Introduction to Psychology - Greenwood High School

Introduction to Psychology - Greenwood High School

Myers PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 4 The Developing Person James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers 1 Developmental Psychology: Branch of psych. that studies physical, cognitive & social change throughout the life span Considers the 3 big developmental ?s: A) nature/nurture? B) stability/change? C) continuity/stages? 2

Prenatal Development and the Newborn: Conception: As sperm enters, a barrier forms Life is sexually transmitted 3 Prenatal Development & the Newborn Zygote: fertilized egg; less than survive! enters a 2 wk period of rapid cell division = embryo after it attaches Embryo: the developing human organism from 2 weeks thru 2nd month Fetus: developing human organism from 9 wks after conception birth 4 Prenatal Devel. & Newborns

40 days months 45 days 2 months 4 5 Prenatal Devel. & the Newborn Teratogens (monsters??): agents, such as chemicals & viruses: reaches embryo or fetus during prenatal devel. & cause harm Sci. still trying to determine how much harm smoking in preg. & male violent crimes? Can be drugs, diseases, radioactivity, or chemicals Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): physical &

cognitive abnormalities in kids caused by heavy drinking during pregnancy (1/750) (See t-138, Judges quote) symptoms include mis-proportioned head The leading cause of retardation 6 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 7 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Rooting Reflex tendency to open mouth, & search for nipple when touched on the cheek; aids survival Requires tongue, swallow, breathe coordination In Notes: Explain each reflexes as we go over it

a) grasping : b) Moro (startle): c) Babinski: (Digi. Med. Arch. #1 ) 8 Newborn Preferences: human voices & faces face-like images *Which below do they prefer? smell & sound of mother (see 138) 9 Prenatal Development & the Newborn Habituation (boredom?)

Decreasing responsiveness w/ repeated stimulation Novel (new) stimulus gets more attention, stronger response Indicates memory & familiarityusing senses to gain knowledge & experience (Note: Stimulus: something that causes 10 a reaction Prenatal Development and the Newborn Once habituated to old stimulus, newborns preferred

gazing at a new one (New experience) 11 Infancy & Childhood: Physical Devel. Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly (in particular order) changes in behavior Programmed: is like a genetic blueprint relatively uninfluenced by experiencejust happens b/c it is timewired in

At birth 3 months Cortical Neurons 15 months 12 Infancy & Childhood: Physical Development 3 month-old baby learns kicking moves a mobile--& can retain that learning for a month (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1997).

EFFICACY! I can have effect! This helps them to learn that they can affect their 13 world Neural sequence of develop.: Birth: have most brain cells youll ever have 0 2: growth spurt (wiring) allowing us to walk, talk, & remember stuff 3-6: networks sprout rapidly in frontal lobe: allows rational planning (If I do this, this will happen) Into puberty: pathways for language & agility developing, polishing up After puberty: pruning process: trims out unused, strengthen those being used **Prior to 3yrs., cant remember much at all b/c havent connections for it

Known as Infantile amnesia 14 Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Development Schema: Jean Piagets word for a concept or framework we use to organize & interpret info -mental molds into which we pour our experiences (neural netwks.?) EX: catsvs. dogs; love; motherhood, etc. Piaget said 2 ways we deal w/ new experiences: Assimilation vs. Accommodation: Assimilation: interpreting ones new experience in terms of ones existing schemas --we have a set of ideas about 1 thing EX: a doggie -dogs have 4 legs, are furry, & have a tail -so a cat = a doggiepony = BIG doggie Accommodation 15

Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Development Accommodation: adapting (adjusting) our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info EX: we learn the cat is not a doggiebut a new categoryor schemaa cat or kitty Cognition: All the mental activities associated w/ thinking, knowing, remembering, & communicating -as kids have more experiences in their world, they adjust existing schemas & accommodate to bring in new schemas& they use these to develop Meta-cognition: What we know about HOW we know Piaget: Cognition goes thru 4 major developmental stages 16 Piagets 4 Stages of Cognitive Develop.: (see p. 144) KNOW these!! Typical Age

Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years Preoperational

Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development About 7 to 11 years Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Has Conservation Mathematical transformations About 12 thru

adulthood Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for 17 moral reasoning Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel. Sensori-motor stage: (birth- 2 yrs.) Object Permanence: Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived (able to see, hear, etc.) Games: Peek-a-boo? Wheres the bunny? Develop this during Piagets sensorimotor stage: what ages do not? Most are getting by what age? (start p. 144) Difference betwn. Piagets view & present day view?

