INTRO TO ANIMALS What is an animal?

Eukaryotic cells Multicellular Organized tissues, organs Consumershave to eat! Move

Nine Life Processes

Movement Support

Protection Response (Nervous System) Reproduction Respiration Circulation Nutrition (Eating/Digestive Features) Excretion

Evolutionary Tree? Invertebrates Chapter 12 What is an invertebrate?

No backbone Has an internal or external skeleton made of protein, glass, limestone, water (not bone!) Usually small Over 95% of animals are invertebrates! SPONGES & JELLYFISH

Porifera: Sponges

Sessile: permanently planted Filter feeder: filters its food as water passes through it Pores: small openings for water to enter/exit Flagella line the body cavity and whip water into a current Skeletons are made of spongy proteins or spicules (spikes made of rocklike material)

Grow around the cavity Phylum Porifera Filter Feeder Catch algae or particles that flow through the body

cavity with the current. Aided by flagella on collar cells that whip the water through. Cnidaria: Jellyfish & Hydra

Shaped in tubular (hydra) or medusa (jellyfish) shapes Have radial symmetry Some are sessile, but most move through contraction of water in and out of its body cavity (NOT by tentacles) Symmetry

Jellyfish Phylum Cnidaria Along with Portuguese-man-of-war, corals, sea anemones Structure & Movement Jellyfish have hydrostatic skeletons (water) Drift with the current, no coordinated movement Digestion

Has a mouth that leads to a stomach called the gastrovascular cavity Enzymes digest the material which then moves into cells Has network of nerves and muscle fibers but no brain Has nematocysts (stinging cells) in their tentacles for defense and to paralyze its food Nematocyst

WORMS, WORMS, WORMS Yes, there are three phyla of them! Worms Bilateral symmetry

Has a basic nervous system that responds to stimulus through sensory receptors Has a digestive system with intestines, excretory tubes and pores Breathes through its skin Can reproduce sexually or asexually through splitting; regeneration

Flatworms Phlyum Platyhelmithesflat Most are parasitic, live in hosts Has a simple nervous system with head, brain, and nerve throughout the body that responds to touch, chemicals, light Planaria is the most common examplethe cross-eyed

worm with eyespots Tapeworms Planaria Diagram Regeneration

Not all are gross! Roundworms Phylum Nematoda--round Almost all are parasitic and live in animals intestines, but can travel to bloodstream, other parts of the animal by thrashing its muscles

Is killed with thorough cooking (no pink) Trichinosis was a problem in pig/pork for many years but has been almost entirely eliminated from the USA by tightening standards More likely in wild animalsbear, rabbit, etc. Segmented worms

Phylum Annelida segmented skin pattern Also segmented in its organs and tissues inside! Movement is by a series of complex muscle movements and contractions which pull the worm Has a more complex nervous system with receptors in its skin and down its tailresponds to light, touch, temperature, chemicals

The earthworm is the most common example Leeches, tubeworms, fireworms, sandworms More segmented worms Earthworms Has a pretty standard

digestive system that runs from tip to tail, organs on the way Has a pretty complex circulatory system that is closed. Has arteries that

transport blood away from the heart and veins that pick up blood to carry it back toward the heart. Has blood pressure.

Value of earthworms Swallows the soil and digests it with enzymes Returns nutrients and fertilizer to soil Its paths/burrows loosen the soil so the soil gets oxygenated; more air and water is available for plant roots to pick up Breathes through its skin which is why it rises to the surface after a rainit cannot breathe when it is submerged

Respiration through Skin MOLLUSKS & ECHINODERMS Mollusks

Phylum Mollusca One shelled (snail), Two shelled (clam), no shelled (octopus) Known for their defenses and protections

Snails, slugs, clams, octopuses, squids, oysters Mollusk--Cephalopod An octopus has tentacles with suction disks to capture food Shoots water out of its siphon to move

Soft bodied; can squeeze its body down with muscles Can regenerate lost limbs May have poison or ink Many have camouflage; can change color with fright, anger, or attack Very complex eyes

MolluskBivalves Soft bodied Mantle: Upper layer of skin produces a coiled shell for protection, which grows a layer each year and slowly thicken (like tree rings) Moves using a muscular foot that can poke, bury itself

Eats or drinks through its siphon filter feeder Clams, oysters, mussels Mollusk--Gastropods

May live in water or land Leaves a trail of slime One or no shell

Antennae Radula which holds its teeth Mollusks Echinoderms Phylum

Echinodermata spiny skin Starfish, urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers Extremely tough tissues and muscle

fibers, sometimes scales, plates, or spines Have radial symmetry Starfish

The starfish has a water-vascular system that causes its movement. Tiny tube feet act like suction cups which can pry its food apart. Can eat outside of its body by protruding its stomach.

Starfish: Eating Pushes one of its two stomachs outside its body through its mouth Then into the clams shell which it has pried

open with its feet Then its stomach swallows the soft clam body and begins to digest it before pulling the stomach back in and completing the

digestion process Water-Vascular System

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