CANADA Lets go play some hockey, eh? SECTION 1: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY LANDFORMS Western 1/3 is mountainous Contains: Pacific
Ranges (Cascade and Coast Ranges) Canadian Rockies are east of those Rockies flatten into the Great Plains and Interior Lowlands LANDFORMS CONTINUED Canadian Shield east of
Great Plains Appalachian Mountain range extends into the maritime provinces Coastal Lowlands in extreme east WATER SYSTEMS Mackenzie River (from Great Slave Lake to
Arctic Ocean) drains much of northern Canada St. Lawrence River (from Lake Ontario to Atlantic Ocean) forms part of border with the U.S. CLIMATE REGIONS Marine
West Coast climate on Pacific coast Semi-arid climate btwn Pacific Ranges and Rockies (rain-shadow effect) TIMBERLINE: point in elevation where trees can not grow CHINOOK: seasonal (spring) warm wind that blows down the Rockies
CLIMATE CONTINUED Humid continental climate for the southern 1/3 of Canada Subarctic and tundra climates in the north Boreal Forest makes up majority of the north BF is the 2nd largest area of uninterrupted
forest in the world NATURAL RESOURCES Energy: Athabasca TAR SANDS: large deposit of semisolid heavy crude oil Minerals: gold, silver, copper (Rockies); iron ore and nickel
(Canadian Shield) Fish Timber SECTION 2: HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT INDIGENOUS GROUPS Inuits, Mets, and First Nations are the main
indigenous peoples Inuits around Canadian Arctic Mets: FN and French ancestry FN: indigenous but not Inuit or Mets 1.25 million indigenous people today FRENCH EXPLORERS Early
1600s Jacques Cartier came in mid-1500s Named New France (Quebec today) Began clashes w/British in 1670 Britain wins control in 1763 DOMINION
Early 1800s French and English communities feud over policy Fear of U.S. takeover forced alliance 1867: colonies of Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick unite This is the DOMINION OF CANADA
DOMINION: partially selfgoverning country; close ties to another country GOVERNMENT Close ties to Great Britain Gained full independence in 1931 1982: Constitution Act cut legislative link to Britain Executive branch: governor
general, prime minister, and cabinet Legislative branch: Parliament (Senate and House of Commons) Judicial: Supreme Court LE QUEBECOIS Def: Quebecs Frenchspeaking inhabitants Became minority in
early to mid 1800s Being in minority creates nationalism MODERN CHALLENGES North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): eliminated tariffs and other trade barriers btwn Canada,
U.S., and Mexico Many Canadians dislike effect of NAFTA Imports U.S. pop culture MODERN CHALLENGES CONT. Strong support for Quebec independence 2012: members of the Parti Qubcois were
elected to political office They support SEPARATISM: breaking away one part of a country to create a separate, independent country POPULATION PATTERNS Pop: 35,706,000
9 ppl/sq. mile 75% live within 100 miles of U.S. border 81% live in urban centers Major cities: Toronto (largest) Montreal (industry/shipping) Vancouver (trade w/Asia) Edmonton (oil) SOCIETY AND CULTURE Very
multicultural 2 official languages (French and English) Education and health care supported by government Only required to go to school until 16 ECONOMIC ACTIVITY Leader
in production of uranium, iron ore, coal, petroleum, copper, and silver Worlds 3rd largest producer of hydroelectric power ECON CONT Natural
resources and ag make up 60% of exports 70% of GDP is service industry GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP): value of goods and services produced WITHIN a country in a year ECON CONT Prairie Provinces are
major producers of grain and cattle Atlantic coast: fishing Tech and electronics are growing fast Space and aircraft industry are growing SECTION 3: PEOPLE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT MANAGING RESOURCES
OLD GROWTH FORESTS: relatively untouched by human activity Boreal (Taiga) Forest is shrinking Only 10% is federally protected RESOURCES CONTINUED
Overfishing led to laws protecting certain fish Hydroelectricity requires damming (protests) Crude oil extraction and processing releases CO2
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