Lumber Wood Tree Growth 1.Dead Bark Protective Layer 2.Living Bark Composed of hollow longitudinal cells that conduct nutrients down the truck from the leaves to the roots 3.Cambium Thin layer which creates new bark cells toward the outside of the trucks, and new wood cells toward the inside. 4.Sap Wood the thick layer of living wood cells inside the cambium nutrients are stored and sap is pumped upward

from roots to leaves. 5.Heartwood sap wood dies progressively and becomes heartwood no longer participates in the life processes of the tree but continues to contribute to its structural strength.

1.Summer growth 2.Spring growth 6.Pitch of the tree is a small zone of weak wood cells from first years growth. Cell Structure

Wood consists primary of tubular cells whose long axes are parallel to the long axis of the truck The cells are structured of tough cellulose and are bound together by a softer cementing substance called lignin. The direction of he long axes of the cells is referred to as the direction of the grain. Grain direction is important to the strength of the wood Tree grown under continuously moist, cool conditions grow faster but not as strong.

Softwoods and Hardwoods Softwoods come from coniferous trees Hardwoods come from broad-leafed trees. Names can be confusing because many coniferous trees produce harder woods then broad-leafed. Softwood trees have a much simpler cell structure then hardwoods consisting of mainly large longitudinal cells uninteresting patterns of grain Hardwoods have complex cell structures and beautiful grain patterns. Lumber

Lumber is defined as length of squared wood used in construction. 1.Cut Down 2.Transported. 3.Milled. 4.Seasoned Milling Process

Head Saw may be band saw or curricular saw used to reduce it to untrimmed slabs of lumber pieces have rough textured surfaces may have very slightly in dimension from end to end. Plain saw used for framing of buildings most economic produces the greatest yield but the grain in the wood varies from perpendicular to the face diagonal parallel causes pieces to distort differently during seasoning and have different

surfaces. Quarter saw used for flooring, interior trim and furniture usually only hardwoods annual rings run parallel with surface this lets boards remain flat with little change over time. Seasoning Growing wood can contain 30% to 300% of the oven dry weight of wood (water content) Free water first to leave 28% to 32 % of the tree moisture starts to leave as soon as the tree is cut. Bound water held by the cell walls wood starts to shrink and strength and stiffness increase. Farming lumber is considered seasoned when moisture content is less then 19%

No use to season framing lumber below 13 % because wood is hygroscopic (which means over time moisture content will change varying on moisture content of the surrounding area) Swelling and shrinking are dependent on moisture in the air. Seaonsing II Two types of drying Air dry takes months Dried in kiln takes days most commonly used. Shrinking and Swelling

Moisture shrinkage along the length of the log (longitudinal shrinkage) is negligible for practice purposes. Shrinkage in the radial direction (radial shrinkage) if very large in comparison Shrinkage around the circumference of the log (tangential shrinkage) is about half again greater than radial shrinkage. Surfacing Purpose to make it smooth and more dimensional precise easier to work with less damaging to hands square and uniform in shape. (S4S) surfaced on all four sides (S2S) surface on two sides leaving the edges to be

surfaced by craftsman (S-DRY) in a lumber grade stamp indicates that the piece was surfaced (planed) when in a seasoned condition (S-GRN) in a lumber grade stamp indicates that the piece was planed when green Lumber Defects Two Types 1.Growth Characterizes comes from tree

2.Manufacturing characterizes comes from mill Growth Defects Knots reduce the structural strength make it more difficult to cut and shape Knot holes Decay generally only affect the wood if organisms are still alive Insect damage Manufacturing Defects Splits caused by shrinkage stresses Checks Crooking occur non uniform shrinkage

Bowing occur non uniform shrinkage Twisting occur non uniform shrinkage Cupping occur non uniform shrinkage Wane is an irregular rounding of edges or faces that is caused by sawing pieces too close to the perimeter of the log Crown usually place up so the structural load will straighten the piece

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