Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 4e Edward F. Bergman William H. Renwick Chapter 5: Population, Population Increase and Migration Victoria Alapo, Instructor Geog 1010 Population
Population geography Studies the distribution of humankind Emigration Immigration Demography is the study of
Specific group characteristics e.g. male/female, Black/White/Hispanic, educated, rich/poor, etc. Distribution and Density World Population 6.5 billion (2006)
Major concentrations (see Cartogram in textbook and back page of Textbook) a cartogram is a map-like image used to convey the magnitude of a phenomenon rather than just spatial size. East Asia South Asia Europe from the Atlantic to Ural mountains Southeast Asia Eastern United States Factors Influencing Population
Distribution Climate Low density (cold or dry areas, exceptions along rivers e.g. the Nile) High density
Topography and soils Flat areas = easier cultivation Accessibility to water Fertile soils Population Density Arithmetic density
Number of people per unit of area e.g. sq mile/km. Physiological density Density of population per unit cropland World Population Growth
Crude birth rate annual # of live births per 1000 people. Crude death rate annual # of deaths per 1000 people. Natural increase Natural decrease Difference btw crude rates
Pop. projection is the prediction of the future, assuming that pop. trends remain the same. It is an uncertain task. Why? Population Projections Replacement rate This is when you just replace yourself. 2.1 is considered that rate. A
countrys pop. increases or declines based on this rate. Zero population growth no growth Doubling time - the # of yrs it would take the countrys pop. to double at present rates of increase. Population Pyramids
This is a graphic device showing the age and sex structure of a population. Population Pyramids Dependency ratio Calculates the proportion of the population of working age. See pyramid on previous slide.
The dep. ratio is the ratio of the combined pop. of children less than 15 yrs and elderly over 64, to the pop. of those btw 15 & 64 yrs (working age). The larger the % of dependents, the greater the dependency ratio and financial burden rich countries have too many old; poor countries have too many young (see next slide). Demographic Transition Model
This took place over centuries, and is dev. from countries that are rich to describe their historical experience. Stage one Crude birth/death rate high zero growth Fragile population periodic epidemics, famines
Demographic Transition Model Stage two Lower death rates Infant mortality rate falls this is the # of infants per 1000 who
die before reaching 1 yr of age (see next 2 slides) Natural increase high medical improvements, agric. revolution. Stage three Indicative of richer developed countries Higher standards of living/education children now seen as a burden instead of asset. Many European countries, e.g. Germany. Zero growth or negative (natural decrease)
New Influences on Birth Rates Family planning programs Contraceptive technology Role of mass media Obstacles
Manufacture/distribution expense Religion Low female status Preference of male children Birth Control Programs One family/one child policies
Female infanticide Social compensation fees Sterilization Loss of status
Termination healthcare/food coupons e.g. Iran Free birth control Increased literacy Overpopulation? Malthusian theory Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
Arithmetic progression of food (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) versus the geometric progression of people (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) Was he right? Food Supplies Over the Last 200 Years (Affected Malthus Prediction) Malthus prediction
Technological advances: Green revolution New crops
New cropland Transplants and genetic engineering New lands opened by irrigation Transportation and storage Faster refrigerated modern methods Improved storage protects against spoilage and pests
Overpopulation? Cornucopians Jean Antoine Condorcet (1743-1794) Optimistic perspective (horn of plenty) Argued that increases in productivity would keep
pace with the earths rising pop., so capita material welfare would actually rise. Also, that with education and prosperity, most people would limit family sizes voluntarily. His predictions were more accurate. Migration Push factor
Drive away people Pull factor Attract people Migration of Peoples
Prehistoric Europe to the Americas African diaspora Europe to Asia & Oceania Europe to Africa Indian Overseas Chinese European Migration
Largest migration flow worldwide (last 150 yrs) Migration Today 2002 = 175 million worldwide living outside country of birth Characteristics
Many poor, uneducated, unskilled Many also highly educated and skilled Enterprising, working age looking for opportunity All Americans are ultimately immigrants, except those who are full-blooded Native Americans. See caption (U.S. Senator), pg 209. International Migration Emigration
Brain Drain on source countries. Brain drain is when the working age and usually educated people leave their home country to go to another one. Importance of remittances Mexico = 3rd largest source of foreign exchange
Canada 18.4 percent population foreign born (more than U.S.) 94 percent of immigrants live in metro areas Migration to the U.S. U.S.
Largest migration flow worldwide (last 150 yrs) was from Europe to the U.S. See Ellis Island, etc. Also, see implications in pie chart (next slide). 10% U.S. population foreign born Immigration quotas restrict immigration Some implications: Hispanics as proportion of U.S. population has increased, displacing blacks as minorities (Census 2000).
Migration Today Refugees 1951 Geneva convention someone with a well-founded fear of being persecuted in his/ her country of origin due to race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion. See map, pg 201.
They have special rights Asylum signatories are obligated to grant safety New Controversies Additional costs for public services?
Importing poverty? Local costs of immigration California, Arizona, etc Melting pot or cultural mosaic?
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