Modeling Capabilities -

Modeling Capabilities -

Maryland Air Quality Report Page 1 2002 Status Report and Long-Term Trends A Message from the Secretary In May 2003, I became Acting Secretary of the Department of the Environment. One of my first orders of business concerned an air pollution matter at the national level involving a long-term proposal for helping states comply with the new federal 8-hour ozone standard. My involvement with this matter led me to question whether Marylands air is cleaner today than it was 20 years ago. The answer to this question is important to me as a citizen of Maryland, for I recognize that poor air quality can affect not only my health, but also the health of all Marylanders. The answer is also important to me in my role as a government official responsible for shaping public policy on Marylands environment, for we have made great strides in controlling sources of air pollution and it is critical to know whether such efforts have resulted in cleaner air. If air quality has not improved, a shift in strategy may be needed. The report you are about to read summarizes twenty years of air quality data. The summaries answer the question I posed to myself earlier this year. I am happy to report that the answer I received is a positive one. Yes, the air is cleaner today than it was twenty years ago. Specifically, for some pollutants, like lead and carbon monoxide, significant improvements have been made. For one pollutant in particular, ground-level ozone, the story is one of measured success progress has been made, but more is needed if we are to have ozone free summers in Maryland. The overall progress that has been made with respect to Marylands air quality has been achieved with the help of many local governments, the Environmental Protection Agency, industries, small businesses, environmental groups, academia and the general public to name a few. All deserve a note of thanks. Unfortunately, our job is not done, for as I noted above summertime ozone remains a problem. In order to effectively solve this problem, Maryland needs help. Much of our ozone problem is the result of pollutants being transported into Maryland from other states west and south of us; and, unless these states reduce pollutant levels, clean air will remain an elusive goal. Every citizen of Maryland deserves clean air, and the Department of the Environment will continue to work to make this a reality. Existing air pollution control programs will continue to be implemented, new programs will be instituted and, to address pollutants generated outside Marylands borders, new federal/state partnerships will be forged. As I said earlier, many have played a role in the progress we have made so far. Continued involvement is needed if we are to overcome our remaining challenges. With your help I am confident that we will be successful in providing every Marylander clean air. Page 2

Table of Contents Section 1: Introduction to Air Quality (Air quality issues in Maryland) Section 2: Highlights. Trends, and Issues Section 3: EPA Criteria Pollutant Information Section 4: Ozone Section 5: Particulate Matter Section 6: Sulfur Dioxide Section 7: Nitrogen Dioxide Section 8: Carbon Monoxide Section 9: Lead Page 3 Section 1: Air Quality 101 Millions of people live in areas where ground level ozone, very small particles, and toxic pollutants pose health concerns. Air pollution can impact our health over short periods of time or accumulate in our systems to pose chronic health concerns. When people have a short-term exposure to air pollutants above certain levels, they may experience temporary health concerns, such as eye irritation, throat irritation and difficulty breathing. Exposure to air pollution may also trigger attacks of pre-existing lung conditions such as asthma. Long-term exposure to air pollution can cause or aggravate chronic health concerns, such as cancer and damage to the body's immune, neurological, reproductive and respiratory systems. Air pollution is not just a problem found in our cities. The air pollution that we create can cover large geographic areas and remain in the environment for long periods of time. These air pollutants can also be carried hundreds of miles by winds and can affect distant areas far from the source of the pollution. General Air Quality The overall trend is that air quality has been improving in Maryland. For example, during the 1980's, Maryland averaged 20 days a summer when ground level ozone exceeded the federal health standard (Code Red conditions). Maryland averaged 10 such days during the 1990's. Also, when Code Red conditions do exist, the peak ozone values are lower over the years and the duration of the peaks have lessened. The ability to avoid Code Red conditions when the temperature reaches or exceeds ninety degrees has also improved. These improvements can be attributed to the fact that Maryland has adopted all federal pollution reduction measures contained in the Clean Air Act, implemented numerous local pollution control programs, and has gained help from the local community in limiting pollutionforming activities on days when Code Red conditions are forecasted. In addition to ozone, significant reductions have been made with respect to the concentration of lead and carbon monoxide in the air, mostly as a result of improvements made to gasoline.

