Landform Regions of Canada The movement of the earths plates, and the resulting folding, faulting, and volcanic activity, have combined with the forces of erosion and weathering to create a variety of landscapes that affect the way we live. A Landform Region is an area of the Earth with a unique set of physical features.
Landforms include major features: (e.g. continents, ocean basins, plains, plateaus, mountain ranges) and minor features (e.g. hills, valleys, slopes, drumlins, dunes). Collectively, the landforms of Earth constitute the entire surface configuration of the planet. Chapter 1: Physical Processes and Natural Systems Landform Regions
We can divide Canada into regions according to a single aspect of the physical environmentlandforms, climate, soil, or natural vegetation. A landform region is a specific area with similar natural features on Earths surface. The Canadian Shield is often referred to by geographers as the foundation of Canada. How is the Canadian Shield similar to the foundation of a building? What does the map tell you about the landform regions in Canada?
Landforms in Canada Canada is made up of three distinct types of landforms: 1. Canadian Shield 2. Highlands 3. Lowlands 1. Canadian Shield 1. Canadian Shield 2. The Highlands 2. Western Cordillera 3. Appalachian Mountains 4. Innuitian Mountains Within these landforms
there are smaller subregions which have different characteristics. 3. The Lowlands 5. Arctic Lowlands 6. Interior Plains 7. Hudson Bay Lowlands 8. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands Note Taking Time! In partners, use the graphic organizer provide to take your notes. Read pages 34-39 and review the rest of the information on this power point to help you fill out
the chart provided. **Just take the BEST info to put Landform Regions of Canada 1. Canadian Shield Location: Covers more than half of Canada, including most of Nunavut, Quebec, Labrador, Ontario, and Manitoba, and a large part of Saskatchewan
Physical Features: Relatively flat with rounded hills of metamorphic rock, which are actually the roots of ancient mountains Some of the worlds oldest rocks can be found here, at or near the surface of the ground In the last ice-age, glaciers scraped soil away and formed many small lakes Biological Features: Covered by boreal forest in the south, and tundra in the north Many mammals such as moose, caribou, wolverines, weasels, mink, otters, beaver, grizzlies and black bears are present
Resources: Sparsely populated, farming is poor because the soil is too thin Rock contains large quantities of valuable metallic minerals such as lead, gold, nickel, copper and zinc Ideal for recreation due to scenic waterfalls, lakes, rock outcrops, and vast forests Landform Regions of Canada 2. Western Cordillera Location: Along the western edge of Canada, covering most of Yukon territory and British Columbia
Physical Features: Range after range of high, sharp-peaked mountains separated by plateaus and valleys, running North to South Created recently by the collision of the North American and Pacific plates Biological Features: Herbs, lichens and shrubs at higher elevations and various types of coniferous forest and grasslands at lower elevations Several species have adapted to the harsh climates of the higher elevations, including Mountain Goat, Gyrfalcon, White-tailed and
Willow Ptarmigan, Water Pipit and Rosy Finch Mule Deer, Rocky Mountain Elk, Stone Sheep, Grizzly Bear and Black Bear are common at lower elevations. Resources: Lightly populated, travel is difficult Rich in minerals, timber, and sources of hydro electricity Highlands Landform Regions of Canada Highlands
3. Appalachian Location:Mountains Covers some of southern Quebec, and most of the Maritime Provinces Physical Description: Oldest highland region in Canada, created when the North American plate collided with Europe and Africa about 300 million years ago EROSION has rounded the mountains over time, creating a landscape of rolling mountains and hills
Biological Description: The Appalachians are characterized by a wealth of large, beautiful deciduous broadleaf (hardwood) trees. During the 19th and early 20th centuries the Appalachian forests were subject to severe and destructive logging and land clearing Animals that characterize the Appalachian forests include squirrels, rabbits and deer, which have greatly increased in abundance as a result of the elimination of the Gray Wolf and the Eastern Cougar or Mountain Lion by European settlers Resources:
Long ocean bays provide deep harbours for ocean freighters Landform Regions of Canada 4. Innuitian Mountains Location: A mountain range in Canada's Arctic territories of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories Physical Description: In some locations they measure over 2,500 meters in height, and 1290 km in length Shaped at a time when the North American Plate moved northward They are younger than the Appalachians, and so erosion has not yet rounded them
significantly Biological Features: They are above the tree line, preventing any vegetation from existing Resources: Largely unexplored, due to the hostile climate. They are named after the northern indigenous people, who live in the region. Highlands Landform Regions of Canada
Lowlands 5. Arctic Lowlands Location: A series of islands located in Canadas far north Physical Description: Low-lying, barren islands with coastlines ranging from extensive lowlands to spectacular cliffs Summer is brief, but sunny, it is cold and frozen in the winter It is dark all day in the winter and light all day in the summer
Biological Features: Sparsely vegetated, with vast seemingly lifeless areas Resources: The ground is mostly composed of permafrost, making construction difficult and often hazardous, and agriculture virtually impossible Landform Regions of Canada 6. Interior Plains Location:
Extends through the middle of Canada from North to South, covering most of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and some of NWT and Manitoba Physical Features: Very flat, with deep, fertile soil Created when sediments from the Shield and the Rocky Mountains were deposited in shallow inland seas and compressed into layers of sedimentary rock Cold winters, hot summers Biological Features: The southern part of the interior plains is mostly treeless, with grasses and herbs
The northern part is home to a belt of coniferous trees called the boreal forest, which extends from the Rocky Mountains all the way across Canada to Newfoundland, with Spruce, tamarack, and poplar being the most prominent species Resources: Extensively used for farming wheat and cattle Known as Canadas Bread Basket Lowlands Landform Regions of Canada . Hudson Bay Lowlands Location:
Around the southwestern shore of the Hudson Bay and James Bay in Ontario and Quebec Physical Features: This is a layer of sedimentary rock rests on top of the underlying Shield Flat low area covered by bogs and fens, and dotted with ponds, lakes and streams Biological Features:
Lowlands Mostly muskeg or peat-forming wetlands The region is famous for its polar bears Caribou migrate to the area in summer In summer the coast of this region is alive with birds, such as lesser snow geese, Canada geese, brant, tundra swans, oldsquaw, king eider, and northern phalarope and many shore-birds Resources: The harsh climate does not permit farming; the ground remains frozen most of the year. However, the Paleozoic sedimentary rock, from which the Lowlands are Landform Regions of Canada 8. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands
Location: South of the Canadian Shield in Ontario and Quebec Smallest landform region in Canada Physical Description: Lowlands Glaciers deposited a huge amount of soil, sand and gravel here, creating a landscape of flat plains with small hills and deep river valleys The great lakes are located in basins gouged out by the glaciers Like the rest of the Interior Plains, these lowlands have
bedrock formed of sedimentary rock from the Paleozoic era Biological Features: Prior heavy farming and urban sprawl, this area was home to large mixed forests Resources:
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