Involvement, Gender, and the Color Line:Reinventing Male ...
INVOLVEMENT, GENDER, AND THE COLOR LINE: REINVENTING MALE STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Jacob Isaacs Ivy Tech Community College Dr. Paul Porter University of Scranton INTRODUCTIONS Jacob Isaacs Dr. Paul Porter Associate Professor of Communication
Ivy Tech Community College Lafayette 15+ years advising student organizations Director of Multicultural Affairs University of Scranton
Emphasis on Black Male Leadership Development PERCEPTION CHECK MEN AND STUDENT ENGAGEMENT STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Increased Student Engagement Leads to: Increased Learning
Higher Retention Increased Student Satisfaction Higher Completion Rates (Astin, 1999; Davalos et al., 1999; Fischer, 2007; Kuh et al., 1991; Tinto, 1993) COLLEGE MEN AND ENGAGEMENT College men are especially prone to these trends of student engagement. (Laker, 2011) Many HE institutions perpetuate gender stereotypes of college men. (Johnson, 2001) College men typically will not ask for help.
NSSE AND MALE ENGAGEMENT College males excel over females in only about 1/3 of the categories of engagement. Examples are exercising and relaxing (NSSE, 2009). Men are less engaged in 2/3 of categories, including ones of academic and long-term
developmental importance (WeaverHightower, 2010): Participating in study abroad Coming to class prepared Participating in civic/community outreach Reading books outside of those required for coursework NSSE AND MALE ENGAGEMENT Men who choose not to become involved in these and other co-curricular programs limit
their opportunities for productive engagement in college (Harris & Struve, 2009) and, as a result, threaten their longterm academic success. COMPLICATING PERCEPTIONS OF MEN MEN AS GENDERED BEINGS Masculinity is a socially constructed identity (Harris III & Struve, 2009, p. 3) and, as such, can change. Men must always be viewed in the context of the restraints, constraints, and expectations of the male gender role
[because] men are inextricably entwined with the demands of our culture (Scher, 1990, p. 325). MASCULINITIES Intersected and influenced by other dimensions of identity such as race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, religious faith, sexual orientation and [dis]ability (Harris, 2008). Baker (2008) notes that any of these underrepresented groups are more likely to feel isolated and disconnected from the environments of their college, which places them under an even greater threat of noncompletion (Feagin et al 1996; Hurtado,
1992; Nagasawa and Wong, 1999; Smith and Moore, 2002). OVERHEARD @ STUDENT AFFAIRS CONFERENCES Immature Apathetic Egotistical Heavy Drinkers Promiscuous Vandals
Violent Competitive Hypermasculine Troubled PERCEPTIONS OF MEN Dichotomy of masculinity (Edwards & Jones, 2009) Societys expectations of the ideal male. Personal ambitions for success and wellbeing. Fallacies about men Men as the typical college student ("The case of the missing men," 2007). Men as problem-free.
Men as unworthy of specialized assistance, due to historical privilege. All of these especially pertain to White men. MENS PERCEPTIONS OF MASCULINITY Dissertation Study 12 college men Traditional-age (18-23 years old)
hour to 1-hour interviews Attendees at a mens college (Wabash College) MENS PERCEPTIONS OF MASCULINITY Potential common themes Responsibility Respect Poise Athleticism/Fitness
No universal themes, though! STARTING POINTS FOR MEN STARTING POINTS FOR MEN Programs need to focus on development and success of college men. Academic and Professional Mentoring Fellowship and Networking
Build Multicultural and Socioeconomic Competence Initiatives that encourage men where they are York College Lone Star Community College Project VOICE University of Scranton DELTA PI CHAPTER, THETA CHI FRATERNITY
TAKE ACTION TO HELP YOUR COLLEGE MEN SUCCEED. Pass the Mic: Project VOICE at The University of Scranton Dr. Paul Porter University of Scranton While we may often think of an educational environment as being composed of lifeless objects like classrooms, buildings, tables,, and chairs, it is also about people and relationships. Who students live, play, and learn with has
great potential to influence how they experience their campuses, perform in classrooms, and develop as thinkers and citizens. Karen Griffin & Walter Allen Associate Editors: 2011 ASHE Reader on Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education Problems Plaguing Minority Male Engagement Buried under the Deficit Model Narrative (Harper, 2006a; Harper, 2012; Pittman, 2014; Saenz & Ponjuan, 2011)
Empty in the Middle Research tends to highlight the polar extremes, while ignoring the average man of color The Unrepresented Population (Jackson, 2003; Jackson & Daniels, 2004; Stewart, 2014;) Nothing/No one on their campuses that look like them/indicate that campus belongs to them. Circumventing the topic of race Theoretical Framework: Critical Race Theory Premise
Racism is a common piece of our social fabric Racism is aided and abetted by interest convergence Racism is socially constructed Racism must be challenged Racism can be challenged by shared narratives, spaces, and priorities Critical Race Theory Common Themes Counterstorytelling Stories of the silenced Empathic Fallacy Belief that one narrative can change another
Counterspace Save enclaves for underrepresented populations Interest Convergence Mainstream populations recognize minority interests only when mainstream populations are affected Cultural Pluralism Separate cultural existences in common space Racial Battle Fatigue The physical and mental effects of coping with discrimination