Page 4 While many improvements have been made, much work still needs to be done. Maryland has not achieved the federal one-hour ground-level ozone standard, and must do so by November 2005. A significant factor in this regard is ozone transported into Maryland from states upwind of us. Ozone-forming pollutants from power plants and large industrial sources located in the Ohio River Valley are carried to Maryland by upper atmospheric winds. This and other forms of transported pollution must be reduced if Maryland is to have clean air. Section 2: Highlights Long-term trends When viewed long term, some positive trends emerge: With the elimination of lead in gasoline, lead levels are virtually nonexistent Through the use of oxygenated fuels, carbon monoxide levels are now within federal standards Levels of coarse particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide have been and continue to remain well below federal standards For ozone: Weather continues to play a major role in the formation of ozone Peak values are dropping The duration of ozone violations appear to be dropping The ability to not violate when the temperature exceeds 90 is improving 2002 Highlights 1-Hour Ozone - an unseasonably high summer of 2002 led to 16 exceedences of the onehour ozone standard 8-Hour Ozone many more violations than the 1-hour standard (this is a more difficult standard to meet) PM Fine In 1997 the EPA established a new standard for Fine Particulate Matter in 2000 MDE started collecting monitoring data for Fine Particles three years of monitoring data is required to establish whether Maryland is in attainment or nonattainment of the new standard in 2002, MDE started looking at the first three-year averages, and portions of Maryland are showing values above the new standard Page 5 Future Issues 8 Hour Ozone new standard, 2002 and earlier monitoring efforts concluded that this standard will be more difficult to meet than the 1-hour standard

Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) - portions of Maryland will be unable to meet this new standard There will be an increased emphasis on data gathering and mathematical modeling to better understand the science of air pollution There will be an increased need to work with regional organizations to bring about regional reductions in air pollution so that Maryland can achieve compliance with federal ozone and fine particulate matter standards Western Maryland Photo:MDE Page 6 Section 3: EPA Criteria Pollutant Information National Ambient Air Quality Standards The federal Clean Air Act (CAA) requires the EPA to set primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for air pollutants that are considered harmful to public health and the environment. These pollutants are known as criteria pollutants. Currently, NAAQS exist for six criteria pollutants -- ground level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead and nitrogen dioxide. The primary NAAQS are defined as the levels of air quality that the EPA judges necessary to protect the public health. EPA also establishes secondary NAAQS that protect the public welfare from any known or anticipated adverse effects. The CAA also requires that, once established, each NAAQS is to be reviewed and, if deemed necessary, revised every five years in order to ensure that it reflects the most recent health information available. The most recent re-review led to EPA establishing two new standards: an 8-hour ozone standard set at 80 parts per billion (versus a 1-hour standard set at 120 parts per billion) and a particulate matter standard for particles 2.5 microns or smaller (versus the previous standard for particles 10 microns or smaller). EPA found the new standards to be necessary, for new health studies involving ozone showed that adverse health effects occur at levels below the 120 parts per billion level and that exposures for longer than one hour are of concern. The EPA also found that particulate matter of smaller size was important, for such particles had the highest potential to lodge deep inside the lungs and damage lung tissue.

Page 7 Green Ridge State Park, Allegany County, MD EPA Criteria Pollutant Information Pollutant Standard Value Carbon Monox ide ( CO) 8- hour Average 9 ppm 1- hour Average 35 ppm 10 mg/ m 3 40 mg/ m 3 1.5 ug/ m3 0.053 ppm 8- hour Average Particulate Matter 10 100 ug/ m 3 Ozone ( O3) 1- hour Average Lead Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Dioxide ( NO2) Annual Arithmetic Mean

Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen Dioxide Lead ( Pb) Quarterly Average Maryland is in attainment for the following criteria pollutants: 0.12 ppm (125ppb) 235ug/ m 3 0.08 ppm 157 ug/ m 3 Portions of Maryland have air quality that does not meet the ambient air quality standards for: 1-hour ozone Particulate Matter ( PM- 10) Annual Arithmetic Mean 24- hour Average 50 ug/ m 3 150 ug/ m 3 8-hour Ozone PM2.5 Particulate Matter ( PM- 2.5) Annual Arithmetic Mean 15 ug/ m 3 24- hour Average 65 ug/ m 3 Sulfur Diox ide ( SO2) Annual Arithmetic Mean

