboratory setting involves studying individuals under systematic and controlled conditions, with many of the real-world influences eliminated SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT Advantages of scientific method Scientific Method approach of gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Conducting an Experiment: seven rules Rule 1: Ask Rule 2: Identify Rule 3: Choose Rule 4: Assign Rule 5: Manipulate Rule 6: Measure Rule 7: Analyze

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 1: Ask hypothesis educated guess about some phenomenon stated in precise, concrete language to rule out any confusion or error in the meaning of its terms SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 2: Identify

independent variable a treatment or something that the researcher controls or manipulates dependent variable one or more of the subjects behaviors that are used to measure the potential effects of the treatment or independent variable SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 3: Choose

random selection each participant in a sample population has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment Rule 4: Assign experimental group those who receive the treatment control group participants who undergo all the same procedures as the experimental participants except that the control participants do not receive the treatment

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 5: Manipulate double blind procedure neither participants nor researchers know which group is receiving which treatment Rule 6: Measure by manipulating the treatment so that the experimental group receives a different treatment than the control group, researchers are able to

measure how the independent variable (treatment) affects those behaviors that have been selected as the dependent variables SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 7: Analyze statistical procedures used to determine whether differences observed in dependent variables (behaviors) are due to independent variables (treatment) or to error or

chance occurrence Module 3 Brains Building Blocks DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN fact that your brain does not develop into a nose is because of instructions contained in your genes Genes

chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder there are about 20,000-25,000 genes that contain chemical instructions that equal about 300,000 pages of written instructions genes program the development of individual parts into a complex body & brain DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Insert pictures of Six week old brain Mature brain STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN Human brain: is shaped like a small wrinkled melon

1,350 grams (less than 3 pounds) pinkish-white color consistency of firm Jell-O Fueled by sugar (glucose) 1 trillion cells divided into glial cells neurons STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)

Glial cells 3 Functions: guide the growth of developing neurons wrap around neurons and form an insulation to prevent interference from other electrical signals release chemicals that influence a neurons growth and function STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN

(CONT.) STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Neuron a brain cell with 2 specialized extensions one extension is for receiving electrical signals the other extension is for transmitting electrical signals

STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Insert: video Main Parts of the Neuron, Psychology Digital Video Library 3.0. Debra Schwiesow, page 17

GROWTH OF NEW NEURONS Can a brain grow new neurons? canary brain can grow about 20,000 neurons a day during the spring (learns new breeding song) primate and human brain researchers conclude that adult monkey and human brains are capable of growing relatively limited numbers of neurons throughout adulthood

Some new neurons play important role in continuing to learn and remember new things (hippocampus) GROWTH OF NEW NEURONS (CONT.) Repairing the Brain advances in stem research suggest the human brain may be able to grow more neurons repair damages:

accident disease Alzheimers PARTS OF THE NEURON Cell Body large egg-shaped structure that provides fuel, manufactures chemicals, and maintains the entire neuron in working order

Dendrite branchlike extensions that arise from the cell body receive signals from other neurons, muscles, or sense organs pass these signals onto the cell body PARTS OF THE NEURON (CONT.) Axon a single threadlike structure that extends from and

carries signals away from the cell body to neighboring neurons, organs, or muscles Myelin Sheath looks like separate tubelike segments composed of fatty material that wraps around and insulates an axon prevents interference from electrical signals generated in adjacent axons

