Learning Objectives: - Western Washington University
Learning Objectives: Animal Nutrition 2/18/08 Describe the categories of dietary requirements for adequate nutrition in animals. Recognize and explain evolutionary adaptations in a variety of animals for specific food types and feeding mechanisms. Discuss the advantage(s) of a 1-way digestive tract (alimentary canal) as compared to a gastrovascular cavity. Describe the levels of structure and function in the
vertebrate digestive system, using examples. Animal adaptations related to diet Why do most animals process food in specialized compartments? Can you explain why the herbivore has a longer digestive tract? Adaptations related to feeding method:
Suspension feeders Where do these animals live? How do these animals increase their chance of capturing food? Substrate/deposit/ detritus feeders Is there a high degree of cephalization in these animals?
Fluid feeders (blood, nectar, tissue fluid) Compare the adaptations of internal vs. ecto-parasites Bulk feeders (most animals) How is external digestion accomplished? Adequate Nutrition Energy needs
Name the energy nutrients. What is the best source of energy for animal cells? How is excess energy stored in animal tissues? Organic raw material What elements are provided in these molecules? Water Describe the functions of water in biological systems. Essential nutrients
Define, and provide some examples. Define essential nutrient, and provide a variety of examples. Minerals
Iron Calcium Magnesium Iodine Sodium Potassium Describe how these minerals are used. See Table 43.2, p. 959
Energy Nutrients Protein Carbohydrate Lipid In addition to providing cellular energy through oxidation, how else are these nutrients used by cells/tissues?
Homeostasis in Nutrition: Blood Calcium Level Homeostasis in Nutrition: Blood Glucose Level See Fig. 43.16 GLUT 4 transporter (translocation in adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells in response to the presence of insulin) compare to GLUT-2 transporter on p. 973
Digestive Functions Ingestion Motility
Simultaneous coordination of these Secretion functions often occurs in several regions of a digestive system. Digestion Absorption What is the term used to describe propelling movements in the Excretion digestive tube?
What are the products of hydrolysis of the energy nutrients? Describe ways in which different digestive functions are dependent on each other. Secretion & Absorption a closer look at two mechanisms
p. 967 Gastric glands acidify stomach contents. Why? p. 973 The intestinal epithelium can transport glucose up the concentration gradient w/o directly using ATP. How? Intracellular Digestion: Does the Paramecium sp. expend energy
to obtain food? Paramecium sp. produce lysozyme to digest their food within food vacuoles. This enzyme is also found in mammalian sweat, tears and saliva. Why? Sponges also obtain nutrition by intracellular digestion. In what other ways do these two organisms
function similarly? Extracellular Digestion: 2-way digestive system (gastrovascular cavity) Gastrodermal cells secrete digestive enzymes and phagocytize macromolecules. Intracellular digestion completes the
hydrolysis of nutrients. What is the other function of the gastrovascular cavity? Alimentary Canals (1-way) What is this? Identify areas specialized for transport, storage, mechanical digestion, chemical
digestion, absorption, and/or excretion. Structure of the Wall of the Mammalian Alimentary Canal What makes peristalsis possible? What features serve to increase surface area? p. 969 Human Digestive System
p. 963 Identify the accessory organs (glands) of the mammalian digestive system.
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