Internal means of enriching the vocabulary Suffixation - er (it was used to form nouns both from originally OE words and borrowed ones): leader, worker, traveler, hunter, gardener - ing: meeting, fighting
Mis -, un -, be - : betray, belong, unbind, misunderstand New way of word-building: from homonymous forms of nouns and verbs: chance, call, smile Compounding: penknife, bonfire, breakfast, afternoon.
Scandinavian borrowings The consequences of various borrowing were different: 1 . A new word was added to the vocabulary (because there was no synonym in English): law, fellow (f +laga ) 2. The English synonym was replaced by
the borrowing: niman - taken clypian - callen yrel ( ) - wundoe vindauga 3. Both the English and the corresponding Scandinavian words are preserved but they become different in meaning: heaven - sky
starve - die 4. Etymological doublets (words originating from the same source in Common Germanic): shirt - skirt shatter - scatter raise - rear
5. Doublets that were the same in meaning but slightly different phonetically: give, get (from Sc. gefa, geta, cf. OE iefan, ietan) 6. There may be a shift of meaning: dream in OE had the meaning of joy, pleasure, bread a piece. French borrowings The words borrowed from French are
found in many areas: Government and Administration: govern, government, administer, crown, state, empire, royal, majesty, treaty, statute, parliament, tax, rebel, traitor, treason, exile, chancellor, treasurer, major, noble, peer, prince, princess, duke, squire, peasant, slave, servant, vassal. Law: justice,
gender, physician, malady, pain, gout, plague, pulse, remedy, poison. Turns of phrase: by heart, on the point of, without doubt, have mercy on, come to a head, take pity on. Productive affixes from French:
pre-, super-, inter-, sub-, dis-, -ance, -ence, ant, -ment, -tion. Borrowings from French had several effects on English: Native words were replaced: OE aeele F. noble; OE aeeling F. nobleman; OE here F. army; OE campa F. warrior;
OE sibb F. peace; OE leod F. people; OE stow - Fr. place. English and French words were retained with a differentiation in meaning: hearty cordial;
ox beef; sheep mutton; swine pork; calf veal; house mansion. Latin Borrowings In a sense the French words were Latin borrowings since French developed from
Vulgar Latin--as did all the Romance languages. The borrowings that came directly from Latin tended to be more learned in character e.g., allegory, index, magnify, mechanical, private, secular, zenith. It has been pointed out that as a result of Middle English borrowing from French and
Latin, Modern English has synonyms on three levels: popular (English), literary (French), and learned (Latin), as in rise mount ascend; ask question interrogate; fire flame conflagration; holy sacred consecrated. Norman French vs. Parisian French Norman French (northern dialect of
French) dominated for 200 years (Norman loans into English) Paris becomes the center of France Parisian French became the prestigious dialect (Parisian loans) Norman French Sound [w] Parisian French
No sound [w], it was replaced by g(u) Warrant Warden reward wile Guarantee Guardian
regard guile William = Guillaume war (werre) =guerre Questions ME Verb Variant 1 1. How did the system of strong verbs change during ME?
2. How did the infinitive forms develop? Variant 2 1. What are the three sources that the appearance of the Gerund can be traced to? 2. What was the marker of the third Pers. Sg. In ME? Which form was it later replaced by?
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