-How does this show continuity vs. stages? (top 145) 18 Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel. Baby Math: Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer (Wynn, 92) --Explain the 2 EXs of baby logic on p. 145 -How do psy. measure how kids notice something different or odd? (i.e., what is the operational definition?) 4. Possible outcome: Screen drops, revealing one object. 1. Objects placed in case. 2. Screen comes 3. Object is removed. up.

4. Impossible outcome: Screen drops, revealing two objects. 19 Infancy & Childhood: Preoperational stage (2-6): Cognitive Devel. Conservation: the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects EX: Tall thin glass vs. short fat glass= same amt.? Pla-doh They dont have at beginningget toward end of stage Egocentrism: the inability of the preoperational child to take anothers point of view EX: TV viewing? My

brother? Abusive parents often dont realize this & they tend to see this as ornery behavior 20 Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel. Theory of Mind: A not B (Note: still in pre-operational stage) Just beginning to form this Peoples ideas about their own & others mental states.. about their feelings, perceptions Also thoughts & the behavior these might predict Still tend to be egocentric, but improving on this Gaining empathy; learning thoughts = feelings When you show the kid these pictures &

tell the story, how will they respond? 21 Theory of Mind & Autism Autism: Disorder that appears in childhood & marked by deficiencies in communication, social interaction & understanding of others states of mind Extremely egocentric; little or no theory of mind formed Cant read emotions in others Cant see that others do not know what they know EX: fig. 4.10 + text (147) B/C of communication limits, deaf kids may have problems w/ theory of mind also

22 Aspergers Syndrome is a specific form of high-functioning autism Syndrome 23 ME! 24 A B 25 Cognitive Development:

Reflecting on Piagets Theory Influential theory Development is more continuity rather than stages as Piaget believed Larger emphasis on social factors Vygotsky Zone of proximal development Work of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory. Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that

community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning." 27 Vygotsky: 28 Pre-op: learning to think in symbols: EXs? -Again: a steady, continuous process (continuity) -Private speech: Pre-op kids talking to themselves to think things out -allows them to process cognition How can this help w/ math? (c-148) Concrete operations stage (7-11): now understand conservation (see joke) -Understand things we have experience w/ -Beginning to understand math transformations: 8+4=12so what is 12 4? Then4 x 6 = 24, 24

6=? Formal operations stage (12 +): beginning abstract thought -can theorize & plan various possibilities (If this is true, then ) BUTagain, Piaget underestimated abilities (t-149) 29 Piaget: Father of cognitive psych. What he got right & wrong: (p.149 Reflecting) 1. What hegot right: 2. ..missed 3. Who can use this info? 4. How can they use this today?

30 Inf. & Ch-hd.: Social Develop. (150) Stranger Anxiety fear of strangers infants commonly display begins about 8 mos. Purpose: keep child close to care-giverwhy could this be important at this age? is cross-cultural, sowhat does that indicate? Attachment Strong emotional tie w/ another person We attach to ppl w/ which we are comfortable, familiar& who are responsive to needs young kids show by seeking closeness to the caregiver & showing distress on separation home-base: a secure base (safe haven) is it just those who give food? Or is it more? 31 Social Development

H. Harlows Surrogate Mother Experiments (Harlow vid.) Preferred contact w/ comfortable cloth mother, even though feed from the nourishing wire mother Humans tend to attach to those soft, warm, who rock, pat, feed (contact comfort) a secure base As we grow, attachment changes from parents to peers to partners 32 Social Development

Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers. Note: ethics no longer allow such studies ATTACHMENT: secure attachment is important for later relationships Involves trust & expecting responsiveness (t153) 33 Social Development

Critical Period best period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development (EX: lang. & Genie) window of opportunityif this is missed, will not develop that aspecteither at allor not completely Imprinting process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Konrad Lorenz: studies w/ ducklings & 1st moments after hatchinghe was 1st creature they saw; they attached to him will also attach to other things that move 34 bouncing ball, etc. Attachment: Deep, caring, close, & enduring (long-lasting)

emotional bond between infant & care-giver; forms in humans at about 6 mos. --used Harlows wire-mom study for this info Stranger anxiety: fear of stranger--even if mom there --is this normal? Separation anxiety: upset if mom goes away suddenly Strange situation experiment: Mary Ainsworth 1st : mom & kid in room w/ stranger & mom leaves 2nd: no stranger in room when she leaves 35 -measures levels of attachment in kids: Psychologists have IDed 4 attachment patterns: a) secure b) avoidant disorganized

c) resistant d) 1. Secure: need to explore, but have mom close; mom leaves, they cry, but OK when she returns; no anger; most kids (at least 70-80%) are securely attached 2. Avoidant : cry when mom leaves; but avoid or ignore mom when she returns 3. Resistant: not upset when she leaves, but angry & reject her when she returns 4. Disorganized: often confused or act different ways; dont always act the same, but often not angry if leaves, but avoid her when she returns; this is the least secure type **Most sensitive, responsive moms have securely attached kids (well over 70% of all kids) 36

Fathers & children: Just a mobile sperm banks? ?: Elian GonzalesWould the situation been the same if it were reversed as to mom/dad? Read & note the 3 studies on 153: a) pregnant dads? b) kids health & well-being & mom + dad love c) non-married parents, separation, divorce: increases risk for social & psychological pathologies (diseases) Separation from parents: home-care vs. day-care? No major difference RE: stranger anxiety -starts 6-8 mos., peaks (+ -) 13 mos. then declines -at that point it eases (especially if we are securely attached) & we can open to other 37 peopleespecially peers

Here is the link to log onto the Companion Website for Myers Psychology, 8th edition: default.asp? s=&n=&i=&v=&o=&ns=0&uid=0&rau=0 Log on as "Students". Give yourself your own Password & User ID and include MY email so that I can view quizzes if I decide to do for Ex Cr. or something.... 38 Social Development Percentage of infants who cried when their mothers left Groups of infants left

by their mothers in a unfamiliar room 100 Day care 80 60 40 (from Kagan, 1976) Home 20

0 3.5 5.5 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 Age in months 20 29 39 Soc. Devel. Basic Trust (Erik Erikson): a sense that the world is predictable & trustworthy formed in 1st yr. by good experiences w/ responsive caregivers

Debated, but most psy. say later has effect on success in relationships Deprived of attachment: -withdrawal -easily frightened -or v. aggressive (?) -permanent emotional scars - unloved become unloving--abused can be abusers -BUTmost abused do not b/c of resiliency(tough) Disruption of attachment: v. upset, even despairing --most recoverfoster kids? Day-care & attachment? If quality day-care, should be no difference It takes a village But kids alone? NO 40 A) Quality day-care: What is this? & How can you ID it?

B) Discussion topic: Briefly discuss w/ a partner Think about kids different temperaments, etc. -How could this allow a parent to do well w/ 1 kid& not as well w/ another? 41 Self-Concept (pp.156-7): Into notes A sense of ones identity & personal worth According to Charles Darwin, when does self-awareness begin? 1. How psychs test when kids can do this 2. Happens about when___ (age)? 3. Fairly stable by _____ (age) 4. Kids view of themselves affects what?

