Lecture 2 - City University of New York

Lecture 2 - City University of New York

Morphology Study of word making Morphemes 2 kinds of morphemes: a. Free morpheme: can be used by itself Ex. what is that? dog b. Bound morpheme: cannot be used by itself Ex. how many dogs are there? *s Word formation processes Affixation Compounding Reduplication Alternations Suppletion

Affixation A bound morpheme attaches/interjects the root (or stem) of a word to form a new word. Prefix Suffix Infix Circumfix 4 kinds of affixation a. Prefix unhappy b. Suffix walked c. Infix Fillipines (Tagalog) -um- is a infinitivizer sulat write sumulat to write d. Circumfix Fillippines (Tuwali Ifugao) ka -- an is a nominalizer baddang v. to help

kabaddangan n. helpfulness Prefix Examples Latin Greek ab- away from ad- to, towards, near a-, an- negative

ambi- both anti- against circum- around apo-

away from con- with di- two, twice, double contra- against dia- through

endo- ecto- outside epi- exo- outside, outward

para- along side of syn- with within on, upon extra- retro- outside, beyond

semi- half sub- super-, supra- above, upper under, below Compounding Putting two free morphemes together whte huse blue berry Tom boy Whte House blueberry

Tomboy Reduplication Repeat a morpheme to form a new word Indonesian (singluar vs. Plural) anak child orang person anakanak children orangorang people ibu mother ibuibu mothers Japanese (noun vs. adverb/adjective) toki time tokidoki sometimes iro color iroiro variety of Alternations Change a sound (sounds) within a word man

men goose geese foot feet run hold ran held Suppletion Completely irregular or unrelated to the root to form (usually) a small class of words English copula verb be

is/are/was/were go/went Derivation of words How do you think words are put together? reconstruction Derivation of words You have to think about Grammatical Typical category behavior of morphemes How to approach? Separate the word into morphemes

Word making process is always one step at a time some morphological restrictions (i.e., you cannot randomly attach morphemes=a certain order to form a word)

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