Maine Reading First Course Session #9 Phonics Research and Assessment Maine Department of Educati on 2005 1 Key Learning Goals Session 9 Phonics Research and Assessment To provide a theoretical understanding of the research supporting the development of phonics knowledge in children, including: understanding the layer cake concepts of the English spelling system (phoneme-grapheme, syllable pattern, and morpheme units in print) understanding the developmental progression in which orthographic knowledge is acquired understanding coordinated sequences of instruction of letter-sound relationships, high-frequency words, and irregular word patterns understanding how to match instruction in phonetic elements to the selection of reading materials that promotes student practice of those phonetic elements
To enable class participants to use scientifically based assessments to determine a students development in phonics knowledge. To enable class participants to use assessment data to inform instruction that meets the diverse needs of students. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 2 Break the Code Maine Department of Educati on 2005 3 What is Phonics? Phonics is knowing the relationship between printed letters (graphemes) and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language. The following terms are often used when people discuss phonics:
Graphophonic cues Letter/sound relationships or correspondences Sound/symbol relationships or correspondences Sound/spelling relationships or correspondences (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001; IRAs Position Statement on PA, 1998) Maine Department of Educati on 2005 4 The Phonemic Awareness/Phonics Connection (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001) Phonemic Awareness Phonics Given the spoken word dog, the student can tell you that the beginning sound is /d/. (isolation) Given the spoken word dog, the student can tell you that the beginning letter is d. Given the separate sounds /d/ /o/ /g/, the student can tell you that they make up the spoken word dog. (blending) Given the word dog in print, the student can make the sounds for each letter and blend them into the word dog.
Given the spoken word hat, the student can separate the word into 3 separate sounds /h/ /a/ /t/. (segmentation) Given the spoken word hat, the student can tell you that the letters that spell the sounds in hat are h-a-t and/or write the word hat. Given the spoken word cart and asked to take off the last sound, the student can say car (manipulationdeletion) Given the spoken word cart, the student can spell c-a-r-t. If the final t is erased/covered, the student can read the word as car. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 5 Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, or Both? Students use elkonin boxes and plastic chips to segment the sounds they hear as they say the word top. Students read a poem from a chart. Then they search for rhyming words, say the words, and circle them.
Students manipulate magnetic letters to form the words cat, bat, and sat. Student slowly says and listens to the sounds in the word bedroom as she writes this word in her story. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 6 Awareness/Phonics Connection (Continued) Although phonemic awareness and phonics are two separate skills, phonemic awareness instruction is most effective for strengthening reading and spelling when children are taught to use the letters in conjunction with manipulating the phonemes. (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001) Maine Department of Educati on 2005 7 3 Cueing Systems Used by Proficient Readers SemanticDoes it make sense?
SyntacticDoes it sound right? GraphophonicDoes it look right? Semantic Meaning Syntactic Graphophonic Maine Department of Educati on 2005 8 Cue System Examples We saw a _________ on the water. We saw a b_______ on the water. We saw a sh_p on the water. We saw a boat on the water. It ____ big. We saw a boat on the water. It ___t big. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 9 What are the two elements of phonics? Decoding Blending sounds to form words Encoding
Segmenting words into sounds for spelling (NRP, 2000) Maine Department of Educati on 2005 10 Decoding Readers convert letters into sounds and blend them to form recognizable words. Letters can be individual letters or letter combinations like digraphs (th, ch, ea, ai), dipthongs (oy, oi, ou), phonograms (ap, ot, ick, ought, ung), or affixes (pre-, un-, -ful). Sight vocabulary is built by applying decoding or analogizing strategies to read unfamiliar words. These strategies help the words become familiar by creating alphabetic connections that establish the words in the readers memory. (NRP, 2000) Maine Department of Educati on 2005 11 Stages of Decoding at the
Initial Stage of Reading (Juel, 1991) Selective Cue Stage Readers learn about print and its purposes through labels on objects, Big Books, shared and interactive writing, and reading patterned/predictable books. Spelling-Sound Stage Readers focus on graphophonic cues to learn soundspelling relationships and begin attending to each letter in a word. Automatic Stage Readers use all three cue systems efficiently to develop fluency. Automaticity results from overlearning sound-spelling knowledge. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 12 Encoding Systematic phonics instruction helps young students (K-1) apply their knowledge of the alphabetic system to spelling.
