Lunar Exploration with Penetrometers

Lunar Exploration with Penetrometers

Astrobiological Signatures with Penetrators on Europa Rob Gowen (MSSL/UCL, UK) on behalf of Penetrator Consortium Alan Smith1, Richard Ambrosi6, Olga Prieto Ballesteros16, Simeon Barber2, Dave Barnes11, Chris Braithwaite9, John Bridges6, Patrick Brown5, Phillip Church10, Glyn Collinson1, Andrew Coates1, Gareth Collins5, Ian Crawford3, Veronique Dehant21, Michele Dougherty5, Julian Chela-Flores17, Dominic Fortes7, George Fraser6, Yang Gao4, Manuel Grande11, Andrew Griffiths1, Peter Grindrod7, Leonid Gurvits19, Axel Hagermann2, Tim van Hoolst21, Hauke Hussmann13, Ralf Jaumann13, Adrian Jones7, Geraint Jones1, Katherine Joy3, Ozgur Karatekin21, Gnter Kargl20, Antonella Macagnano14, Katarina Miljkovic 7,Anisha Mukherjee5, Peter Muller1, Ernesto Palomba12,Tom Pike5, Bill Proud9, Derek Pullan6, Francois Raulin15, Lutz Richter18, Keith Ryden2, Simon Sheridan2, Mark Sims6, Frank Sohl13, Joshua Snape7, Paul Stevens10, Jon Sykes6, Vincent Tong3, Tim Stevenson6, Werner Karl5, Lionel Wilson8, Ian Wright2, John Zarnecki2. 1: Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, 2: Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, Open University, UK. 3:Birkbeck College, University of London, UK. 4: Surrey Space Centre, Guildford, UK. 5: Imperial College, London, UK, 6: University of Leicester, UK. 7: University College London, UK. 8: Lancaster University, UK. 9: Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, UK. 11: University of Aberystwyth, UK. 12: Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario-INAF, Roma, Italy. 13: DLR, Berlin, Germany. 14: Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystem-CNR, Roma, Italy. 15: Universit Paris, France. 16: Centro de Astrobiologia-INTA-CSIC, Espaa. 17: Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. 18:

DLR, Bremen, Germany. 19: Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE), Dwingeloo, The Netherlands. 20: IWF, Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria. 21: Royal Observatory, Belgium Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Contents Mission to Europa Europa Penetrators

Instruments Astrobiology Conclusions Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Contents Mission to Europa Europa

Penetrators Instruments Astrobiology Conclusions Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Mission to Europa EJSM joint ESA/NASA mission to Jovian system. JEO Jupiter/Europa Orbiter (NASA element) launch nominally 2020 arrive Europa 2028

observe 9 months (heavy radiation) may include penetrators Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Penetrator delivery Descent Module

release from Orbiter Spin-up & Decelerate Spin-Down Reorient Penetrator Separation Penetrator & PDS surface Impact Delivery sequence courtesy SSTL

Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 Operate from MSSL/UCL below surface UK Basic parameters mass surface gravity radius orbital period surface temp surface radiation Europa

: 0.7 Moon : 0.8 Moon : 0.9 Moon : 3.5 day : 40-120K : Mrads Astrobiology potential ? atmosphere trace Oxygen (10-12 Earth) surface material - water ice strong tidal forces subsurface ocean ? rocky ocean floor bottom habitable ? life ?

Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK surface features Japanese Lunar-A Continuous launch delays Several paper studies Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK high resolution

10Km Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Accessing Astrobiological Material upwelled material available in striations from ocean beneath (may contain astrobiological material) evidence of sulphates in striations. young surface: 5-60 Ma (minimise radiation and meteroid damage) but surface mostly very rough Image from Proctor (JHU), Patterson (APL) & Senske (JPL) (2009, Europa Lander Workshop, Moscow)

Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK MSSL/UCL UK Biosignatures Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. 25Lander 2009 Workshop, From Proctoron (JHU), Patterson (APL) &Senske (JPL)

(2009, June Europa Moscow) Impact Site Characteristics Feature Type Young ? Upwelled material ? Flat / smooth ? Ridges & troughs

yes many ? no no yes no Bands Chaos & Lenticulae yes

yes some areas Impact features yes yes no Based on Proctor (JHU), Patterson (APL) & Senske (JPL) (2009, Europa Lander Workshop, Moscow) Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK

