Introduction to Theology (401)

Introduction to Theology (401)

Introduction to Theology An Invitation to Theology? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Jesus said to him, Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. Matthew 22:37 Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question Outline

Who are you and why are you here? What is The Theology Program? What is theology? Who is a theologian? How do we do theology every day? What are the different categories of theology? What is the Theological Process? What is epistemology? What is postmodernism? What questions are

postmoderns asking? What is the postmodern view of truth? What is the modern view of truth? What is the Christian view of truth? What truths are relative and what truths are objective?

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. What truths are essential for orthodoxy? How certain are you about your beliefs? What is the essential difference in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism? Why are there so many Protestant denominations? What are the different sources for truth? What are the benefits and deficiencies of each source? How do the different sources interact to form our theology? Does God still speak today? What is the Continuationist view of prophecy? What is the Hard Cessationist

view of prophecy? What is the Soft Cessationist view of prophecy? How do we do theology in our emerging context? Course Outline I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. Introduction to The Theology Program Defining Theology Categories of Theology

Postmodern Epistemology Christian Epistemology Essentials of Theology Traditions of Christian Theology Sources of Theology Does God Still Speak Today? Unity and Diversity Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Defining the Rules of Engagement Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question Who are you and why are you here? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Introduction to the Theology Program Who you are and why you are taking this course? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? Practical Pricilla: Pricilla You are a person who has never seen the practicality in deep theological study. You are here to see if we can change your mind. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program

Who are you and why are you taking this course? 2. Scared Susan: Susan Big words scare you. You dont really think that you are smart enough to be here. You are here this time, but you may not be here the next. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 3. Know-it-all Nick: Nick You already know everything. You are just here to see if we do and to pick up where we leave off.

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 4. Fundamental Fred: Fred You are the God-ordained guardian of orthodoxy. You are here to sit, with arms crossed, and protect. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 5. Want-an-answer Will: Will You have a lot of questions. You

are here not to do theology in community, but to write theology down with a pen and paper. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 6. Traditionalist Teri: Teri You want to learn, but your traditions and preconceived notions bind you. You are here to have your traditions confirmed to be true. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you

taking this course? 7. Confrontational Carl: Carl You are not a believer in Christ or the Bible and have no intention of becoming one. You are here to argue. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 8. Struggling Sam: Sam You are a believer in Christ, but you have a lot of doubts and struggles. You have never had a safe place to express those doubts. You are here to see if this is the place.

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 9. Curious Carla: Carla You are not really sure why you are here, but youre excited to find out. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program We are all real people created by a real God, and we all have real struggles, real questions, and real convictions. We are glad that you are here! Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Question What is The Theology Program? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program The Theology Program is an intense theological studies program, designed for busy people who may never go to seminary but who want deep theological training. While there are many great subjects, biblical and spiritual, that Christians can and need to study, our focus is on seven specific courses of systematic theology. Our desire is to teach people how to think by opening their minds to diverse views, learning from history, wrestling with difficult issues, and graciously engaging an increasingly relativistic and postmodern world.

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Mission: Renewing minds and changing lives by purposefully guiding people through a study of historic and biblical Christian theology. Goal: Our goal is not so much to teach good theology, as important as that is, but to teach people to think. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Introduction to The Theology Program What makes The Theology Program different? 1. Intensity in studies 2. Irenic theology 3. Intentional program design 4. Comprehensive coverage 5. Doing theology in community Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Intensity in Studies The Church must have an avenue of intense, interactive Christian education through a program which gives people an opportunity to learn at a level that other venues cannot provide. TTP endeavors to be this avenue. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Intensity in Studies Sermon Low Commitment Fellowship/ Sunday School Interactive Classroom High Commitment Intensity in Studies Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School Low Expectations

Interactive Classroom High Expectations Attendance Assigned readings Books Papers Case studies Memorization of Scripture Grades Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Intensity in Studies Fellowship/ Sunday School Sermon Devotional (Brings encouragement for the week)

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Interactive Classroom Foundational (Builds theology for a lifetime) Intensity in Studies Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School Short-term life change Interactive Classroom Long-term life change Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Intensity in Studies Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School Exhortation Interactive Classroom Education Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Intensity in Studies Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School

Interactive Classroom The education program of the Church needs to include all of these in balance. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Irenic Theology Key Terms Irenic Theology: Theology that is done peaceably, accurately representing all views, even when you oppose them. Polemic Theology: Theology that is done in a warlike manner inside the Church, prophetically speaking against those with whom there is disagreement. Apologetic Theology: Theology that is done to

defend the faith against those who oppose outside the church. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Irenic Theology Ireni c Peace War Polemic Defense Apologeti c Intentional Program Design Comprehensive Coverage

In the courses, we will address all the relevant major issues, current and historic, of which we think people need to be aware. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Doing Theology in a Community We believe that truth is not found in Spirit-illuminated individuals, but in a community of Spirit-illuminated individuals. Therefore, we believe that the Body of Christ, both alive and dead, must come together to understand theology, shaping it from many perspectives and differing experiences. This is doing theology in a community. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. The T stands for Theology in The Theology

Program. Notice how the draft is incomplete and erased at places. This illustrates how our theology is never finished in this life, but is always undergoing change and development. The tablet upon which we construct our theology is broken. This represents an imperfect people, broken by sin, doing our best to understand God in our state of imperfection. Notice how the draft goes outside the lines at times. This represents how our theology, while having a great respect for tradition, must break with tradition at times. This is the Reformers principle of semper reformanda (always reforming). The column represents a pillar, communicating that our theology creates a strong

foundation upon which our life, purpose, and actions exist. Discussion Groups Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What does it mean to do theology? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is theology? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions of Theology Epistemology Epistemology

Experience Denominations Eastern Eastern Orthodox Orthodox Pluralism Protestant Cessationism Relativism Rationalism Truth Roman Roman Catholic Catholic

Exclusivis Exclusivis m m Special SpecialRevelation Revelation Modernism Prophecy Protestant Theology Postmodernism Cessationism Defining Theology What is Theology? Write a one or two sentence definition of theology: Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Defining Theology The The study study or or science science of of God. God. Millard Erickson Millard Erickson Christian Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2001), 22 Christian Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2001), 22 Rational Rational discussion discussion respecting

respecting the the deity. deity. Augustine Augustine The The Science Science of of God God and and of of the the relations relations between between God God and and the

the universe. universe. A. A. H. H. Strong Strong Thinking Thinking about about God God and and expressing expressing those those thoughts thoughts in in some some way.

way. Charles Charles Ryrie Ryrie Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Basic BasicTheology Theology(Wheaton, (Wheaton,IL: IL:1986), 1986),99 Defining Theology The The science science of of God God or or of of religion;

religion; the the science science which which treats treats of of the the existence, existence, character, character, and and attributes attributes of of God, God, his his laws laws and and government, government, the the doctrines doctrines

we we are are to to believe, believe, and and the the duties duties we we are are to to practice; practice; divinity; divinity; (as (as more more commonly commonly understood) understood) the the knowledge knowledge derivable

derivable from from the the Scriptures, Scriptures, the the systematic systematic exhibition exhibition of of revealed revealed truth, truth, the the science science of of Christian Christian faith faith and and life. life. Websters Websters Dictionary