So how can parents help? Soc. Devel.: Child rearing practices 42 Parenting styles: 1st 3: too hard, too soft & just right 1) Authoritarian (aka dictatorial): parents impose rules & expect obedience EX: My way or hi-way!! Because I said so!! 2) Permissive (aka laissez faire): give in to kids, make few demands, use little punishment -No structure, no consistent rules, which kids NEED EX: I said NO!....Well, OKummm, just this once 3) Authoritative: Both demanding but responsive set rules, but explain reasons & encourage discussion Allow kids to make some (limited) choices to give practice Best way 4) Newer type Unresponsive = the worst: no attention, no caring, no involvement =

resentment, anger, & often social problems 43 Idea that loving, authoritative parenting style = best is confirmed by many correlational studies in more than 200 cultures worldwide BEST chances for kids.Below 44 Adolescence (p. 159) Adolescence: transition from childhood adulthood begins w/pubertygoes to independent adult status RITES of PASSAGE: Ceremony for a step into adulthood How is it differ. now than say 1850 or so? G. Stanley Hall: strum und drung ...& are some stresses, but _ out of _ HS seniors checked on the whole, I am satisfied w/ myself. See Dave Barry p. 160 Puberty: period of sexual maturation when capable

of reproduction --avg. ages? (b-159some F earlierpossibly whys?) Primary Sex Characteristics: Body structures allowing for sexual reproduction: Gonads: ovariesfemale testes--male external genitalia in both 45 Secondary Sex Characteristics: Non-reproductive sexual characteristic F: breast & hips M: voice quality & body hair F: Menarche (meh-NAR-key): 1st menstrual period M: spermarche: 1st ejaculation Avg. ages for these: F: 11-13 M: 13 --Know problems & advantages for -early maturing Ms? -early maturing Fs?

How does this shows interaction of heredity & environment? Adoles. brain development: Childhood: brain cells are __?__ ...In adoles. they begin to __?__ Use it or lose it! Frontal lobe devel. vs. emotional limbic system: How does this affect behavior& how/when does it change? 46 Adolescence 1890, Women 10 7.2 Year Interval 20 Age

1995, Women 10 12.5 Year Interval 20 Age 1890s: Average interval between a womans menarche & marriage: just over 7 years Now: Over 12 years! Why is this

significant? 47 Thru childhood, M & F are similar in height. At puberty, F surge ahead briefly (11-13), but then M overtake them at about 14. Adolescence Height in centimeters 190 170 150 130

110 90 70 50 0 2 Boys 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Age in years Girls Sequence (1st 2nd) of changes is more predictable than the timing Onset time

varies w/ kids48 Body Changes at Puberty 49 Kohlbergs Moral Ladder Postconventional Level 3rd Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles Conventional Level 2nd Morality of law and social rules: to gain approval or avoid

disapproval Preconventional Level 1st Morality of self-interest: to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards As moral development progresses, focus of concern moves from the how it affects ME to the wider social world. Piagets formal operations allows this Heinzs Dilemma 164

- 2 ?s Results vary crossculturally -Depends on collectiv. vs. individualistic societies 50 Emerging Adulthood Emerging adulthood Social intuition? theory: J. Haidt, 2001: A newer (Moral feeling: Read p.165) -Our mind makes aesthetic judgments. pleasing, not pleasing

See ppl do a really rotten thing? feel disgust See a really nice thing, feel warm & fuzzy ? = which comes 1st? -Do moral emotions cause us to have moral feelings? -Do gut-level feelings cause us to establish moral ideas of right vs. wrong? *See social intuitionalists dilemma: Which is OK? Both? Neither? -Emotion areas lit up on brain scans only w/ the pushing situation This is new psych research, so it hasnt been 52 examined much yet Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development (Stages 14, p. 166) Approximate age Stage

Description of Task Infancy (1st year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Toddler (2nd year) Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. Preschooler (3-5 years)

Initiative vs. guilt Elementary (6 yearspuberty) Competence (industry) vs. inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior. 53 Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. Gender and Identity (go back to pp 126-