Vertical exagguration x20. Vertical height ~ 1km. Landing ellipse ~5km into smooth area, equatorial MSSL/UCL UK Biosignatures Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. 25Lander 2009 Workshop, From Proctoron (JHU), Patterson (APL) &Senske (JPL)

(2009, June Europa Moscow) Penetrators Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Micropenetrator & Instruments Low mass [~5-15Kg] Very tough [~100-500m/s, impact ~10-50kgee] Perform science from below surface [~0.5-few m] ~20-60cms

Example Payload (~2kg) Science Capability Micro seismometers (radio beacon, magnetometer) sub-surface ocean, inner body structure tectonics, cryovulcanism Chemistry package (mass spect.) organics and inorganics Soil/environment package soil mechanical properties, thermal &

electrical properties Sample imager/astrobiology camera Mineralogy, UV DNA flouresence Descent camera impact site context & PR (accel, magnetometer,therm,...) Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Post Impact

Target area of upwelled material (astrobiology) ~0.5 to few metres below surface (reduced radiation) 2 penetrators - derisk/improve performance Lifetime: few hours (geochemistry/astrobiology, soil properties) to few orbits (seismic measurements) Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Instruments and TRL Previous Mars96, DS2, Lunar-A developments

UK currently developing technology for lunar mission Most instruments have existing space heritage. + successful full scale impact trial in UK. Micro-seismometer Imperial College (ExoMars) Prototype, ruggedized ion trap mass-spectrometer Open University (Rosetta) Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK

Impact trial internal architecture Radiation sensor Batteries Magnetometers Mass spectrometer Accelerometers Power Interconnection Processing Micro-seismometers Accelerometers, Thermometer Batteries,Data logger Drill assembly

Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Trial Hardware Inners Stack Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Impact Trial - Configuration Rocket sled Penetrator Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009

MSSL/UCL UK Target Dry sand 2m x2m x6m Small front entrance aperture (polythene) Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Real-Time Impact Video

Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Firing Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Astrobiology Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Any life on Europa??

Radiation from Jupiters magnetosphere forms oxidants at surface that could be used as food source Comets deliver organics 10cm radiation danger Habitable zone Photosynthetic plants could take advantage of sunlight Clinging life forms could use food brought by current Floating forms could move up and down with the tides Strong daily tidal currents

Adapted from Biogeochemistry of the Europa icy surface, by Katarina Miljkovic, OU Feb07 Image: University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory Warm ocean Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Another model Adapted from K.Hand et. al. Moscow09, who adapted it from Figueredo et al. 2003 3. astrobiological

spectral signatures 2. communication of life forms to surface 1. habital zone on ocean floor adjacent to nutrients Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Astrobiology Signatures ?

Presence of habitat Body image and motion Organic chemical inventory and proportions Isotopic ratios (sulphur) (weak spectral component ) Spectral signatures (complex) Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Astrobiology Investigations Microseismometers/Radio beacon/Magnetometer - Determine existence and characterise potentially habitable subsurface ocean. Chemical sensing via sample acquisition or e.g. stand-off laser ablation (mass spectrometer, quartz micro-balance and electronic noses, etc)

mass spec can determine presence of organic molecules and their relative abundances. mass spec can determine 32S/34S isotopic ratio which is expected to have quite different value whether origin is biological or geological. (very difficult to detectable spectrally) Spectral sensing remote (but close) chemical determination. (dont yet have candidate instrument for spectral signal !) Raman. Astrobiology imager view either remote or acquired sample. Image life forms but more likely look for uv fluorescence (RNA/DNA) Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Questions ? What does discovery of a rejected grant application form mean ?

How many different measurements to prove life ? What are best measurements to make to prove life ? 2 penetrators better than 1 ? Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Conclusions Earth is only body currently known to contain life... Detection of biosignatures on Europa or exoplanet could inform other field. Detection of life on Europa or exoplanet could inform other field. Heavy surface radiation is not necessarily an impediment to life. Penetrators may also detect biosignatures on other planetary bodies (e.g. Moon, Mars).

Are there any other commonalities/useful connections with insitu search for astrobiological signals ? Good luck with hunting astrobiology signals from exoplanets ! Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK - End [email protected] http://www.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/planetary/missions/Micro_Penetrators.php Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK

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