Dictionary Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question Who is a theologian? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Who is a theologian? Anyone who has asked the ultimate questions of life: Why am I here? What is life? What happens after death? What is the difference between right and wrong? Why is there something instead of nothing? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology

The The question question is is not, not, Who Who is is aa theologian? theologian? but but What What kind kind of of theologian theologian am am II going going to to be? be? Are Are you

you going going to to be be aa good good theologian theologian or or aa bad bad theologian? theologian? This This is is aa more more accurate accurate question question because, because, as as one one writer writer put

put it, it, not not all all theologies theologies are are equal. equal. Source Source unknown unknown Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology We We live live in in what what may may be be the

the most most anti-intellectual anti-intellectual period period in in the the history history of of Western Western civilization. civilization. .. .. We We must must have have passionindeed passionindeed hearts hearts on on fire fire for

for the the things things of of God. God. But But that that passion passion must must resist resist with with intensity intensity the the anti-intellectual anti-intellectual spirit spirit of of the the world. world. R.

R. C. C. Sproul Sproul Burning Hearts Are Not Nourished by Empty Heads, Christianity Today 26 (Sept. 3, 1982), 100 Burning Hearts Are Not Nourished by Empty Heads, Christianity Today 26 (Sept. 3, 1982), 100 Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology There are basically six arenas in which we can do theology: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tabloid Theology Folk Theology Lay Theology

Ministerial Theology Professional Theology Academic Theology Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Tabloid Folk Lay Ministerial Professional Academic Defining theology

Describe this chart in relation to practicing medicine Tabloid Folk Lay Ministerial Professional Academic Defining Theology Now describe this chart in relation to practicing theology Tabloid Folk

Lay Ministerial Professional Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Academic Defining Theology Tabloid Theologian: One who constructs his or her theology based upon nave hearsay information that has no basis in fact and very little, if any, evidence to be believed. Many times people are Tabloid theologians because of the theologys appearance of

originality. As well, it can be cutting edge in many peoples minds. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What are some examples of Tabloid theology? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Tabloid theology examples Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Hitchhiking angel Growing fire hose I Saw Heaven

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Folk Theologian: One who uncritically and unreflectively constructs his or her theology according to traditions and religious folklore. The Folk theologian is often very dogmatic about his or her beliefs. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What are some examples of Folk theology? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Defining Theology Folk theology examples: Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Folk theology examples: Views of Heaven (clouds, harps) Ghosts Angels wings Good works salvation All people are good at heart Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Defining Theology Folk theology examples: Peters gate Devils pitchfork God helps those who help themselves Demon possession People who commit suicide automatically go to Hell When you die there will be a screen in heaven which shows to the world all the bad things you have done Name-it-claim-it, health-and-wealth gospel

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Why do you think that it is so hard for Folk theologians to learn? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Lay Theologian: A layperson who constructs his or her theology and who, unlike the folk and tabloid theologian, is . . . (1) more reflective upon learned theological concepts (2) likely to formulate a system of beliefs which distinguishes between essential and nonessential doctrine

(3) more critical of unfounded traditions (4) willing to use study tools Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Ministerial Theologian: A layperson who constructs his or her theology and who, unlike the lay theologian is . . . (1) educated in theological methodology (2) able to use study tools and resources at a more effective level (3) able to openly critique personal theology against competing models (4) intent on devoting more time to reflection so that

theological integration can take place Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Professional Theologian: One who constructs his or her theology and makes a living doing so. They usually. . . (1) are didactically purposed toward lay and pastoral theologians (2) conduct practical original research (3) critically evaluate common theological trends and folk theology. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology

Professional theologians are often accused of quenching the Spirit. Why do you think they receive this accusation? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Academic Theologian: A professional theologian who constructs his theology with an overly speculative and critical spirit. His dialogue can usually come only with other theologians. It is often called Ivory Tower theology. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology

What are some examples of Academic theology? Why do you think someone would want to be an Academic theologian? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Skeptical Nave Critical Gates permanently locked Sensational Gates wide open Tabloid Folk

Lay Ministerial Professional Academic Defining Theology Acceptable range Tabloid Folk Lay Ministerial Professional Academic

Defining Theology Theology is for everyone. Theology is for everyone. Indeed, Indeed, everyone everyone needs needs to to be be aa theologian. theologian. In In reality, reality, everyone everyone is is aa theologianof theologianof one one sort sort or

or another. another. And And therein therein lies lies the the problem. problem. There There is is nothing nothing wrong wrong with with being being an an amateur amateur theologian theologian or or aa professional professional theologian,

theologian, but but there there is is everything everything wrong wrong with with being being an an ignorant ignorant or or sloppy sloppy theologian. theologian. Charles Charles Ryrie Ryrie Basic BasicTheology Theology(Wheaton,

(Wheaton,IL: IL:1986), 1986),9.9. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology How do we do theology every day? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology How do we do theology every day? In other words, how does our theology influence our daily routine? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. When we When we When we When we When we When we When we children. think about God. share the Gospel. interpret the Bible. get sick. defend the faith. plan for the future.

choose schooling for our Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology 8. When we vote. 9. When we attempt to deal with sin in our lives. 10.When we decide on who we marry. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What is theology? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology credo ut intelligam faith seeking understanding

This This is is aa Latin Latin phrase phrase coined coined by by Anselm Anselm of of Canterbury Canterbury (1033-1109) (1033-1109) meaning meaning faith faith seeking seeking understanding. understanding. This This is is one one of of the the earliest

earliest definitions definitions of of theology. theology. ItIt starts starts with with the the assumption assumption that that we we are are believers believers and, and, as as such, such, we we are are seeking seeking to to understand

understand our our beliefs beliefs better. better. Discussion Groups Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What are the different categories of theology? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. Systematic Biblical Historical Philosophical Creedal/Dogmatic Apologetic Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Systematic Theology Prolegomena: Literally means things which are spoken beforehand. Deals with the foundational issues of theology such as theological methodology, sources, and

reasons for the study of theology. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Bibliology: The study of the nature, transmission, canonization, and purpose of Scripture. Theology Proper: The study of Gods existence, nature, and attributes. Sometimes called Trinitarianism. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Christology: The study of the person and work of Christ. Pneumatology: The study of the person and

work of the Holy Spirit. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Anthropology: The study of the purpose and nature of humanity, both in its pre-fall and post-fall state. Hamartiology: The study of the nature, origin, and effects of sin on all creation. Angelology: The study of the nature and works of demons and angels. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Categories of Theology Soteriology: The study of salvation. Ecclesiology: The study of the nature of the Church. Eschatology: The study of the end times. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Biblical Restricts the formulation of theology only to the Scripture. Systematic Formulates theology from all sources of theology, including Scripture. Sometimes will examine the

individual parts of Scripture in order to formulate a particular theology that is restricted to a certain time period and a particular people (e.g., Premosaic theology). Correlates the entirety of Scripture to formulate a general theology for all time and for all people. Sometimes examines the theology of a certain author (e.g.,, John or Paul). Correlates information on a doctrine by examining the theology of all the authors. Categories of Theology Historical Restricts the formulation of

theology only to the history of the Church. Sometimes will examine the individual periods of Church history in order to formulate a particular theology that is restricted to a certain time period (e.g.,, Patristic, Medieval, Reformation). Systematic Formulates theology from all sources of theology. Correlates the all of Church history to formulate a general theology for all time and for all people. Categories of Theology Philosophical

Systematic Restricts the formulation of theology only to that which can be ascertained by reason. Formulates theology from all sources of theology. Sometimes will examine the individual periods of philosophical history in order to formulate a particular theology that is restricted to a certain time period (e.g.,, enlightenment, modern, postmodern). Correlates the all of philosophical history to formulate a general

theology for all time and for all people. Categories of Theology Creedal Systematic Restricts the formulation of theology only to that of a particular religious institution or denomination. Formulates theology from all sources of theology including the creedal statement of many institutions and denominations.