PARTS OF THE NEURON (CONT.) End bulbs or Terminal bulbs located at extreme ends of the axons branches miniature container that stores chemicals called neurotransmitters (used to communicate with neighboring cells) Synapse infinitely small space (20-30 billionths of a meter)

exists between and end bulb and its adjacent body organ, heart, muscles, or cell body ALZHEIMERS DISEASE AND NEURONS Alzheimers disease excessive buildup of gluelike substances gradually destroy neurons Researchers recently discovered an

experimental vaccine that may help stop the buildup of these gluelike, killer substances and they continue to search for other interventions PERIPHERAL & CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Peripheral Nervous System made up of nerves that are located throughout the body, except in the brain &

spinal cord Central Nervous System made up of neurons located in the brain & spinal cord PERIPHERAL & CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CONT.) Nerves stringlike bundles of axons and dendrites that

come from the spinal cord and are held together by connective tissue carry information from the senses, skin, muscles, and the bodys organs to and from the spinal cord nerves in the peripheral nervous system have the ability to grow or reattach if severed or damaged SENDING INFORMATION:

ACTION POTENTIAL SEQUENCE axon membrane has chemical gates that can open to allow electrically charged particles to enter or can close to keep out these particles ions are chemical particles that have electrical charges opposite charges attract and like charges repel


(CONT.) Resting state the axon has a charge the charge results from the axon membrane separating positive ions on the outside from negative ions on the inside SENDING INFORMATION: ACTION POTENTIAL SEQUENCE (CONT.)

Action potential tiny electric current that is generated when the positive sodium ions rush inside the axon enormous increase of sodium ions inside the axon causes the inside of the axon to reverse its charge inside becomes positive and outside becomes negative SENDING INFORMATION:


Sending information action potential is a tiny electrical current that is generated when the positive sodium ions rush inside the axon the enormous increase of Na ions inside the axon causes the inside to reverse its charge the inside becomes positive & the outside becomes negative SENDING INFORMATION:

NERVE IMPULSE (CONT.) All-or-None law if an action potential starts at the beginning of the axon, the action potential will continue at the same speed segment to segment to the very end of the axon Nerve impulse nerve impulse is made up of 6 action potentials, with the first occurring at the

beginning of the axon SENDING INFORMATION: NERVE IMPULSE (CONT.) TRANSMITTERS A transmitter is a chemical messenger that transmits information between nerves and body organs, such as muscles and heart Excitatory and Inhibitory

excitatory transmitters open chemical locks and turn on neurons inhibitory transmitters block chemical locks and turn off neurons NEUROTRANSMITTER Neurotransmitters dozens of different chemicals that are made by neurons and then used for communication

between neurons during the performance of mental or physical activities ALCOHOL Alcohol (ethyl alcohol) A psychoactive drug that is classified as a depressant, which means that it depresses the activity of the central nervous system ALCOHOL

REFLEX Reflex unlearned, involuntary reaction to some stimulus neural connections underlying a reflex are prewired by genetic instructions REFLEX (CONT.) Reflex sequence

sensors sensors trigger neurons that start the withdrawal effect afferent neurons carry information from the senses to the spinal cord REFLEX (CONT.) Interneuron

relatively short neuron whose primary task is making connections between other neurons Efferent neuron carry information away from the spinal cord to produce responses in various muscles and organs throughout the body Module 4

Incredible Nervous System GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Fertilization human life has its beginnings when a fathers sperm, which contains 23 chromosomes, penetrates a mothers egg, which contains 23 chromosomes GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.)

GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Zygote the largest human cell, about the size of a grain of sand a zygote is a cell that results when an egg is fertilized a zygote contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Genes and proteins

Gene a specific segment on the long strand of DNA that contains instructions for making proteins Proteins chemical building blocks from which all the parts of the brain and body are constructed GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Genome The Human Genome Project

began in 1995 and cost over $2.7 billion reached its first goal in 2003 of mapping all the human genes researchers found only about 30,000 human genes instead of the estimated 100,000 EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN Evolution of the human brain 1859 Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species Theory of Evolution

says that different species arose from a common ancestor and that those species that survived were best adapted to meet the demands of their environment humans and chimpanzees share at least 98% of their DNA STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) MRI magnetic resonance imagery

involves passing nonharmful radio frequencies through the brain fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging measures the activity of specific neurons that are functioning during cognitive tasks, such as thinking, listening STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) Brain scans and Cognitive Neuroscience