24- hour Average 0.03 ppm 0.14 ppm 80 ug/ m 3 365 ug/ m 3 Photo: NOAA Page 8 Section 4: Ozone Graphics: EPA Ozone is a colorless, odorless gas formed when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds react in the presence of intense sunlight. OZONE FORMATION Ozone is formed when nitrogen oxides (from fuel burning sources like utilities and automobiles) and volatile organic compounds (from sources such as gasoline, paints, inks and solvents) react in the presence of sunlight. These two categories of pollutants are also referred to as ozone precursors. The formation of ozone is dependent on the volume of air available for dilution, air temperature and the amount of sunlight. Page 9 SOURCES Nitrogen oxides are emitted from fuel burning sources including electric utilities, industrial boilers and vehicles. Sources of volatile organic compounds include paints, inks, solvents and gasoline. HEALTH EFFECTS Ozone can irritate the respiratory system, causing coughing, throat irritation, and chest pains. Ozone can reduce lung function and make it more difficult to breathe deeply and vigorously. Ozone can aggravate asthma. One reason this happens is that ozone makes people more sensitive to allergens, the most common triggers of asthma attacks. Ozone can increase susceptibility to respiratory infections. Ozone can inflame and damage the lining of the lungs. Within a few days, the damaged cells are shed and replacedmuch like the skin peels after a sunburn.

Animal studies suggest that if this type of inflammation happens repeatedly over a long time period (months, years, a lifetime), lung tissue may become permanently scarred, resulting in less lung elasticity, permanent loss of lung function, and a lower quality of life. Children are at even greater risk, because their respiratory systems are developing, they're more active and spend more time out of doors, and kids breathe in more air per pound of body weight than do adults. People with respiratory diseases that make their lungs more vulnerable to ozone may experience health effects earlier and at lower ozone levels than less sensitive individuals. Page 10 The 2002 Ozone Monitoring Network Page 11 Map # 1 2 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 19 20 21 22 23 24 SITE Frederick Hagerstown Davidsonville Ft. Meade Padonia Essex S. Carroll

Edgewood Aldino Rockville Greenbelt Equestrian Ctr SO. MD. Fair Hill Millington Map: MDE Maryland and 1-hour Ozone Nonattainment: Maryland is currently in nonattainment for the 1-hour ozone standard (portions of Maryland are in nonattainment not the entire state as a whole). The map below shows the 1-hour nonattainment boundaries for Maryland. Areas that are nonattainment (have ozone levels above the standard) are shaded in red and yellow. When an area is identified as being nonattainment it is then classified by how high the ozone concentrations actually are. Both the Baltimore Region (including Cecil County) and the Washington DC Region are classified as severe nonattainment areas - meaning the ozone levels are relatively high. 1-hour Ozone Nonattainment Areas Severe Serious Marginal Ozone Transport Region Page 12 Map: MDE Number of Days Number of Days MD Violated the 1-Hour Ozone Standard 45 40 35 30 25 20

15 10 5 0 Years Page 13 Interesting Note: when you divide the annual total # of hours above the standard by the annual total of exceedences for 2002, the result is 5.7 hours per exceedence, when compared with other high exceedence years like 1995, 1997, and 1999 this value is lower than in the past (1995 = 8.0, 1997 = 9.6, 1999 = 8.5) Data: MDE 2002 Ozone Summary - Maryland The first ozone exceedance of the one-hour standard for Marylands 2002 ozone season occurred on June 10th and the last Bad Air Day occurred on September 9th. In between, the worst stretch of Bad Air Days occurred from August 3rd 14th, when 7 out of 12 days experienced Code Red air quality conditions. From a historical viewpoint, the 2002 summer was above average for ozone with 16 days exceeding the 1-hour ozone standard. 2002 Ozone Summary Other States Other states in the Mid Atlantic/Northeast region also experience ozone problems each summer. The chart below shows how Maryland fared in 2002 relative to these other states. 2002 Ozone Exceedance Days 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Page 14