Categories of Theology Apologetic Systematic Formulates theology for the purpose of explaining and defending the faith to those outside the faith. Formulates theology for the purpose of creating a comprehensive and coherent understanding of various doctrines.

Question What is the Theological Process? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Truth Extract timeless principles 2 Theological Statement What is the timeless truth taught? . What did it mean then?

Historical interpretation Grammatical interpretation Contextual interpretation Literary Interpretation Ancient Audience 1 Exegetical Statement Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time bound Audience Contextualize Principles for today Analogy of Scripture .

3 Homiletical Statement . How does it apply to us? Systematic Theology Ancient Audience Biblical Hermeneutics Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Application Ancient Audience

? Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Liberal Liberal Theology Theology Ancient Audience ? Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ? Ancient Audience

Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Hypocritical Hypocritical Folk Folk Theology Theology ? Ancient Audience Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Ancient Audience Contemporary Audience

Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ? Subjective Subjective Theology Theology Ancient Audience Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ? Ancient Audience ?

Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ? Irrelevant Irrelevant Theology Theology Ancient Audience ? Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ?

? Ancient Audience Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ? Folk Folk Theology Theology ? Ancient Audience Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience

? ? Ancient Audience ? Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Short-circuit Short-circuit Theology Theology ? Ancient Audience ?

Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ? Ancient Audience ? Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ? Eisegetical Eisegetical Theology Theology ?

Ancient Audience ? Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ? ? Ancient Audience ? Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ?

Exegetical Exegetical Theology Theology ? Ancient Audience ? Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience ?

Historical interpretation Grammatical interpretation Contextual interpretation Literary Interpretation Ancient Audience 1. Exegetical Statement What did it mean then? Contemporary Audience Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contextualize Principles for today Analogy of Scripture Theology

3. Homiletical Statement How does it apply to us? Categories of Theology Scripture Biblical Theology Historical Theology Philosophical Theology Systematic Theology Apologetic Theology Creedal/Dogmatic Theology Postmodern Epistemology Understanding Our Changing Culture Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Postmodern Epistemology What is Epistemology? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology The The theory theory or or science science of of the the method method or or grounds grounds of of knowledge.

knowledge. Websters Websters Dictionary Dictionary Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology The branch branch of of The philosophy that that is is philosophy concerned with with the the

concerned theory of of knowledge. knowledge. It It theory is an an inquiry inquiry into into the the is nature and and source source of of nature knowledge, the the bounds bounds knowledge, of knowledge,

knowledge, and and the the of justification of of claims claims to to justification knowledge. knowledge. Paul Feinberg Feinberg Paul WalterA.A.Elwell Elwelled., ed.,Epistemology EpistemologyininThe TheEvangelical EvangelicalDictionary DictionaryofofTheology Theology

Walter (GrandRapids, Rapids,MI: MI:Baker, Baker,2001), 2001),382. 382. (Grand Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Key Terms Relativism: The belief that all truth is relative, being determined by some group. Subjectivism: The belief that all truth is subjective, being defined by the perspective of the individual. Skepticism: The belief that truth cannot be known with certainty. Perspectivism: The belief that truth is found in the

combined perspectives of many. Pragmatism: The belief that truth is ultimately defined by that which works to accomplish the best outcome. The end justifies the means. Objectivism: The belief that truth is an objective reality that exist whether someone believes it or not. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Which best describes our culture today? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Relativism

Subjectivism Skepticism Perspectivalism Pragmatism Objectivism Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Which is true? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Relativism Subjectivism Skepticism Perspectivalism Pragmatism

Objectivism Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is Postmodernism? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Christians Christians today today cannot cannot work work with with the the same same assumptions assumptions that that

we we did did just just 20 20 years years ago. ago. At At that that time, time, people people would would join join you you in in your your search search for for absolute absolute truth. truth. It

It is is different different now. now. Today, Today, before before we we begin begin to to lead lead people people to to the the truth truth of of Jesus Jesus Christ, Christ, we we may may have

have to to lead lead them them to to the the truth truth of of truth. truth. Common Common ground ground must must be be created created before before the the Gospel Gospel can can be be

proclaimed proclaimed Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Apologetically, the question which Apologetically, the question which arises arises in in the the postmodern postmodern context context is is the the following. following. How How can can Christianitys Christianitys claims

claims to to truth truth be be taken taken seriously, seriously, when when there there are are so so many many rival rival alternatives, alternatives, and and when when truth truth itself itself has has become become aa devalued

devalued notion? notion? No-one No-one can can lay lay claim claim to to possession possession of of truth. truth. It It is is all all aa question question of of perspective. perspective. The The conclusion conclusion of of this

this line line of of thought thought is is as as simple simple as as it it is is devastating: devastating: the the truth truth is is that that there there is is no no truth truth Alister

Alister McGrath McGrath Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. A Passion for Truth (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 1996), 188 Postmodern Epistemology A Conversation Between Protagoras and Socrates (4th Century B.C.) Protagoras: Truth is relative. It is only a matter of opinion. Socrates: You mean that truth is mere subjective opinion? Protagoras: Exactly. What is true for you is true for you, and what is true for me is true for me. Truth is subjective. Socrates: Do you really mean that? That my opinion is true by virtue of its being my opinion?

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Protagoras: Indeed I do. Socrates: My opinion is: Truth is absolute, not opinion, and that you, Mr. Protagoras, are absolutely in error. Since this is my opinion, you must grant that it is true according to your philosophy. Protagoras: You are quite correct, Socrates. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Self-defeating Statements I cannot speak a word in English. My wife has never been married. We cannot know anything about God.

There is no such thing as truth. Truth cannot be known with Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology A short history of western civilization Three periods: 1. Premodern (400-1600 A.D.) 2. Modern (1600-1900 A.D.) 3. Postmodern (1960-present) Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Premodern 400 Modern 1600

Postmodern 1960 Postmodern Epistemology Back Stage Stage of of Truth Truth Front Postmodern Epistemology Modern Modern Transiti on 1960-?