PET scan positron emission tomography involves injecting a slightly radioactive solution into the blood and then measuring the amount of radiation absorbed by brain cells called neurons STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) Brain scans and Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroimaging PET and fMRI scans are used to identify and map the

living brains neural activity as a person performs complex behavioral and cognitive tasks, such as: seeing moving thinking speaking empathizing trusting even reacting to TV violence

ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Central nervous system - CNS made up of the brain and spinal cord ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Peripheral nervous system - PNS includes all the nerves that extend from the spinal cord and carry messages to and from various muscles, glands, and sense organs located throughout the body

Subdivisions of the PNS somatic nervous system autonomic nervous system - ANS sympathetic division parasympathetic division ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Somatic nervous system network of nerves that connect either to sensory receptors or to muscles that you can move voluntarily,

such as muscles in your limbs, back, neck, and chest nerves contain two kinds of fibers Afferent sensory fibers; carry information to the brain Efferent motor fibers; carry information from brain or spinal cord to the muscles ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system - ANS

regulates heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, hormone secretion, and other functions Sympathetic division triggered by threatening or challenging physical or psychological stimuli, increases physiological arousal and prepares the body for action Parasympathetic division returns the body to a calmer, relaxed state and is involved in digestion

ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Major Parts of the Brain Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain pons medulla cerebellum ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)

Forebrain largest part of the brain has right and left sides called hemispheres hemispheres are responsible for a number of functions, including learning and memory, speaking and language, emotional responses, experiencing sensations, initiating voluntary movements, planning, and making decisions ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)

Midbrain has a reward or pleasure center, which stimulated by food, sex, money, music, looking at attractive faces, and some drugs (cocaine) has areas for visual and auditory reflexes contains the reticular formation, which arouses the forebrain so that it is ready to process information from the senses ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)

Hindbrain Has three distinct structures: Pons Medulla Cerebellum ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Pons functions as a bridge to interconnect messages between the spinal cord and brain

Medulla located on top of the spinal cord includes a group of cells that control vital reflexes, such as respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure Cerebellum located in the very back and underneath the brain involved in coordinating motor movements but not in initiating voluntary movements CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.)

Frontal lobe involved with personality, emotions, and motor behaviors Parietal lobe involved with perception and sensory experiences Occipital lobe involved with visual processing Temporal lobe involved with hearing and speaking

CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Temporal lobe: functions primary auditory cortex located on top edge of each temporal lobe, receives electrical signals from receptors in the ears and transforms these signals into meaningful sound sensations, such as vowels and consonants CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Temporal lobe: functions

auditory association area located directly below the primary auditory cortex transforms basic sensory information, such as noises or sounds, into recognizable auditory information, such as words or music CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Occipital lobe: functions vision primary visual cortex

located at the very back of the occipital lobe receives electrical signals from receptors in the eyes and transforms these signals into meaningless basic visual sensations, such as lights, lines, shadows, colors, and textures CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Occipital lobe: functions visual association area transforms basic sensations, such as lights, lines,

colors, and textures, into complete, meaningful visual perceptions, such as persons, objects, or animals CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Visual agnosia individual fails to recognize some object, person, or color has ability to see and even describe pieces or parts of some visual stimulus

CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Neglect Syndrome refers to the failure of a patient to see objects or parts of the body on the side opposite the brain damage may dress only on one side of body may deny that opposite body parts are theirs LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN group of about half a dozen interconnected structures that make up the core of the forebrain

involved with regulating many motivational behaviors such as obtaining food, drink, and sex organizing emotional behaviors such as fear, anger, and aggression; storing memories Structures and functions Hypothalamus Amygdala Thalamus Hippocampus

LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN Structures and functions Hypothalamus Amygdala Thalamus Hippocampus LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic Parasympathetic LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic triggered by threatening or challenging physical or psychological stimuli Physiological responses increased heart rate, increased blood pressure,

and dilated pupils fight or flight LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic decreases physiological arousal returns the body to a calmer, more relaxed state stimulates digestion during eating Physiological responses

decreases heart rate lowers blood pressure stimulate digestion body returns to more relaxed state LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system Homeostasis sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work together to keep the bodys level of arousal in

balance for optimum functioning Module 5 Sensation THREE DEFINITONS Adaptation: the decreasing response of the sense organs, the more they are exposed to a continuous level of stimulation

Sensation versus perception: relatively meaningless bits of information that result when the brain processes electrical signals that come from the sense organs perceptions: meaningful sensory experiences that result after the brain combines hundreds of sensations THREE DEFINITONS (CONT.) eyes, ears, nose, skin, and tongue are

complex, miniaturized, living sense organs that automatically gather information about your environment Transduction: process in which a sense organ changes, or transforms, physical energy into electrical signals that become neural impulses, which may be sent to the brain for processing EYE: VISION

Structure and function eyes perform two separate processes first: gather and focus light into precise area in the back of eye second: area absorbs and transforms light waves into electrical impulses process called transduction EYE: VISION (CONT.) Structure and function

Vision: 7 steps Image reversed

Light waves Cornea Pupil Iris Lens Retina EYE: VISION (CONT.) rods: photoreceptor that contain a single chemical,

called rhodopsin activated by small amounts of light very light sensitive allow us to see in dim light see only black, white and shades of gray EYE: VISION (CONT.) cones: photoreceptors that contain three chemicals called opsins

activated in bright light allow us to see color cones are wired individually to neighboring cells allows us to see fine detail EYE: VISION (CONT.) Visual pathways: eye to brain Primary visual cortex the back of the occipital lobes is where primary

visual cortex transforms nerve impulses into simple visual sensations Visual association areas the primary visual cortex sends simple visual sensations to neighboring association areas EYE: VISION (CONT.) Color Blindness inability to distinguished two or more shades in the

color spectrum Monochromatic: total color blindness black and white result of only rods and one kind of functioning cone Dichromatic:

trouble distinguishing red from green two kinds of cones inherited genetic defect mostly in males See mostly shades of green EAR: AUDITION

Stimulus: Sound waves stimuli for hearing (audition) ripples of different sizes sound waves travel through space with varying heights and frequency Height distance from the bottom to the top of a sound wave called amplitude

Frequency number of sound waves occurring within one second EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) Loudness subjective experience of a sounds intensity brain calculates loudness from specific physical energy (amplitude of sound waves)

Pitch subjective experience of a sound being high or low brain calculates from specific physical stimuli speed or frequency of sound waves measured in cycles (how many sound waves in one second) EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) Outer, middle, and inner ear Outer ear

consists of three structures external ear auditory canal tympanic membrane

EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) Outer, middle, and inner ear Outer ear external ear oval shaped structure that protrudes from the side of the head function pick up sound waves and then send them down the auditory canal

EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) Outer, middle, and inner ear Outer ear auditory canal long tube that funnels sound waves down its length so that the waves strike the tympanic membrane (ear drum) EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) Outer, middle, and inner ear

Outer ear tympanic membrane taut, thin structure commonly called the eardrum Sound waves strike the tympanic membrane and cause it to vibrate EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) Outer, middle, and inner ear

Middle ear bony cavity sealed at each end by membranes. the membranes are connected by three tiny bones called ossicles hammer, anvil and stirrup hammer is attached to the back of the tympanic membrane anvil receives vibrations from the hammer stirrup makes the connection to the oval window (end membrane)

EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) Outer, middle, and inner ear Inner ear contains two structures sealed by bone cochlea: involved in hearing vestibular system: involved in balance EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) Cochlea

bony coiled exterior that resembles a snails shell contains receptors for hearing function is transduction transforms vibrations into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain for processing into auditory information EAR: AUDITION (CONT.) Auditory brain areas

sensations and perceptions two step process occurs after the nerve impulses reach the brain primary auditory cortex top edge of temporal lobe transforms nerve impulses into basic auditory sensations auditory association area combines meaningless auditory sensations into perceptions, which are meaningful melodies, songs,

words, or sentences VESTIBULAR SYSTEM: BALANCE Position and balance vestibular system is located above the cochlea in the inner ear includes semicircular canals

bony arches set at different angles each semicircular canal is filled with fluid that moves in response to movements of your head canals have hair cells that respond to the fluid movement function of vestibular system include sensing the position of the head, keeping the head upright, and maintaining balance CHEMICAL SENSES

Taste chemical sense because the stimuli are various chemicals tongue surface of the tongue taste buds CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.) Tongue Five basic tastes

sweet salty sour bitter

umami: meaty-cheesy taste CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.) Surface of the tongue chemicals, which are the stimuli for taste, break down into molecules molecules mix with saliva and run into narrow trenches on the surface of the tongue molecules then stimulate the taste buds

CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.) Taste buds shaped like miniature onions receptors for taste chemicals dissolved in saliva activate taste buds produce nerve impulses that reach areas of the brains parietal lobe brain transforms impulses into sensations of taste Flavor

combination of taste and smell CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.) CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.) Smell, or olfaction Steps for olfaction

Stimulus Olfactory cells Sensation and memories Functions of olfaction CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.) Smell, or olfaction Olfactory cells

receptors for smell are located in a I-inch-square patch of tissue in the uppermost part of the nasal passages. olfactory cells are covered in mucus which dissolve volatile molecules and stimulate the cells the cells trigger nerve impulses that travel to the brain which interprets the impulses as different smells

CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.) Smell, or olfaction Sensations and memories nerve impulses travel to the olfactory bulb impulses are relayed to the primary olfactory cortex cortex transforms nerve impulses into olfactory sensations can identify as many as 10,000 different odors we stop smelling our deodorants or perfumes because of decreased responding

called adaptation TOUCH Touch includes pressure, temperature, and pain TOUCH (CONT.) TOUCH (CONT.) Receptors in the skin

skin hair receptors free nerve endings Pacinian corpuscle TOUCH (CONT.) Skin outermost layer thin film of dead cells containing no receptors just below, are first receptors which look like

groups of threadlike extensions middle and fatty layer variety of receptors with different shapes and functions some are hair receptors TOUCH (CONT.) Hair receptors free nerve endings wrapped around the base of each hair follicle

hair follicles fire with a burst of activity when first bent if hair remains bent for a period of time, the receptors will cease firing sensory adaptation example: wearing a watch TOUCH (CONT.) Brain areas somatosensory cortex

located in the parietal lobe transforms nerve impulses into sensations of touch temperature, and pain Module 6 Perception PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS Threshold a point above which a stimulus is perceived

and below which it is not perceived threshold determines when we first become aware of a stimulus PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS (CONT.) Becoming aware of a stimulus Gustav Fechner defined the absolute threshold as the smallest amount of stimulus energy (such as sound or light)

that can be observed or experienced Absolute threshold the intensity level of a stimulus such that a person will have a 50% chance of detecting it PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS (CONT.) Subliminal stimulus has an intensity that gives a person less than

a 50% chance of detecting the stimulus breast cancer accuracy problems looking for ways to lower the threshold for detecting cancerous tumors and thus save patients recently, use of digital mammograms (allows for images to be enhanced or magnified) is better in detecting cancerous tumors in women PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS

(CONT.) E. H. Weber worked on the problem of how we judge whether a stimulus, such as loud music, has increased or decreased in intensity concept of just noticeable difference (JND) refers to the smallest increase or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person is able to detect Webers law

The increase in intensity of a stimulus needed to produce a just noticeable difference grows in proportion to the intensity of the initial stimulus. SENSATION VERSUS PERCEPTION Basic Differences Sensations our first awareness of some outside stimulus outside stimulus activates sensory receptors, which

in turn produce electrical signals that are transformed by the brain into meaningless bits of information Perceptions the experience we have after our brain assembles and combines thousands of individual sensations into a meaningful pattern or image SENSATION VERSUS PERCEPTION (CONT.)