S tates Data: EPA 2002 Weather Summary Hot and dry would be an apt description of the 2002 ozone season (May September). On the hot side, Maryland had 46 days in which the high temperature reached or exceeded 90 degrees (the normal summer average is 30 days). On the dry side, rainfall was approximately 4.9 inches below normal. The combination of high temperatures and continued lack of rain did nothing to help alleviate Marylands drought. Why were there so many days above 90 degrees and little rain? The culprit was an area of high pressure that forms off the coast of Maryland in the Atlantic Ocean, and is often referred to as the Bermuda High. During the summer of 2002, the Bermuda High stayed close enough to create hazy, hot, and humid weather for Maryland. Why is this weather pattern of interest? Simply put, the lack of rain and the high temperatures never gave the region an opportunity to wash out air pollution, both home-grown and transported in from other states. Stagnant weather conditions in combination with high temperatures and low rainfall create the best weather scenario for ozone production. From a pollution generation perspective, it is important to note that a Bermuda High creates southwesterly to northwesterly winds relative to Maryland, which means that Marylands air has traveled over the mid-west (specifically, the Ohio River Valley) before arriving here. The mid-west is home to many large coal-fired power plants. As such, under Bermuda High conditions, the emissions of ozone-forming pollutants from these plants and the ozone that has been created as a result of these emissions are delivered to Maryland along upper level wind currents. Page 15 Two Bad Air Days which occurred in July were the result of the wildfires burning out of control in northern Quebec, Canada near the shores of St. James Bay. Upper level winds transporting smoke and haze from northern Quebec into Maryland combined with light surface winds and hot temperatures to cause dramatic increases in ozone just north of Baltimore. Westerly Transport Maryland sees its

w orst air pollution during the summer w hen a Bermuda High sets up over the Carolinas H Marylands Progress in Controlling Ozone Although exceedences of the one-hour, health-based ambient air quality ozone standard continue to occur throughout much of Maryland, the monitored one-hour ozone levels show a general downward trend when viewed long term. It is difficult to draw conclusions by comparing one year of exceedance data to another because of the impact of differing meteorological conditions. Generally, however, both the number and the severity of ozone exceedences, as measured by our monitoring stations, have decreased somewhat. As stated previously, simply tracking the number of exceedences over time is insufficient for the purpose of showing whether any real progress is being made relative to ozone air quality. Other information, such as the degree and the pervasiveness of ozone exceedences is needed. The chart below provides information on the degree to which the ozone standard was exceeded each year. It also gives a sense of scale to the pervasiveness of the ozone problem by showing how many stations over the course of the ozone season exceeded the standard. Overall, the chart shows that the State has made some progress in addressing ozone, particularly in the past few years. The peak exceedance values are somewhat lower now than in earlier years and the total number of stations experiencing exceedences of the standard as well as higher values are dropping. Calendar year Days with ozone violations Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Number of Stations Number of Stations Number of Stations ppb ppb ppb Above Standard Above 149 ppb Above 159 ppb 1983 43 189 187 176 95 22 10 1984 18 168 165

159 40 6 2 1985 13 188 187 168 27 5 3 1986 17 160 151 143 25 2 1 1987 23 199 171 169 69 10 4 1988 36 218 196 186 173 60 33 1989 4 140 138 129 8

0 0 1990 11 150 145 145 24 1 0 1991 17 164 159 159 43 6 1 1992 5 131 130 126 6 0 0 1993 16 160 156 153 36 4 1 1994 11 163 151 141 22 2 1

1995 14 179 163 161 46 7 5 1996 4 136 136 136 13 0 0 1997 14 185 174 167 47 8 5 1998 10 162 136 134 22 1 1 1999 11 165 156 154 42 5 1 2000 4

146 143 143 11 0 0 2001 10 157 149 147 18 1 0 2002 16 151 149 147 44 1 0 Page 16 Note: The numbers in the columns denoting number of stations reflect a cumulative total (for example, five stations exceeding for six days yields a 30 on the chart) - 2002 values are currently being reviewed by USEPA Temperatures and Ozone High temperatures are the single greatest factor in creating ozone. The top plot shows high temperatures continue to occur with normal environmental variability. However, the bottom plot shows fewer

ozone exceedance days despite the high temperatures. Page 17 Maryland shows steady improvement in the number of ozone exceedance days with respect to the number of high temperature days. Ozone Design Values mapping our improvements 1988 1-hour Ozone Design Values MAP ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SITE Fort Meade Davidsonville Essex Padonia South Carroll Edgewood Rockville Greenbelt South Maryland Millington 1988 Design Value 162