Postmodern Postmodern Postmodern Epistemology Modern Generation Preboomers Boomers 53% 53% Postmodern Generation Busters (Gen X) 57% 57% Bridgers (Gen Y) Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Modernism

Intellectual Reason Optimism Hope for the future Objectivism Exclusivism Science method Man is evolving

Postmodernism Anti-intellectual Feeling Pessimism Despair for the present Subjectivism/relativism Pluralism/inclusivism Distrust in science Man is devolving Postmodern Epistemology The Ideal Modern Man: Mr. Spock Spock is always logical and objective. Never acts upon feeling, because that would be illogical.

Physical laws simply cannot be ignored. Existence cannot be without them. Pain is a thing of the mind. The mind can be controlled. Postmodern Epistemology The Ideal Modern Man Mocked: Data Data is the perfect modern human. Despite his perfection, Data ... 1. Wants to be human.

2. Rebels against logic. 3. Attempts to develop emotions Postmodern Epistemology Premodern: Premodern Theres balls and theres strikes, and I call them as they are. Modern: Modern Theres balls and theres strikes, and I call them as I see them. Postmodern: Postmodern They aint nothing til I call em. Postmodern Epistemology In In Postmodernism,

Postmodernism, there there is is no no objective, objective, universal universal truth; truth; there there is is only only the the perspective perspective of of the the group. group. .. .. .. In In postmodernism, postmodernism, all all viewpoints,

viewpoints, all all lifestyles, lifestyles, all all beliefs beliefs and and behaviors behaviors are are regarded regarded as as equally equally valid. valid. .. .. .. Tolerance Tolerance has has become become so so important important that that no

no exception exception is is tolerated. tolerated. Charles Charles Colson Colson How HowNow NowShall ShallWe WeLive? Live?(Wheaton, (Wheaton,IL: IL:Tyndale, Tyndale,1999), 1999),23 23 Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Christian Epistemology Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What questions are postmoderns asking? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Modernist Objections to Christianity 1. What about all the contradictions? 2. God is just a crutch. Religion was invented by man. 3. Jesus was just a man. 4. The Bible we have today is not the same as when it was written 2000 years ago. 5. I dont believe in what I cant see. 6. Evolution has proven Christianity to be wrong.

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology 7. The Bible is a myth full of fairy tales. 8. How did Noah get all of the animals on the Ark? 9. There are no such thing as miracles. 10.Do you really believe in the story of Adam and Eve? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Postmodernist Objections to Christianity 1. If God exists, why is there evil? 2. The Inquisition and the Crusades show that Christianity is oppressive. 3. Christianity is a way to God but not the only way. 4. Christianity is arrogant and exclusive.

5. How do you know that your Bible is better than other religious writings? 6. Why does God allow bad things to happen to good people? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology 7. What about those who have never heard? 8. The church is full of hypocrites. 9. Why would God send anyone to Hell? 10.The God of the OT is cruel, partial, and unjust. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Modernist Facts Rationality

Evidence Postmoderni st Fairness Relationships Emotion Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the modern view of truth? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Correspondence view of truth: (1) Truth is an objective reality that exists whether someone believes it or not, (2) and that objective reality is

grounded in nature. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology True statements are those which correspond to that objective reality. False statements are those which do not correspond to that objective reality. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Law of non-contradiction applies A -A at the same time and in the same relationship.

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Epistemology Key Key Motto Motto Man Man can can and and will will know know all all truth. truth. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the postmodern view of truth?

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Relative view of truth: (1) Truth is a perspective reality that exists in the perspective of the individual or group, (2) and that perspective reality is grounded in time. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Law of non-contradiction does not apply A = -A at the same time and in the same relationship. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Christian Epistemology Key Key Motto Motto The The truth truth cannot cannot be be known. known. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Religious Spin on Postmodern Epistemology Universalism: The belief that all people, good or bad, will eventually make it to Heaven. Pluralism:

The belief that there are many ways to God that are equally valid. Syncretism: The assimilation of differing beliefs and practices. Inclusivism: The belief that salvation is only through Christ, but Christ may be revealed in other religions. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Vatican II (1962-1965) and inclusivism But the plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the creator. In the first place among these there are the Moslems, whom professing to hold the faith of Abraham, along with us adore the one and merciful god, who on the last day will judge mankind. Those also can attain

salvation who through no fault of their own do not know the gospel of Christ or his church, yet sincerely seek god and, moved by grace, strive by their deeds to do his will as it is known to them through the dictates of conscience. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Christian view truth? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Correspondence view of truth: (1) Truth is an objective reality that exists whether someone believes it or not, (2) and that objective reality is grounded in an eternal God.

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology The law of non-contradiction is a foundational necessity to all truth. God cannot even violate this principle since it is a logical impossibility. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Key Key Motto Motto The The secret secret things things belong belong to to

the the Lord Lord our our God, God, but but the the things things revealed revealed belong belong to to us us and and to to our our sons sons forever, forever, that that we we may

may observe observe all all the the words words of of this this law law (Deut. (Deut. 29:29). 29:29). Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Christian truth must have a balance between the things revealed and mystery (secret things). Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Christian Epistemology Apophadic Theology: Lit. negative theology. Apophadic Theology emphasizes mystery. Often called the way of negation (via negativa) or negative theology, apophadic theology sees God, and much of theology, as beyond our understanding and, therefore, beyond defining through positive assertations. Finite people cannot say what the infinite God is but only what He is not. God is uncreated, immutable, infinite, immortal. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Cataphatic Theology:Lit. affirmative theology.

Cataphatic Theology emphasizes revelation. Often called positive theology, cataphatic theology seeks to understand God in positive terms, understanding that God communicates to us through language and concepts that are analogous to who and what He truly is (analogy of language). Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Cataphatic Theology Apophatic Theology

things revealed secret things Modernism West Rationalists Roman Catholic/Protestants Postmodernism East Mystics Eastern Orthodox Responsible theology Christian Epistemology Objectivism Cataphati

c Theology Soft Skepticism Perspicu ity Prov. 23:23 Apophatic Theology Perspectivis m Prov. Christian Epistemology Objectivism Prov. 23:23 Perspicu

ity You You who who are are naive, naive, discern discern wisdom! wisdom! And And you you fools, fools, understand understand discernment! discernment! Cataphati c Theology

Soft Skepticism Apophatic Theology Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Perspectivis m Prov. Christian Epistemology Objectivism Prov. 23:23 The The way way of of aa fool fool

Soft Skepticism Perspicu ity Cataphati c Theology is is right right in in his his own own opinion, opinion, but but the the one one who

who listens listens to to advice advice Apophatic is is wise. wise. Theology Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Perspectivis m Prov. Christian Epistemology Objectivism Prov. 23:23 Cataphati c Theology

Soft Skepticism Perspicu ity Acquire Acquire truth truth and and do do not not sell sell it it .. .. . . Apophatic Theology Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Perspectivis m Prov. Defining Essentials and Non-essentials Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What truths are relative and what truths are objective? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-Essentials Discussion of paper Representing Christ to a Postmodern World Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Essentials and Non-essentials Quadrant of Objectivity Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. True Relativity True Objectivity True Relativity Drinking a Drinking a glass glassofof wine/beer wine/beer Going Goingtoto the the

movies movies Situation Situation al al Relativity Relativity Wearing Wearing aahead head covering covering Eating Eating meat meat sacrificed sacrificed

totoidols idols Home Home schooling schooling Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. True Objectivity True Relativity Drinking a Drinking a glass glassofof wine/beer wine/beer Going Goingtoto

the the movies movies Situation Situation al al Relativity Relativity Wearing Wearing aahead head covering covering Home Home schooling schooling