130) Self-concept = our understanding & evaluation of who we are. Gender = in psychology, the biologically & socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female. Aggression = physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. X Chromosome = the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child. Y Chromosome =the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child. 54 Gender and Identitycontinued Testosterone = the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development

of the male sex characteristics during puberty. Role = a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. Gender Role = a set of unexpected behaviors for males or for females. Gender Identity = our sense of being male or female. Gender Typing = the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. Social Learning Theory = the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being 55 rewarded or punished. Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Devel. (Stages 5-8) Adoles. Late Adulthood: Approximate age Stage

Description of Task Adolescence (teens into 20s) Identity vs. role confusion Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult (20s to early 40s) Intimacy vs. isolation

Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult (40s to 60s) Generativity vs. stagnation The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult Integrity vs. (late 60s & up) despair When reflecting on his/her life, the older adult 56 may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure. Identity: ones sense of self

the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing, trying on, & integrating various roles--peer groups affect this (HS? college?) (survey, b-167, t-168) Eventually form a consistent, stable sense of self, but does change w/ situations Intimacy: the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adoles. & early adulthood Separating from parents: In US, compare early vs. late adolescence: Consider conflicts: length? intensity? frequency? Compare parent vs. peer influence: EX: drug talk? & what is influenced mostly by peers? by 57 parents? The changing parent-child relationship: Percent w/

positive, warm interaction with parents 100% 80 60 40 20 0 2 to 4 5 to 8 9 to 11 Ages of child in years 58 How Developmental Psys study Human Development: Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Studies

Cross-sectional studies: test & compare grps of differing ages at the same time EXs: Longitudinal studies: retest same grp of ppl over long period of time at 2yrs., later at 6, at 10, etc. Exs: Cohort groups: grp of ppl you share time, culture, etc., with 59 Adulthood: Physical Development Menopause: the time of natural cessation of menstruation in women Also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as ability to reproduce declines Men: gradual (continuity) lessening of sperm production, then some prostate concerns F: gradual decline in fertility: 35-39 as likely to become pregn. w/ 1 act of intercourse than F 19-26 Usually around 50; hot flashes common

Most F do not have intense emotional reactions Expectations & attitude influence effects Most experience positive effectsfew (2%) = regret Sex after 60: 78% either said satisfied w/ amt., or wished for more 60 Physical changes in later life: Ans. T/F quiz? (174) Worldwide life expectancy: 1950: 49 1995: 67 But in developed countries: 75+ Sensory ability: vision: diminishes --pupil shrinks, lens less transparent, reduced amt. of light to retina, so need more light& dont understand when others dont

Hearing: weakens--can be heredity or experiencewhy? Sense of smell (which strongly affects taste) weakens, which = using more flavorings like salt, etc -Muscle strength down, reaction time down, stamina down, distance perception affected 61 Health: Immune system does weaken, so more susceptible to more severe illnesses like cancer, pneumonia, etc Buthave built up more antibodies thru life so resist more minor illnesses like colds, etc. Those over 65 are ____ as likely as 20-yr. olds & ____ as likely as preschoolers to suffer from respiratory flu each yr. = 1 reason older workers miss less work Nursing homes, etc.: only ___% of those over 65 62

2 Theories of aging: Biological clock theory of aging: if other factors eliminated, ppl still deteriorate at 85+ & die by about 110b/c cells stop reproducing Wear & tear theory: We age b/c we use & misuse bodies *Dementia: substantial loss of brain cells, generally late adulthood Up to 95, rate of mental disintegration doubles every __?_ years Possible causes: -series of mini-strokes -tumors -alcoholism,

-arteriosclerosis -Alzheimers These bring on dementia: loss of usual mental ability (not same as senile) 63 Alzheimers Disease: At 75 what % has Alz.? progressive, irreversible brain disorder gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language.& finally, physical functioning Majority of elderly do NOT have this What % ? Causes: ACh loss, plaques (globs of degenerating tissue), shriveled protein filamentsbrain actually shrinks p.178 Whos at risk?? whos less likely?