146 160 153 153 181 140 128 145 133 Units: ppb 2002 1-hour Ozone Design Values Design Value: a statistical method of averaging air monitoring data Page 18 Maps: MDE MAP ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 SITE 2002 Design Value Difference (2002DV-1988DV) Frederick Airpo 109 Hagerstown

109 Aldino 143 Davidsonville 133 13 Edgewood 146 35 Essex 142 18 Ft. Meade 136 26 Padonia 131 22 S. Carroll 110 43 Greenbelt 128 Rockville 110 30 S. Maryland 121 24 Fair Hill 143 Millington 131 2 Units: ppb How about 8-Hr Ozone? 2002 8-Hr Ozone Highlights 2002 8 Hour Peak Values (8 Hour Average)

Page 19 2002 8-Hr Summary Number of ozone exceedance days: 41 Max concentration: 128 ppb at the Edgewood monitor on June 24, 2002 (8-hr standard is 85 ppb) All 16 ozone monitors exceeded the 8-hr ozone standard Map: MDE Monitor 8-Hour Location Exceedence Days Frederick 13 Hagerstown 16 Ft. Meade 22 Davidsonville 26 Essex 15 Padonia 22 S. Carroll 10 Edgewood 24 Aldino 22 Rockville

13 Greenbelt 17 S. Maryland 16 Fairhill 18 Millington 17 PG Equest. 16 Ponca St. 9 Section 5: Particulate Matter The term particulate matter (PM) includes both solid particles and liquid droplets found in air. Many manmade and natural sources emit PM directly or emit other pollutants that react in the atmosphere to form PM. These solid and liquid particles come in a wide range of sizes. Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter tend to pose the greatest health concern because they can be inhaled into and accumulate in the respiratory system. Particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter are referred to as fine particles. Sources of fine particles include all types of combustion (motor vehicles, power plants, wood burning, etc.) and some industrial processes. Particles with diameters between 2.5 and 10 micrometers are referred to as coarse. Sources of coarse particles include crushing or grinding operations, and dust from paved or unpaved roads. EXAMPLES Dust, ash, mist, smoke and fumes SOURCES Fuel burning, industrial operations, incinerators, agricultural tilling and motor vehicles HEALTH EFFECTS Both fine and coarse particles can accumulate in the respiratory system and are associated with numerous health effects. Coarse particles can aggravate respiratory conditions such as asthma. Exposure to fine particles is associated with several serious health effects, including premature death. Adverse health effects have been associated with exposures to PM over both short periods (such as a day) and longer periods (a year or more). When exposed to PM, people with existing heart or lung diseasessuch as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart disease, or ischemic heart diseaseare at increased risk of premature death or admission to hospitals or emergency rooms. Page 20

The elderly also are sensitive to PM exposure. They are at increased risk of admission to hospitals or emergency rooms and premature death from heart or lung diseases. When exposed to PM, children and people with existing lung disease may not be able to breathe as deeply or vigorously as they normally would, and they may experience symptoms such as coughing and shortness of breath. PM can increase susceptibility to respiratory infections and can aggravate existing respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, causing more use of medication and more doctor visits. PUBLIC WELFARE EFFECTS On Plants : Particulate matter can form a film on plant leaves reducing sunlight and subsequently interfering with photosynthesis and plant growth. On Property Other effects of particles include soiling and degradation of property, which can be costly in terms of cleaning and maintaining surfaces. 1999 PM 2.5 Source Apportionment in Maryland On Visibility Reduction of visibility Stationary Source Fuel occurs when small Combustion 10% particles absorb or scatter Waste Disposal, visible light. Visibility is 5% Treatment, and Recovery a national and statewide 5% Industrial Processes 37% concern, particularly in Recreational settings 7% such as national parks, Mobile Sources historical sites and other scenic attractions. Heavy Duty Diesel 14%

Page 21 Data: MDE - PEI 22% Vehicles Construction and Mining Equipment Other MDE 2002 PM 2.5 Network 3yr. (2000-2002) Annual Design Values See Insert Map ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Page 22 SITENAME Design Value Hagerstown 14.8