Eating Eating meat meat sacrificed sacrificed totoidols idols Best kind of Best kind of food food Coke Cokeoror Pepsi Pepsi Autonomo Autonomo

us us Relativity Relativity Church Church music music Temperature Temperature ofofaaroom room(hot (hot ororcold) cold) Best Bestsong song Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

True Objectivity True Relativity True Objectivity Drinking a Drinking a glass glassofof wine/beer wine/beer Going Goingtoto the the movies movies Situation

Situation al al Relativity Relativity Wearing Wearing aahead head covering covering Home Home schooling schooling Eating Eating meat meat sacrificed

sacrificed totoidols idols Best kind of Best kind of food food Coke Cokeoror Pepsi Pepsi Autonomo Autonomo us us Relativity Relativity Church Church

music music Temperature Temperature ofofaaroom room(hot (hot ororcold) cold) Best Bestsong song Views Viewsofof Predestinatio Predestinatio nn Date

Dateofof Christs Christs coming coming Young Young earth/Old earth/Old earth earth Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. NonNonEssential Essential Objectivity Objectivity Continuation Continuation ofoftongues

tongues Canon Canonofof Scripture Scripture True Relativity True Objectivity Drinking a Drinking a glass glassofof wine/beer wine/beer Going Goingtoto the the

movies movies Situation Situation al al Relativity Relativity Wearing Wearing aahead head covering covering Essential Essential Objectivit Objectivit yy Home

Home schooling schooling Eating Eating meat meat sacrificed sacrificed totoidols idols Best kind of Best kind of food food Coke Cokeoror Pepsi Pepsi

Autonomo Autonomo us us Relativity Relativity Church Church music music Temperature Temperature ofofaaroom room(hot (hot ororcold) cold) Best Bestsong

song Views Viewsofof Predestinatio Predestinatio nn Date Dateofof Christs Christs coming coming Young Young earth/Old earth/Old earth earth

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. NonNonEssential Essential Objectivity Objectivity Continuation Continuation ofoftongues tongues Canon Canonofof Scripture Scripture True Relativity True Objectivity Drinking a Drinking a

glass glassofof wine/beer wine/beer Going Goingtoto the the movies movies Existence Existenceofof God God Situation Situation al al Relativity

Relativity Wearing Wearing aahead head covering covering Essential Essential Objectivit Objectivit yy Home Home schooling schooling Eating Eating meat meat

sacrificed sacrificed totoidols idols Best kind of Best kind of food food Coke Cokeoror Pepsi Pepsi Autonomo Autonomo us us Relativity Relativity Church

Church music music Temperature Temperature ofofaaroom room(hot (hot ororcold) cold) Best Bestsong song Views Viewsofof Predestinatio Predestinatio nn

Date Dateofof Christs Christs coming coming Young Young earth/Old earth/Old earth earth Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. NonNonEssential Essential Objectivity Objectivity Continuation Continuation

ofoftongues tongues Canon Canonofof Scripture Scripture True Relativity Drinking a Drinking a glass glassofof wine/beer wine/beer Going Goingtoto the the movies movies

True Objectivity Situation Situation al al Relativity Relativity Wearing Wearing aahead head covering covering Essential Essential Objectivit Objectivit yy Home

Home schooling schooling Eating Eating meat meat sacrificed sacrificed totoidols idols Best kind of Best kind of food food Coke Cokeoror Pepsi Pepsi

Autonomo Autonomo us us Relativity Relativity Church Church music music Temperature Temperature ofofaaroom room(hot (hot ororcold) cold) Existence Existenceofof

God God Christs Christs deity deity Best Bestsong song Views Viewsofof Predestinatio Predestinatio nn Date Dateofof Christs Christs

coming coming Young Young earth/Old earth/Old earth earth Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. NonNonEssential Essential Objectivity Objectivity Continuation Continuation ofoftongues tongues Canon

Canonofof Scripture Scripture True Relativity Drinking a Drinking a glass glassofof wine/beer wine/beer Going Goingtoto the the movies movies True Objectivity Situation

Situation al al Relativity Relativity Wearing Wearing aahead head covering covering Eating Eating meat meat sacrificed sacrificed totoidols idols Coke

Cokeoror Pepsi Pepsi Essential Essential Objectivit Objectivit yy Home Home schooling schooling Faith Faith alone alone Best kind of Best kind of food

food Date Dateofof Christs Christs coming coming Autonomo Autonomo us us Relativity Relativity Church Church music music Temperature Temperature

ofofaaroom room(hot (hot ororcold) cold) Existence Existenceofof God God Christs Christs deity deity Best Bestsong song Young Young

earth/Old earth/Old earth earth Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Views Viewsofof Predestinatio Predestinatio nn NonNonEssential Essential Objectivity Objectivity Continuation Continuation ofoftongues tongues

Canon Canonofof Scripture Scripture True Relativity Drinking a Drinking a glass glassofof wine/beer wine/beer Going Goingtoto the the movies movies True Objectivity

Situation Situation al al Relativity Relativity Wearing Wearing aahead head covering covering Eating Eating meat meat sacrificed sacrificed totoidols idols

Coke Cokeoror Pepsi Pepsi Essential Essential Objectivit Objectivit yy Home Home schooling schooling Faith Faith alone alone Best kind of Best kind of

food food Date Dateofof Christs Christs coming coming Autonomo Autonomo us us Relativity Relativity Church Church music music Temperature

Temperature ofofaaroom room(hot (hot ororcold) cold) Existence Existenceofof God God Christs Christs deity deity Best Bestsong song Young

Young earth/Old earth/Old earth earth Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Death, Death, burial, burial,and and resurrection resurrection ofofChrist Christ Views Viewsofof Predestinatio Predestinatio

nn NonNonEssential Essential Objectivity Objectivity Continuation Continuation ofoftongues tongues Canon Canonofof Scripture Scripture True Relativity Drinking a Drinking a glass glassofof wine/beer

wine/beer Going Goingtoto the the movies movies True Objectivity Situation Situation al al Relativity Relativity Wearing Wearing aahead head covering

covering Eating Eating meat meat sacrificed sacrificed totoidols idols Coke Cokeoror Pepsi Pepsi Essential Essential Objectivit Objectivit yy Home

Home schooling schooling Faith Faith alone alone Best kind of Best kind of food food Date Dateofof Christs Christs coming coming Autonomo

Autonomo us us Relativity Relativity Church Church music music Temperature Temperature ofofaaroom room(hot (hot ororcold) cold) Existence Existenceofof God God

Christs Christs deity deity Best Bestsong song Young Young earth/Old earth/Old earth earth Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Death, Death, burial,

burial,and and resurrection resurrection ofofChrist Christ The The atonemen atonemen tt Views Viewsofof Predestinatio Predestinatio nn NonNonEssential Essential Objectivity

Objectivity Continuation Continuation ofoftongues tongues Canon Canonofof Scripture Scripture Essentials and Non-Essentials Where would you place these on the quadrant? 1. Belief in the doctrine of the Trinity? Why? 2. Smoking? Why? 3. Eating healthy and exercising? Why? 4. Getting intoxicated? Why? 5. Having your mind altered by antidepressants? Why? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Question What truths are essential for orthodoxy? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials Concentric Circle of Importance Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Pure Speculation Not Important Important, but Not Essential Essential for Orthodox

Essential y for Salvation Essentials and Non-essentials For For the the Christian, Christian, beliefs beliefs matter, matter, but but not not all all beliefs beliefs matter matter equally. equally.

