Light Dependent Reactions - Welcome to Ms. Ferrari's Classroom
4.1-Capturing Solar Energy: Light Dependent Reactions SBI4U1 Photosynthesis Overall Chemical Equation: 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + energy C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) Simply stated Carbon dioxide + water with addition of energy
from the sun yields glucose + oxygen. Photosynthesis -Photosynthesis transforms radiant energy of sunlight into chemical energy -Photosynthesizing agents/organisms use approx. 2% of the suns energy. Photosynthesis allows plants to: Make glucose Converted to cellulose in cell walls
Starch for energy storage Two sets of reactions that make up photosynthesis Photo = light Synthesis = rxns that synthesize carbohydrate Rx. 1- Light Dependent Reaction: Light energy is trapped and used to generate ATP and NADPH( similar to NADH in Cell. Resp) Rx. 2- Light Independent Reaction
Energy from ATP and reducing power of NADPH are used to make glucose Light Dependent Rxn: rxn that uses solar energy to generate ATP and NADPH (similar to NADH) Light Independent Rxn: rxn that uses the energy of ATP and reducing power of
NADPH to make a high energy organic molecule *Note: cyanobacteria, algae and plants all carry out photosynthesis, but we are just going to focus on plants for simplicity Structure of the Chloroplasts Photosynthesis factory 3-8m in length and 2-3m in diameter Outer and inner membranes enclose a space
filled w/ protein rich semi-liquid material called stroma Thylakoids are within the stroma Flattened discs Stacked thylakoids are called grana, unstacked thylakoids are called lamellae Levels of Organization in a Plant Leaf
Carbon dioxide and water that are used to synthesize glucose through photosynthesis are taken up by the leaf and then enter into plant cells and chloroplasts. Water enters the leaf
through veins, and carbon dioxide enters via openings called stomata. Grana Inside the thylakoid sac is the thylakoid lumen Water filled
Chlorophyll and ETC proteins are embedded in thylakoid membrane Chlorophyll is a green coloured pigment that absorbs light Common Forms of chlorophyll: chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b Why Chlorophyll Appears Green A) Leaves appear green because chlorophyll molecules in leaf cells reflect green and yellow wavelengths of light and absorb other wavelengths (red and blue).
B) This absorbance spectrum for three photosynthetic pigments shows that each pigment absorbs a different combination of colours of light. Light is absorbed in packets of energy called photons Absorption of Light Wavelengths (colour) of light are related to energy Shorter wavelength more energy
Longer wavelength less energy Electrons can absorb a photon only if it carries exactly enough energy to allow the electron to move up to another allowed energy level. Pigment: compound that absorbs visible light E.g. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
Chlorophyll a absorbs at 400-450 nm and 650-700 nm Chlorophyll b absorbs at 450-500 nm and 600-650 nm Both types of chlorophyll reflect green Photosystems Protein based complexes composed of clusters of pigments that absorb light energy in the thylakoid membrane When a pigment molecule absorbs a photon,
the molecule passes the energy to the chlorphyll a molecules. Light reactions of photosynthesis occur in the thylakoid membrane Divided into 3 parts 1. Photoexcitation: e- gets excited 2. Electron transport: e- transferred to e- carriers, and protons pump into lumen 3. Chemiosmosis: formation of ATP
Photosystems are made up of two parts: 1. Antenna complex Made up of chlorophyll molecules and other pigments Absorbs a photon and transfers energy from pigment to pigment until it reaches chlorophyll a in reaction centre
2. Reaction Centre: Transmembrane protein complex Contains chlorophyll a e- absorb energy and passes e- to an electron acceptor
The Reaction Centre The antenna complex is also sometimes referred to as the lightharvesting complex because it gathers (harvests) energy from light so that the energy can be directed to the P680 molecule in the reaction centre.
There are 2 Photosystems: 1. Photosystem One - PS I: Primary pigment is chlorophyll a. Absorption peak at 700nm Called P700 2. Photosystem Two - PS II: Primary pigment is chlorophyll b Absorption peak at 680nm
Called P680 Arrangement of Photosystem I and Photosystem II In the light-dependent reactions, photosystem II passes electrons to photosystem I via an electron transport system, which contains the b6-f complex. This complex acts as a proton pump to produce a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. The electrons lost from the reaction centre of photosystem II are replenished by the oxidation of water. Photosystem I
uses the electrons to reduce NADP+ to NADPH. PSI and PSII work together to produce ATP and NADPH PSII passes electrons to PSI via an electron transport system (w/ b6-f complex proton pump) e- lost from PSII are replenished by oxidation of H2O PSI uses e- to reduce NADP+ to NADPH Animation: http://www.biology4all.com/resources_library/source/61a.swf
ATP synthesis in light-dependent rxns is the same as in aerobic respiration It is called photophosphorylation Using photons to drive phosphorylation of ADP to produce ATP via chemiosmosis PSI and PSII, an electron transport system, and ATP synthase enzyme are in the thylakoid membrane They works together to make ATP
Animation: http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/metabolism/photosynthesis.swf Making ATP by Chemiosmosis Photosystem I, photosystem II, an electron transport system, and the ATP synthase enzyme are embedded in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. ATP synthesis by chemiosmosis in chloroplasts occurs in a way that is very similar to the way it
occurs in mitochondria. Cyclic Photophosphorylation Cyclic Phosphorylation In cyclic photophosphorylation, an electron in P700 is excited by a photon and begins taking the same path that it took in noncyclic photophosphorylation. However, the electron is not used to reduce NADP+ but instead is
passed back to the b6-f complex, where the energy is used to generate the proton gradient. Chloroplast produce more ATP through cyclic photophosphorylation Only PSI Photon excited an e- from P700 in PSI
it follows the same path as in noncyclic e- is not used to reduce NADP+ It is passed back to b6-f complex Creatinfga proton gradient to generate ATP, but not NADPH Believed to be used by early bacteria
Learning Expectations... Reactants and products of photosynthesis
Structure and function of chloroplasts Chlorophyll a vs. chlorophyll b Photosystems (PSI vs. PSII) ATP production and chemiosmosis in plants Cyclic vs. noncyclic photophosphorylation ** there are a lot of details here, re-watching the animations may be beneficial**
AP Biology Lab Write-Ups. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Pre-Lab Quiz (5 points) ... Students will investigate the effect of temperature and germination or non-germination on cell respiration, and the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The lab...
electrical safety. ... Makita 5" disc sander . f. luorescent lights. First, let's keep in mind the key health effects: Ventricular fibrillation occurs from 75 to 150 milliamps and death is likely after exposures to currents of 1 to 4.3...
Geopolitical Theory: Rimland Theory. Nicolas Spykman. Naval power/sea power more important than land based: Western Europe and South, SE, & East Asia "He who rules the Rimland, contains the Heartland and rules the world".
Summarized >20 yr history of outmigrant monitoring efforts Assembled, determined extraction needs, and summarized available data Reviewed field procedures Provided broad review of population estimation techniques Primary Recommendations: Detailed evaluation of applicable population estimation techniques for the Trinity River outmigrant...
The Skeletal System Functions Framework for support Transmits movement Maintains shape Protects internal organs from mechanical injury Contains and protects the red bone marrow, one of the hemopoietic (blood-forming) tissues Mineral reservoir - storage site for excess calcium and phosphorus...
& Aviv . Ratzman. Indigo, major global force in digital printing; HP acquisition ~$800M. Serial Entrepreneurs/Strong Backgrounds. Richard . Demb. Founded GC Zone, Founded Popcorn Indiana (acquired by Goldman Sachs) Eitan. Bauch & Avi. Yehuda.