Glen Burnie 15.8 Fort Meade 14.0 Riviera Beach 14.6 Davidsonville 13.0 Essex 15.1 Padonia 14.8 FMC Fairfield 16.5 WestPort 15.4 North West Police Stat 15.5 South East Police Stat 17.4 Old Town 17.0 North East Police Stat 15.1 Edgewood 14.1 Rockville 13.4 Bladensberg 17.4 Suitland 14.0 Fair Hill 12.5 Broening Fire Station 17.3 Units: ug/m3 Design Value: a statistical method of averaging air monitoring data

Map: MDE Data are preliminary several monitor locations did not have USEPA required quarterly sample totals MDE 2002 PM 2.5 Network 3yr. (2000-2002) Annual Design Values Units: ug/m3 Page 23 Map: MDE Data are preliminary several monitor locations did not have USEPA required quarterly sample totals Design Value: a statistical method of averaging air monitoring data PM2.5 Data for Neighboring States Page 24 State # Monitors # Exceeding Standard % Exceeding Standard Max Value (ug/m3) VA 18 1 5.6 16.1

NY 53 7 13.2 21.7 NJ 19 4 21.1 17.5 N.C. 41 12 29.3 17.3 DEL 11 4 36.4 16.7 PA

42 19 45.2 23.4 MD 19 10 52.3 17.8 WVa 17 12 70.6 17.8 Data: EPA PM10 Trends (Annual Arithematic Mean) 60 50 ug/m3 40 Glen Burnie FMC NAAQS

30 20 10 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Years NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standard Glen Burnie MDE Monitoring Site Page 25 FMC MDE Monitoring Site Data: MDE Section 6: Sulfur Dioxide Sulfur Dioxide is a gaseous compound of sulfur and oxygen. SOURCES Burning of fossil fuels, including fuels used in vehicles, containing sulfur compounds. Sulfur dioxide can be transformed into other products such as fine particulate sulfates and sulfuric acid mist. HEALTH EFFECTS The most obvious health effects are irritation and inflammation of body tissues that are contacted by the gas. Sulfur dioxide can increase the severity of existing respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema. It also constricts air passages making it difficult to breathe. PUBLIC WELFARE EFFECTS On Vegetation : Sulfur dioxide can damage many different types of vegetation. The injury can occur between the veins and on the margins and produces a bleached appearance. Many plants of economic importance are sensitive to sulfur dioxide including potatoes, cucumbers, peas, gladiolus, tulips, grass and several types of trees. On Visibility : Sulfur dioxide can also reduce levels of visibility. Sulfates are a major component of atmospheric fine particulate material. Because some sulfates have a water absorbing capacity, their impact on visibility is greatly increased at high humidities. On Rain : Acid rain is suspected to be caused by sulfur dioxide. Acid rain can lower the pH of soils and natural waters, cause mineral leaching, damage vegetation and deplete fish

populations in some lakes and streams. Page 26 The 2002 SO2 Monitoring Network Map: MDE Page 27 # 8 Site Name Riviera Beach SO2 Trends (Annual Arithematic Mean) PPM 90 80 70 60 Riviera Beach NAAQS 50 40 30 20 10 0 Years NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standard Riviera Beach MDE Monitoring Site Page 28 Data: MDE

Section 7: Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrogen Dioxide is a reddish-brown gas made of nitrogen and oxygen. FORMATION Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is produced when nitric oxide (NO) combines with oxygen in the atmosphere. In addition to being a criteria pollutant, nitrogen dioxide is also a precursor for ozone and contributes to acid rain. SOURCES Nitric oxide (NO), which is needed for the formation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), is produced during high temperature combustion of fossil fuels in electric power generating facilities, industrial operations, automobiles and chemical processing plants. HEALTH EFFECTS Nitrogen dioxide can directly affect a humans health by causing acute bronchitis or pneumonia and by causing a lowered resistance to respiratory infections. Long term exposure can also cause chronic lung impairment. Because it is a precursor for ozone, it indirectly affects a humans health as well. PUBLIC WELFARE EFFECTS On Plants : Some types of vegetation are sensitive to nitrogen dioxide including oats, alfalfa, tobacco, peas and carrots. The one primary symptom of chronic NO2 exposure is chlorosis or the yellowing of the leaves. Acute exposure can result in gray-green water soaked areas on the upper leaf surface and later the appearance of lesions on the leaves. Because nitrogen dioxide is a precursor for acid rain, it can affect both terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. Page 29 On Visibility Nitrogen dioxide is a reddish-brown gas thought to contribute to a significant proportion of the brownish coloration often observed in polluted air in colder months The 2002 NO2 Monitoring Network Map: MDE Page 30 # 6 10