For older students, spelling progresses from letter-sound correspondence to combining word parts. Encoding reinforces learning how to decode. (NRP, 2000) Maine Department of Educati on 2005 13 Stages of Encoding (Spelling) Development (Routman, 1991) Prephonemic: scribbles, random letter strings with no connection to sound Early Phonemic: limited representation of phonemes with letters (i.e. m for my) Letter-Sound: Letters are used to represent phonemes (i.e. lik for like, brthr for brother) Transitional: internalizing spelling patterns and beginning to apply rules
Derivational or Standard: most words spelled correctly, practicing homonyms, contractions, irregular spellings Maine Department of Educati on 2005 14 Changing Emphasis of Five Essential Elements Element K 1 2 3 Phonological Awareness Phonics Letter Sounds & Combinations Multisyllables Fluency Vocabulary Listening Reading Comprehension
Listening Reading Maine Department of Educati on 2005 15 What Does Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction Mean? Systematic The plan of instruction includes a carefully selected set of letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence. Explicit The program provides teachers with precise directions for the teaching of these relationships, including: 1. Direct explanation 2. Modeling 3. Guided practice 4. Application (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001) Maine Department of Educati on 2005 16 What Does the National Reading Panel Say about Systematic Phonics Instruction? (NRP, 2000) Systematic phonics instruction:
Makes a bigger contribution to childrens growth in reading than unsystematic or no phonics instruction. Is effective one-to-one, in small groups, and in whole class settings. Taught early proved much more effective than phonics instruction introduced after first grade. Is significantly more effective than non-phonics instruction in helping to prevent reading difficulties among at-risk students and in helping to remediate reading difficulties in disabled readers. Should be integrated with other reading instruction to create a comprehensive reading program. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 17 What are Components of Sound Instruction? (Adams, 1990; Neuman, Copple, & Bredekamp, 2000; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 2001)
Programs of phonics instruction are a means to an end with the end being comprehension. Children need to be taught major consonant and vowel letter-sound relationships. Children need ample reading and writing activities that provide practice containing words using the specific letter-sound relationships they are learning. Phonics instruction helps children learn to identify words and increases their ability to read. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 18 What are Components of Sound Instruction? (Continued) (Adams, 1990; Neuman, Copple, & Bredekamp, 2000; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 2001) An important component of learning letter-sound relationships is learning the forms of letters and other symbols. Children need to recognize forms and symbols automatically, without conscious effort, to be able to recognize words fluently.
Research identifies knowledge of letter names as one of the best predictors of success in reading. Letters and symbols need to be displayed where children can see them; where children can refer to them as they read, write, work and play; and where children can manipulate them. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 19 Progression of Phonics Knowledge & Skills Across Grades K-3 (Chall, 1996; Blevins, 1998; Lyons & Moore, 2003) Kindergarten Concepts of print Letter and letter sound recognition Initial & final consonants Blending letter sounds in single syllable words
Short vowel word families (cvc patterns) Recognizing environmental print & sight words Building Word Knowledge Grade 1 Rapid letter-sound recognition Blending letter sounds and word building Initial and final consonants Short vowels (cvc patterns) Consonant blends (br, cl, st, etc.) Consonant digraphs (sh, ch, wh, th) Inflected endings (-ing, -ed,) Final e (cvce patterns) Long vowel digraphs (ai, ay, ea, ee, oa, ow, etc.) Complex consonant blends (qu, scr, thr) Hard and soft c & g Silent consonants (comb, write, know)
Abstract vowel patterns (oo, ou, ow, oi, oy) Contractions & Compound Words Grades 2 & 3 Review of grade 1 skills More complex vowel spellings & spelling rules (i.e. doubling consonants & dropping e) Homophones(their/there) & homographs (read/read) Multisyllabic words Syllabication patterns & strategies More structural analysis (i.e. plurals, possessives, prefixes & suffixes) Maine Department of Educati on 2005 20 How do We Assess Phonics?