Roger Roger Olsen Olsen Mosaic Mosaicof ofChristian ChristianBeliefs Beliefs(Downers (DownersGrove, Grove,IL: IL:IVP, IVP,2002), 2002),33 33 Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question How certain are you about your beliefs? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Essentials and Non-essentials There There are are those those dogmatic dogmatic Christians Christians who who seem seem to to overdefine overdefine Christianity Christianity such such that that being being authentically authentically Christian Christian includes

includes (for (for them) them) firm firm adherence adherence to to aa detailed detailed set set of of extrabiblical extrabiblical beliefs, beliefs, some some of of which which are are quite quite outside outside the the Great

Great Tradition Tradition itself. itself. Roger Olsen Roger Olsen Mosaic of Christian Beliefs (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 2002), 33 Mosaic of Christian Beliefs (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 2002), 33 Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and non-essentials Certain (Websters) Definite; fixed. Sure to come or happen; inevitable. Established beyond doubt or question; indisputable. Capable of being relied on; dependable. Having or showing confidence; assured.

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. The Existence of God Types of Certainty 1.Mathematical certainty (scientific method) 2.Empirical certainty (weight of evidences) 3.Logical certainty (what is reasonable) 4.Moral certainty (what is demanded) Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials Chart of Certainty Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and non-essentials Chart of

Certainty I Do not believe I believe 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 0 0 + Essentials and non-essentials How 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. certain are you that . . . There is a God? That Christ rose from the grave? That God loves you? That Christ is going to come and Rapture the Church before the Great Tribulaton? That Christ is coming back to reign on the earth for a thousand years?

That Christ is coming back? That God wants you to trust that He will protect you from all physical harm? That God wants you to trust that He will protect you from all emotional harm? That God wants you to trust in Him in every circumstance? That the Bible does not have any historical errors? That Adam and Eve were real people? That there was really a snake in the garden? That God created the earth in seven literal days? The God created the earth? That Christ paid for the sins of all mankind? That Christ died for you? That the Apocrypha (15 books in the Roman Catholic Bible) should not be included in Scripture? That the book of 3 John should be included in Scripture? That the book of Genesis should be included in Scripture? That the gift of tongues ceased in the first century? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials

When you overstate, When you overstate, readers readers will will be be instantly instantly on on guard guard and and everything everything that that has has preceded preceded your your overstatement overstatement as as well

well as as everything everything that that follows follows it it will will be be suspect suspect in in their their minds minds because because they they have have lost lost confidence confidence in in your your judgment

judgment or or your your poise. poise. Overstatement Overstatement is is one one of of the the common common faults. faults. A A single single overstatement, overstatement, wherever wherever or or however however it it occurs, occurs,

diminishes diminishes the the whole, whole, and and aa single single carefree carefree superlative superlative has has the the power power to to destroy, destroy, for for readers, readers, the the object object of of your your enthusiasm.

enthusiasm. Strunk Strunk and and White White Elements ofofThe Style, Heights, Copyright 2004, Theology(Needham Program. All rights reserved. Elements Style, (Needham Heights,MA: MA:Allyn Allynand andBacon), Bacon),7.7.

Essentials and Non-Essentials In In essentials essentials unity, unity, in in non-essentials non-essentials liberty, liberty, in in all all things things charity. charity. Rupertus Rupertus Meldenius Meldenius Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials

Guiding Principles and Application: Application 1. Dont divide over non-essentials no matter how convicted you are about their truth. 2. Never compromise the essentials no matter what the consequence. 3. There is no shame in being less certain about some things than others. The Bible does not teach all things with the same clarity. 4. Showing honest uncertainty about difficult issues makes your witness more authentic and powerful to a postmodern world. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions in Christian Theology Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Question What is the essential difference in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions in Theology Traditions in Christian Theology 1. Roman Catholic 2. Eastern Orthodox 3. Protestant Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions in Theology Protestant Roman Catholic

Orthodox 349 million 943 million 211 million Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Protestant view of Church history? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Protestant View of Ecclesiastical History Formulation Gospel

100 AD 500 Corruption Loss of Gospel Restoration Protestant Church 1054 1200 Greek Orthodox 1500 Roman Catholic Traditions in Theology Christianity Christianity stands stands or or falls

falls upon upon the the doctrine doctrine of of justification. justification. Martin Martin Luther Luther Justification Justification is is the the hinge hinge upon upon which which true true Christianity Christianity

stands. stands. John John Calvin Calvin Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Roman Catholic view of Church history? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Roman Catholic View of Ecclesiastical History Formulation Church 100 AD 500

EstablishingCorruption of Morals Restoration 1054 1200 1500 Greek Orthodox Roman Catholicism Protestants Five Bishoprics of the Early Church Rome Constantinople

Antioch Jerusalem Alexandria Five Bishoprics of the Early Church Rome Constantinople Antioch Jerusalem Alexandria Rome Constantinople

Antioch Invasion of of Islam Islam Invasion 612 612 Jerusalem Alexandria Fight Fight for for Supremacy Supremacy Split Split 1054 1054 Catholic

Rome Catholic Filioque Filioque Constantinople Eastern Eastern Orthodox Orthodox Rome nvasion of of Islam Islam nvasion 1453 1453 Constantinople

Rome Rome Eastern Eastern Church Church moves moves north. north. Russian Russian Orthodoxy Orthodoxy becomes becomes primary primary Orthodox Orthodox Church. Church. Question What is the Eastern Orthodox view of Church history?