Changing sensation into perception Stimulus change of energy in the environment, such as light waves, sound waves, mechanical pressure, or chemicals Transduction change physical energy into electrical signals electrical signals are changed into impulses that travel into the brain

Brain impulses from senses first go to different primary areas of the brain SENSATION VERSUS PERCEPTION (CONT.) Changing sensation into perception brain: association areas sensation impulses are sent to the appropriate association area in the brain

Personalized perceptions each of us has a unique set of personal experiences, emotions, and memories that are automatically added to our perceptions by other areas of the brain RULES OF ORGANIZATION Structuralist versus Gestalt psychologists Structuralists

believed that you add together hundreds of basic elements to form complex perceptions Gestaltists believe our brains follow a set of rules that specify how individual elements are to be organized into a meaningful pattern, or perception RULES OF ORGANIZATION (CONT.)

Organizational rules rules of organization: identified by Gestalt psychologists specify how our brains combine and organize individual pieces or elements into a meaningful perception Figure-ground states: in organizing stimuli, we tend to automatically

distinguish between a figure and a ground Similarity states: in organizing stimuli, we group together elements that appear similar RULES OF ORGANIZATION (CONT.) Closure

states: in organizing stimuli, we tend to fill in any missing parts of a figure and see the figure as complete Proximity states: in organizing stimuli, we group together objects that are physically close to one another Simplicity states: stimuli are organized in the simplest way possible

Continuity states: in organizing stimuli, we tend to favor the smooth or continuous paths when interpreting a series of points or lines PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY Size, shape, brightness & color constancy Size constancy refers to our tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same size even when their images

on the retina are continually growing or shrinking Shape constancy refers to our tendency to perceive an object as retaining its same shape even though when we view it from different angles, its shape is continually changing its image on the retina PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY (CONT.)

Size, shape, brightness & color constancy Brightness constancy refers to the tendency to perceive brightness as remaining the same in changing illumination Color constancy refers to the tendency to perceive colors as remaining stable despite differences in lighting DEPTH PERCEPTION

Binocular (two eyes) depth cues Depth perception refers to the ability of your eye and brain to add a third dimension, depth, to all visual perceptions, even though images projected on the retina are in only two dimensions, height, and width Binocular depth cues depends on the movement of both eyes

Convergence refers to a binocular cue for depth perception based on signals sent from muscles that turn the eyes DEPTH PERCEPTION DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.) DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.) Monocular depth cues

produced by signals from a single eye Linear perspective monocular depth cue that results as parallel lines come together, converge, in the distance Relative size monocular depth cue that results when we expect two objects to be the same size and they are not Interposition

monocular depth cue that comes into play when objects overlap DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.) Monocular depth cues Light and shadow monocular depth cues where brightly lit objects appear closer, while objects in shadows appear farther away

Texture gradient monocular depth cue in which areas with sharp, detailed texture are interpreted as being closer and those with less sharpness and poorer detail are perceived as more distant DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.) Monocular depth cues Atmospheric perspective monocular depth cue that is created by the

presence of dust, smog, clouds, or water vapor Motion parallax monocular depth cue based on the speed of moving objects ILLUSIONS Strange perceptions Illusion a perceptual experience in which you perceive an

image as being so strangely distorted that, in reality, it cannot and does not exist Impossible figure perceptual experience in which a drawing seems to defy basic geometric laws ILLUSIONS (CONT.) SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION

Subliminal Message brief auditory or visual message that is presented below the absolute threshold means that there is less than a 50% chance that the message will be perceived Self-fulfilling prophecies involve having strong beliefs about changing some behavior and then acting, unknowingly, to change that behavior

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