25 29 Site Name Fort Meade Essex Old Town Aldino NO2 Trends (Arithematic Mean) 120 100 ug/m3 80 Old Town Essex NAAQS Standard 60 40 20 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Years NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standard Old Town MDE Monitoring Site Page 31 Essex MDE Monitoring Site Data: MDE Section 8: Carbon Monoxide

Carbon Monoxide is a colorless, toxic gas composed of carbon and oxygen. SOURCES Combustion of carbon containing materials such as coal, oil, refuse or gasoline; 77% of nationwide CO emissions come from transportation sources. Other major sources are wood burning stoves, incinerators and industrial sources. HEALTH EFFECTS Breathing carbon monoxide affects the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, even in otherwise healthy individuals. Low concentrations can affect mental function, vision and alertness. High concentrations can increase fatigue and reduce work capacity. Chronic exposure can adversely affect fetal development and can cause heart damage. 15% PUBLIC WELFARE EFFECTS 5% On Animals: Although carbon monoxide has not been found to adversely affect vegetation or materials, it can affect animals in the same manner that it affects humans. 9% 71% On-Road Mobile Off-Road Mobile Sources of CO 1990 Inventory Area Page 32 Stationary Data: MDE The 2002 CO Monitoring Network Map: MDE Page 33

# Site Name 10 Essex 25 Old Town Conquering CO in Maryland Engine emission controls have led to a vast reduction in auto CO emissions Reformulated fuels have also reduced CO Maryland met Federal standard in 1990 (1995 officially) 1999 concentrations of CO were found to be the lowest of the past 20 years Between 1990 and 1999 exceedances of the national standard decreased 93% Total Number of Exceedances of the CO Standard Baltimore City 1982 - 1994 Number of Exceedances Data: MDE Page 34 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 17

13 14 4 4 3 1 1982 0 1 0 0 0 1987 Years 1 1994 Data: MDE CO Trends (Max 1 Hour Average) 40 35 30 PPM 25 Old Town

NAAQS 20 15 10 5 0 Years NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standard Old Town MDE Monitoring Site Page 35 Data: MDE Section 9: Lead Lead compounds can exist in the form of gases or particles in the atmosphere SOURCES Significant lead emissions can come from certain industrial processes. They can also come from sandblasting bridges, overpasses and water tanks. Lead-based paints and leaded gasoline, where available, are also considered sources. HEALTH EFFECTS Lead can harm many of the major systems in the human body including the nervous, renal (kidney) and cardiovascular systems. It can accumulate in the body causing severe reactions such as brain disease and anemia; long-term exposure can eventually result in fatal reactions. Lead is especially harmful to children. EXPOSURE Exposure can occur through inhalation of air and through ingestion of food, water, soil or dust containing lead compounds. A recent survey from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported a 78% decrease in blood lead levels between 1976 and 1980 and from 1988 to 1991. This dramatic decline is the result of reducing leaded gasoline and the removal of lead from soldered cans. Page 36 Monitoring Trailer: Millington, Maryland

The 2002 Lead Monitoring Network Map: MDE Page 37 # 18 Site Name I-95 Baltimore Harbor Success Story: Lowering Lead Levels MARYLAND - AMBIENT LEAD DATA 1967 - 2000 HIGHEST QUARTER PER YEAR 3.0 7/1/74 Unleaded gasoline introduced for autos equipped with catalytic control devices 2.5 10/1/79 Date by which the average lead content in the total gasoline pool was required to be reduced to 0.8 gram/gallon Units: ug/m3 2.0 1.5 Lead NAAQS 1.0 0.5 1/1/96 Ban on all lead in gasoline 19

99 19 97 19 93 19 95 19 91 19 89 19 85 19 87 19 83 19 79 19 81 19 77 19 73 19 75 19 71 19 69

19 67 0.0 YEAR Page 38 Maryland has successfully reduced the amount of lead in the air to well below the national standard The removal of lead from gasoline allowed States like Maryland to make rapid progress Data: MDE

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