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Eastern Orthodox View of Ecclesiastical History Formulation Church 100 AD DisruptionPurification East 500 West Eastern Orthodox 1500 1200 Roman Catholics Protestants

Question Why are there so many Protestant denominations? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions in Theology Sub-traditions: Sub-traditions Reformed Arminian Liberal

Fundamental Charismatic Evangelical Postmodernist Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Brief History of the Protestant Movement Liberal Tradition Reformed Tradition ns a ns ists teri ed ts a r n y m s he lvi esb for pti t Lu Ca Pr Re Ba

Charismatic Tradition Fundamentalist Tradition s ist rist t a p Ch l s s s B t s an ill of osta nes i od ley -w rch tec are h t Arminian Tradition e es ree hu en az M W F C P N 1500

1700 1900 Evangelical Tradition Postmodern Tradition 2000 Sources of Theology Where do we go for truth? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What are the different sources of truth? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Sources of Theology John Wesleys Quadrilateral Tradition Scripture Reason Experience Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tradition Reason

Experience General Revelation Emotions Special Revelation (Scripture) Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Sources of Theology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tradition Reason Experience Emotions General Revelation

Special Revelation (Scripture) Stage of Truth Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Back Front Roman Catholic Back Experience General Revelation Reason Tradition Scripture Front Eastern Orthodox

Stage of Truth Back General Revelation Experience Tradition Scripture Front Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Protestant Reformation Stage of Truth Back Experience General Revelation Tradition Reason Scripture

Front Liberal Stage of Truth Back General Revelation Emotions Experience Reason Front Charismatic Stage of Truth Back Emotions Experience Special Revelation Front Fundamentalist Stage of Truth

Back General Revelation Scripture Front Postmodern Stage of Truth Back Front Question What are the benefits and deficiencies of each source? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Tradition:

Religious information that has been handed down to us from various sources. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies: Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Tradition Tradition is is the the living living faith faith of

of those those now now dead. dead. Traditionalism Traditionalism is is the the dead dead faith faith of of those those now now living. living. Jarislav Jarislav Pelikan Pelikan Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Sources of Theology Reason: Information that comes through the human minds capacity for logical, rational, and analytic thought. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies: Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology All All truth

truth is is given given by by revelation, revelation, either either general general or or special, special, and and it it must must be be received received by by reason. reason. Reason Reason is is the the God-given

God-given means means for for discovering discovering the the truth truth that that God God discloses, discloses, whether whether in in his his world world or or his his Word. Word. While While God God wants

wants to to reach reach the the heart heart with with truth, truth, he he does does not not bypass bypass the the mind. mind. Jonathan Jonathan Edwards Edwards Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology The

The truth truth of of the the Christian Christian faith faith surpasses surpasses the the capacity capacity of of reason. reason. Thomas Thomas Aquinas Aquinas Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology credo quia absurdum

I believe because it is absurd This This Latin Latin phrase phrase coined coined by by Tertullian Tertullian (150-225) (150-225) evidences evidences some some of of the the early early Churchs Churchs disdain disdain for for the the Greek Greek philosophers philosophers reliance

reliance upon upon reason reason for for truth. truth. He He said, said, What What does does Athens Athens have have to to do do with with Jerusalem, Jerusalem, or or the the academy academy with with the the Church?

Church? He He sought sought to to return return the the element element of of mystery mystery to to the the Sources of Theology Experience: Information that comes through direct encounter, participation, or observation.

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies: Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Emotions: Information that comes through subjectively experienced psychological feelings. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology

Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies: Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology sensus divinitatus Sense of the divine The The sensus sensus divinitatus divinitatus is is the the inward inward persuasion persuasion all all people people have have that

that directs directs them them to to aa belief belief in in God God and and aa propensity propensity to to worship. worship. While While the the sensus sensus divinitatas divinitatas can can contribute contribute to to and and shape shape our

our theology theology (natural (natural theology), theology), the the information information is is insufficient insufficient to to bring bring aa person person into into aa right right Sources of Theology General Revelation: Revelation about God given through the created order

(Ps. 19:16 ; Rom. 1:1820; 2:1415). Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies: Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Special Revelation: Revelation given by Gods supernatural intervention in history through (1) miraculous events, (2) divine speech, and (3) visible

manifestations. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies: Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology ma normans sed non norm A norm which norms but is not norme This This is is aa Latin Latin phrase phrase of of the the Protestant

Protestant Reformation Reformation that that stresses stresses the the importance importance of of Scripture Scripture above above all all other other sources sources of of theology. theology. The The Scripture, Scripture, according according to to the the Reformers,

Reformers, is is the the standard standard (norm) (norm) against against which which all all other other sources sources for for theology theology must must be be judged, judged, but but this this standard standard cannot cannot be be judged

judged by by Proposed Stage of Truth Back Experience Emotions General Revelation Tradition Reason Scripture Front Question How do the different sources interact to form

our theology? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Tradition Tradition Reason Reason Emotions Emotions General GeneralRevelation Revelation Experience Experience 2 Theological Statement .

What is the timeless truth taught? . What did it mean then? Historical interpretation Grammatical interpretation Contextual interpretation Literary Interpretation Ancient Audience 1 Exegetical Statement Contemporary Audience

Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience 3 Homiletical Statement . How does it apply to us? Subjecti ve Objecti ve Tradition Reason Experience Emotions General Revelation Acts 17:11 These Jews were more open-minded than those in Thessalonica, for they eagerly received the message, examining

the Scriptures carefully every day to see if these things were so. Excursus: Does God still Speak Today? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Has Special Revelation ceased, or does God still communicate to people through prophets, dreams, visions, and audible encounters? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Three positions: 1. Continuationism 2. Hard Cessationism

3. Soft Cessationism Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Temporary Gifts Permanent Gifts Supernatural Sign Speakin Serving Revelator Confirmat g y ory Apostleshi p

Prophecy Discerning of spirits Word of wisdom Word of knowledge Tongues Interpreta tion of tongues Healings Miracles Tongues

Evangelis m Teaching Pastorteacher Exhortatio n Service Showing Mercy Giving Administrat ion Helps

Question What is the Continuationist view of Prophecy? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Continuationism: View that miraculous sign gifts are still being given and, therefore, God still speaks directly in various ways today. Adherents: Wayne Grudem, Jack Deere, Craig Keener, Jack Hayford Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Defense of Continuationism: Continuationism Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 1. Acts 2:14-21 seems to teach that supernatural occurrences such as tongues and prophecy would be normative for the Church era. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 2. The entire book of Acts seems to show that the supernatural gifts are common within the

Church. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 3. All of Scripture supports the idea that it is Gods nature to work in supernatural ways. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 4. The New Testament never explicitly states that the supernatural sign gifts would cease. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus:

Does God Still Speak Today? If If you you were were to to lock lock a a brand-new brand-new Christian Christian in in a a room room with with a a Bible Bible and and tell tell him

him to to study study what what Scripture Scripture has has to to say say about about healings healings and and miracles, miracles, he he would would never never come come out out of of the

the room room a a cessationist. cessationist. Jack Jack Deere Deere Surprised by the Power of the Spirit (Grand (GrandRapids, Rapids,Mi: Mi:Zondervan, Zondervan,1997), 1997),54 54 by theProgram. Power thereserved. Spirit Copyright Surprised 2004, The Theology

Allof rights Question What is the Hard Cessationist view of Prophecy? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Hard Cessationism: View that miraculous sign gifts ceased with the death of the last apostle and the completion of the New Testament. Therefore, God does not speak directly to people today.

Adherents: Charles Hodge, John MacArthur, majority of Church history Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Defense of Hard Cessationism: Cessationism Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 1. The Bible implicitly supports the idea that the supernatural sign gifts were for the establishment of the Church era. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Eph. 2:19-20 So then you are no longer foreigners and noncitizens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of Gods household, because you have been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the cornerstone. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 2 Cor. 12:12 Indeed, the signs of an apostle were performed among you with great perseverance by signs and wonders and powerful deeds.