Usually 1:1 Recommended to assess from early Kindergarten through grade 3 Assess decoding and encoding skills Use information to make data driven decisions for instruction Maine Department of Educati on 2005 21 What are Some Formal Methods of Assessing Phonics? CORE Phonics Survey 2002) (Scholastic, Nonsense Word Test (Scholastic, 2001) Names Test (Cunningham, 1990; Duffelmyer, Druse, Merkley, & Fyfe, 1994) DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills)
Letter Naming Fluency Nonsense Word Fluency Maine Department of Educati on 2005 22 CORE Phonics Survey (Scholastic, 2002) Assesses the phonics and phonics-related skills that have a high rate of application in beginning reading, including: Letter namesupper and lower case Consonant sounds Vowel sounds Spelling skills Presents phonics concepts through lists of real and nonsense words. Information generated from the assessment is useful for determining students decoding strengths and needs, as well as planning for future instruction. Student grouping can also be informed by this assessment. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 23 Nonsense Word Test
(Scholastic, 2001) Assesses students application of phonics skills to decoding lists of nonsense words that represent various categories that increase in difficulty, such as: short vowels digraphs & blends long vowels complex vowels (r-controlled, digraphs, dipthongs) multisyllabic words Information generated from the assessment is useful for determining students decoding strengths and needs, as well as planning for future instruction. Student grouping can also be informed by this assessment. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 24 Names Test (Cunningham, 1990; Duffelmyer, Druse, Merkley, & Fyfe, 1994) Assesses a readers ability to recognize multisyllabic letter patterns in unfamiliar words. Patterns are presented in the context of 35 pairs of first and last names that are:
Uncommon names Fully decodable Represent a sampling of common phonics elements Represent a balance of short and long names Most appropriate for transitional readers (generally grades 2 and higher) Analyzed by categories to inform future instruction and assist with grouping students. Maine Department of Educati on 2005 25 DIBELS Letter Naming Fluency (K-1) Probe 1 c c N u Q M u h
S i n b e N F f o a K k g p k p a H
C e G D b w F i h O x j I K x t Y q
L d f T g v T V Q o w P J t B X Z v
U P R l V C l W R J m O z D G y U Y
Z y A m X z H S M E q n j s W r d s
B I r A E L c c N u Q M Total: ____/110 Maine Department of Educati on 2005 26 DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (K-2) kik kaj
lan yuf bub wuv nif suv yaj tig woj fek nul pos dij nij vec yig zof mak sig av zem vok sij pik al dit um sog faj zin og viv vus
nok boj tum vim wot yis zez nom feg tos mot nen joj vel sav Maine Department of Educati on 2005 27 Ongoing Assessment of Phonics (LINKS, 2002) Observation of oral reading and anecdotal records Phonics skills checklists Informal Reading Inventories (IRIs), Running Records, and
Miscue Analysis Fluency checks on letter/sound automaticity and previously taught sight words Dictation and writing samples, including developmental spelling inventories Track growth in letter/sound relationships, decoding text, and sight words Maine Department of Educati on 2005 28 Phonics Assessment Hands-On Activity What phonics knowledge/skills does the student demonstrate control of? What phonics knowledge/skills does the student need more practice with? What phonics knowledge/skills might
be good next teaching steps? Maine Department of Educati on 2005 29 321 3things worth remembering 2things to learn more about 1burning question Maine Department of Educati on 2005 30
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