64 Normal Brain vs. Alzheimers Brain: PET scans 65 Adulthood: Physical Development: Aging Senses Vision 1.00 0.75 0.50 Proportion of normal (20/20) vision when

identifying letters on an eye chart 0.25 0 10 30 50 70 90 Age in years 66

Adulthood: Physical Development The Aging Senses: Smell (olfactory) 90 Percent correct when Identifying smells 70 50 10 30 50 Age in years 70

90 67 Adulthood: Physical Develop. The Aging Senses: Hearing 90 Percent correct when identifying spoken words 70 50 10 30

50 Age in years 70 90 68 69 Adulthood: Phys. Devel. Reaction Time: Fatal accident 12 rate 10 8 6 4 2 0

16 Slowing reactions Fatal accidents per 100 million miles contribute Fatal accidents to increased per 10,000 drivers accident risks among those 75 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 and over and older. Age 70

Adulthood: Phys. Devel. Incidence of Dementia by Age What is % at...65? 75? 85? 95? Percentage with dementia Risk of dementia increases in later years 40% 30 20 10 0 60-64 70-74 65-69 80-84

75-79 Age Group 90-95 85-89 71 Adulthood: Cognitive Development: Aging & memory: Recall (greater decline) vs. Recognition (minimal decline) --Type of info matters: meaningful (means a lot to you & can use) = lot less decline: Can you relate this to biological psy? Aging & Intelligence: how psy. study: Cross-sectional studies: test & compare grps of differing ages at the same time -showed great declines in intelligence in aging -for a long time this was prevailing idea .so old were out, young were in

Longitudinal studies: retest same grp of ppl over long period of time at 2yrs., later at 6, at 10, etc. -findings: until late in life, IQ & mem. fairly stable ..& that those losses were fairly slow KNOW! Why the difference?? (b-180 181)also IQ tests? 72 Adult Cognitive Devel. 100 Percent 90 of names recalled 80 70 60 50 40

Recalling new names introduced once, Older age groups have poorer performance twice, or three times is easier After three introductionsfor younger adults than for older ones After two introductions (Crook & West, 1990). 30 20

After one 10 introductions 0 18 40 50 60 Age group 70 (What kind of study does this look like Longitudinal or Cross-sectional?) 73 Adult Cog. Devel.:

Recall vs. recognition: Number 24 Of words remembered 20 16 12 8 4 0 In a study by Schonfield & Robertson (1966), the ability to recall (EX: essays) new information declined during early & middle

Number of words adulthood recognized is But the ability to stable with age recognize (M-C, matching, etc.) Number of words new information recalled declines did not. with age BUT...other factors can influence 20 30 40 50 60 70 memory at other Age in years 74 times.....

Cognition in Adolescence... 75 Adulthood: Cognitive Development Cross-Sectional Study Reasoning ability score 60 Cross-sectional method suggests decline 55 50 45 Longitudinal method

suggests more stability 40 35 25 32 39 46 53 60 67 74 81 Age in years Cross-sectional method Longitudinal method a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another Suggests more change b/c of grp. differences Longitudinal Study a study in which

the same people are restudied and retested over a long period Suggests more stability 76 Adulthood: Cognitive Development Type of info learned: vocab., knowledge, & ability to integrate info = little decline But non-verbal & quick responses: dont do as well ?: What confounding variable could longitudinal studies not have taken into account (c-181)? (& it did affect data a little when taken in to acct.,) ------------------------------------------------------------- Crystallized Intelligence knowledge & verbal skills (181): accumulated

tends to increase with age Fluid Intelligence: ability to reason speedily & abstractly tends to decrease slowly to 75, then faster ..esp. after 85 77 Adulthood- Cognitive Development (t-182) Intelligence (IQ) score 105 Verbal scores are stable with age 100 95 90