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Heb. 2:3-4 How will we escape if we neglect such a great salvation? It was first communicated through the Lord and was confirmed to us by those who heard him, while God confirmed their witness with signs and wonders and various miracles and gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 1 Cor. 13:8-10 Love never ends. But if there are prophecies, they will be set aside; if there are tongues, they will cease; if

there is knowledge, it will be set aside. For we know in part and we prophesy in part; but when the perfect comes, the partial will be done away. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 2. It is agreed that the Bible never explicitly states that the sign gifts have ceased. But the Bible never explicitly states that Scripture is complete, yet both cessetionists and non-cessetionists agree that it is. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 3. If God is still speaking

supernaturally through prophecy, tongues, word of wisdom, etc., then the Canon of Scripture is still open. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: It indeed, It might, might, indeed, be aa priori priori Does God Still be Speak Today? conceivable

conceivable that that God God should should deal deal with with men men [individually], [individually], and and reveal reveal Himself Himself and and His His will will to to each each individual, individual, throughout throughout the the whole

whole course course of of history, history, in in the the [depths] [depths] of of his his own own consciousness. consciousness. This This is is the the mystics mystics dream. dream. It It has has not, not, however,

however, been been Gods Gods way. way. He He has has chosen chosen rather rather to to deal deal with with the the race race in in its its entirety, entirety, and and to to give give this

this race race His His complete complete revelation revelation of of Himself Himself in in an an organic organic whole. whole. B.B. Warfield Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 4. If one were to examine the Scripture closely, it becomes evident that Gods direct intervention through prophecy and supernatural signs and wonders was

not the norm as it may seem. The Bible, as theological history (not exhaustive history), only records the times when God does intervene, thereby giving the impression that Gods direct encounters through prophets, dreams, visions, etc. are Gods modus operandi when they are not. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Noah 2000+ yrs of apparent silence 50 a f o s r 0y

si t n e r a pp Moses ce n le Christ and 900 yrs of apparent silence The Apostles Elijah & Elisha Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today?

5. History convincingly suggests that the supernatural sign gifts have ceased. We do not see evidence of confirmed prophets after the death of the last apostle. Only fringe groups here and there have claimed that God still speaks through prophets, tongues, etc., until the 20th century when the charismatic revival began. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? This This whole whole place place [1 [1 Cor. Cor. 12 12

on on spiritual spiritual gifts] gifts] is is very very obscure obscure .. .. .. but but the the obscurity obscurity is is produced produced by by our our ignorance ignorance of of the the facts facts referred referred to

to and and by by their their cessation, cessation, being being such such as as then then used used to to occur, occur, but but now now no no longer longer take take place. place. John

John Chrysostom Chrysostom (347-407) (347-407) ECF 2.12.1.1.29.0 ECF 2.12.1.1.29.0 Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? In the earliest time the Holy In the earliest time the Holy Ghost

Ghost fell fell upon upon them them that that believed: believed: and and they they spoke spoke with with tongues tongues which which they they had had not not learned learned as as the the Spirit

Spirit gave gave them them utterance. utterance. These These were were signs signs adapted adapted to to the the time. time. For For it it was was proper proper for for the the Holy Holy Spirit Spirit to

to evidence evidence Himself Himself in in all all tongues, tongues, and and to to show show that that the the Gospel Gospel of of God God had had come come to to all all tongues tongues [languages]

[languages] over over the the whole whole earth. earth. The The thing thing was was done done for for aa authentication authentication and and it it passed passed away. away. St. St. Augustine Augustine (354-430) (354-430) Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Question What is the Soft Cessationist view of Prophecy? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Soft Cessationism: Or Soft Continuationist. The view that the miraculous sign gifts could still be given today, but believers need to be careful about outright acceptance of peoples claims of possession. Adherents: D. A. Carson, Robert

Saucy Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Defense of Soft Cessationism: Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 1. Neither sides arguments are conclusive. We must therefore proceed with great caution. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 2. While it may be true that Church history has not seen the continuation of God

speaking directly, this does not mean that it is not possible. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? God, God, in in his his ordinary ordinary providence, providence, makes makes use use of of means, means, yet yet is

is free free to to work work without, without, above, above, and and against against them, them, at at his his pleasure. pleasure. Westminster Westminster Confession Confession of of Faith Faith 5.3

5.3 Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 3. Those who adhere to a futuristic interpretation of Revelation must concede that there are going to be prophets in the future as represented by the Two Witnesses (Rev. 11:3) and, possibly, the 144,000 Israelites (Rev. 7:4). Therefore, we must be open to further direct revelation from God. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Guiding Principles: Principles

1. Gods Word is not something to be trifled with (Ex. 20:7). 2. If you are a prophet, you must show convincing signs of a prophet (Deut 18:15-22). 3. If you are a prophet, you must have orthodox theology (Deut. 13:1-3). 4. If someone believes that they have a word from the Lord, they had better be certain and be ready to live by the consequences if it turns out false. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Doing Theology in the Emerging Context Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity How do we do theology in

our emerging context? Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity semper reformanda Always reforming This This is is the the Reformation Reformation principle principle that that Christian Christian theology theology is is always always undergoing undergoing change, change,

enhancement, enhancement, and and development. development. the the Reformers Reformers understood understood that that ifif theology theology was, was, at at any any point, point, thought thought to to be be solidified solidified and and one one persons, persons, groups,

groups, traditions, traditions, or or denominations denominations perspective perspective was was thought thought of of to to be be above above all all reproach reproach and, and, Unity and Diversity Apostles Creed I believe in God the Father, Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth

And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, our Lord Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary Suffered under Pontius Pilate; was crucified, dead and buried; He descended into the grave The third day he rose again from the dead He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead I believe in the Holy Ghost I believe a holy catholic church; the communion of saints The forgiveness of sins The resurrection of the body And the life everlasting. Amen. Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among the Traditions Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

Unity and Diversity Doctrine of Man and Grace (fifth century) Doctrine of Christ 100 A.D. Definition of Chalcedon (451) Trinity (325) Doctrine of the Counsel of Nicea Atonement (eleventh (325) century) 400 A.D.

1100 A.D. 1600 A.D. 2000 A.D. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among Protestant Denominations Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Five Solas of the Protestant Reformation Reformed Understan ding

Meaning Sola Scriptura Sola Christus Sola Gratia Sola Fide Sola deo Gloria The Scripture alone contains primary authority to dictate

the lives of believers. The work of Christ alone is the basis for justificatio n. Justificatio n is by means of Gods grace alone. Faith alone is the only instrument

al cause of justificatio n. All is done for Gods glory alone. Unity and Diversity Doctrine of Man and Grace (fifth century) Doctrine of Christ 100 A.D. Doctrine of Scripture (sixteenth century) Doctrine of

Justification Definition of Chalcedon century) (451) Trinity (325) Doctrine of the Counsel of Nicea Atonement (eleventh (325) century) 400 A.D. 1100 A.D. 1600 A.D. (sixteenth

2000 A.D. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among the Sexes Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among the Nations Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among the Peoples

Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Luke 8:5-18 Copyright 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved.

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