Project VOICE: Men of Color Engagement Initiative Mission Through a lens of empowerment, project-based learning and dialogue, Project VOICE uses a broad based approach to developing successful habits of scholarship, adjusting to college life, fostering intellectual curiosity and demonstrating ethical student citizenship within and beyond the campus community. Project VOICE: Men of Color Engagement Initiative Goals
Improve overall student experience Influence campus engagement and involvement Provide outlet to articulate observations, hopes, fears, etc concerning campus and social world around them; Peer-to-peer mentorship Local outreach
Activities FELLOWship Dinners Brothers & Bagels On Point (monthly podcast) Information table at Womens Center Take Back the Night event Spring football game field trip Men of color dinner and discussion event
Project VOICE: Men of Color Engagement Initiative Critical Race Theory and Project VOICE Provides a new narrative and a powerful means People as counterspace Dialogue of Proactive vs. Reactive Ally development as common bond Our men are tired Discussion
Does a new narrative reverse the old narrative? Men of Color as Muted Group? Shared accountability for Underrepresented populations Reviving this population Does Project VOICE fix racism? REFERENCES Astin, A. W. (1999). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Development, 40(5), 518-529.
Baker, C. N. (2008). Under-represented college students and extracurricular involvement: The effects of various student organizations on academic performance. Social Psychology Education, 11, 273-298. Davalos, D. B., Chavez, E. L., & Guardiola, R. J. (1999). The effects of extracurricular activity, ethnic identication, and perception of school on student dropout rates. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21, 6177.
Feagin, J. R., Vera, H., & Imani, N. (1996). The agony of education: Black students at white colleges and universities. New York: Routledge. Fischer, M. J. (2007). Settling into campus life: Differences by Race/Ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 78, 125161. Harris, F. (2008). Deconstructing masculinity: A qualitative study of college men's masculine conceptualizations and gender performance. NASPA Journal, 45(4), 453-474.
Harris, F., & Struve, L. (2009). Gents, jerks, and jocks: What male students learn about masculinity n college. About Campus, 14(3), 2-9. Hurtado, S. (1992). The campus racial climate: Contexts of conflict. Journal of Higher Education, 63, 539569. REFERENCES Johnson, A. (2001). The gender knot: Unlocking our patriarchal legacy.
Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. Kuh, G. D., Schuh, J. H., Whitt, E. J., and Associates (1991). Involving Colleges: Encouraging Student Learning and Personal Development Through Out-ofClass Experiences, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Laker, J. A. (2011). Inviting and inspiring men to learn: Gendered pedagogical considerations for undergraduate teaching and learning environments. In J. A. Laker & T. Davis (Eds.), Masculinities in higher education: Theoretical and practical considerations. New York, NY: Routledge.
Nagasawa, R., & Wong, P. (1999). A theory of minority students survival in college. Sociological Inquiry, 69, 7690. National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). (2009). Retrieved from http://nsse.iub.edu/ 2009_Institutional_Report/pdf/ 2009%20Grand%20Means%20Class%20and%20Gender.pdf
Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research (Vol. 2). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. REFERENCES Smith, S., & Moore, M. (2002). Expectations of campus racial climate and social adjustment among african american college students. In: W. Allen, M. Spencer, & C. OConner (Eds.), African American education: Race community, inequality,
and achievement (pp. 93118). NY: Elsever Science Ltd. Weaver-Hightower, M. B. (2010). Where the guys are: Males in higher education. Change, 29-35. References Jackson, J.F.L., & Daniels, B.D. (2004). Summary Report: Race, Gender, Length of Employment and NASPA IV East: A Regional Perspective within a National Context , Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin System, The Institute on Race and Ethnicity. Jackson, J.F.L. (2003). Engagement, Retention, and Advancement for Administrators of Color in Higher and Postsecondary Education: A Summary Report, Madison, Wisconsin, University
of Wisconsin System, The Institute on Race and Ethnicity. Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (2011). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Press. Harper, S. R. (2006a). Black male students at public universities in the U.S.: Status, trends and implications for policy and practice. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. Harper, S. R. (2012). Black male student success in higher education: A report from the National Black Male College Achievement Study. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania , Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education. Pittman, E (2014). Helping young Black, Latino men succeed through support and challenging stereotypes. Diversity Issues in Higher Education . Retrieved from http://diverseeducation.com/article/61114. Saenz, V. B., & Ponjuan, L. (2011). Men of color: Ensuring the academic success of Latino males in higher education. Washington, DC: The Institute for Higher Education Policy.
Stewart, P. (2014). Too many women or not enough men? Diversity Issues in Higher Education, 31 (3), pp 46-48.
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