85 Nonverbal scores decline with age 80 75 20 25 Verbal scores Nonverbal scores 35 45 Age group 55

65 Verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age, while nonverbal intelligence scores 70 decline (adapted from Kaufman & others, 1989). 78 Adult social development: In predictable stages? Ages & stages: 40s = transition to middle adulthood

Do NOT MOST have mid-life crisis regret struggle.. Divorce: More likely when? Suicide when? ------------------------------------------------------- Social Clock: culturally preferred timing of social events Marriage: (see EXs t-183) Parenthood Retirement B/c these vary so by cultures & eras, not much evidence for stages Life events & chance encounters: More important than social clock idea b/c these can happen at varying times for varying peoplew/ some limitations -chance plays a partb/c deflect us from 1 road to another EX: ID twins & romantic partners? 79

Adulthood: Social Development Do ppl in early-forties mostly have a midlife crisis? NO for great majority Emotional instability 24% 16 No early 40s emotional crisis Females 8 0 Males 33

36 39 42 45 48 Age in Years 51 54 80 Adulthood: Social Changes Commitments: Eriksons 2 main adulthood tasks

intimacy & generativity (called different things by different researchers)basically love & work Love: cross-cultural strong tendency toward pairbondingflirting, falling in love & marrying Evolutionary psy. see this as necessary for species -When is love strongest & more likely to last? Similar interests & values, sharing emotional & material support, intimate self-disclosure (?), marry after 20, well-educatedbut. -in Western countries have those last 2but 2X as likely to divorcewhy might this be? --Canada & US = 1 divorce for each 2 marriages -Might living together 1st help? Actually no(184) -but 9 out of 10 marry& married report being 81 happier Commitment (contd.) Which marriages last? What factors affect this? -5-to-1-ratio (?) b-184 EX: of what to do & not to do?

-sharing household duties if both work? -Kids: can bring joy, but lots of stressand they leave, so need more for a marriage to last Work: This is what often defines us in much of adulthood -How does the Western idea of work for women differ from many other places? Well-being across the life-span: positive vs. negative feelingsregret? If anything, positive feelings increase w/ age for mosthighs not as high, but lows not as low -moods more stable, not as extreme, but more enduring 82 -more contentment & more spirituality Multinational surveys show age differences in life

satisfaction are trivial Adulthood: Social Changes Percentage satisfied with life as a whole 80 (Inglehart, 1990). 60 40 20 0 15

25 35 45 Age group 55 65+ When are they the highest? Lowest? What might affect these small changes which occur in small %s? 83

Death & dying: usually the worst is death of a spouse (F--5X more than M), especially if sudden Can last for 1+yr. intensely, & mild depression years after -way we grieve varies w/ culture, but grief is crossculturaland AIDS is wiping out resources of all kinds in many places, esp. Africa 3 common misconceptions RE: best way to deal w/ grief: - get it out -talk it out -stages (p. 187) Last of Eriksons stages: Integrity vs. despair: We dont deny death as we used to...we see it more as a cycle... even if we are not thrilled -but integrity allows more of a feeling that life

was meaningful & worthwhile 84 Adulthood: Social Changes: -loss of spouse & friends/family can affect life satisfactionWhy might it go down before the death? 85 Continuity and Stages The Rollin g Ston es 2030 Tour!! 87

When the Boome rs Age... 88 QK Review! ===================== 1. T/F: By the time you are about 20, your personality is set and there is not much that will change it. 2. In order: How are the 3 stages of prenatal growth referred to? 3. Explain the following terms: habituation maturation secure attachment stranger anxiety 4. Which psychologist studied the following? Social intuition/morality

moral development Cognitive Development psychosocial development 5. Difference betwn. The following: accommodation assimilation 6. The following are related to WHICH stage of cogn. devel. & HOW? conservation obj. permanence abstract thought egocentrism theory of mind separation 89 anxiety QK Review! (continued...)

7. Explain how the following relate to beliefs about intelligence as we age. --recall vs. recognition --crystallized vs. fluid --memory of new info vs. memory of older info 8. Autism and theory of mind/socialization? 90

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