Intro to Aural Rehabilitation - Augustana University
Introduction to AR Perry C. Hanavan, Au.D. Audiologist Auditory Experience TED Talk Establishing a Sound Foundation
Dr. Karl R. White is a Professor of Psychology at Utah State University and the founding Director of the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management (NCHAM). Recognized as one of the world's leading authorities on early identification and treatment of hearing loss in infants and young children. He has hundreds of publications and presentations at scholarly meetings, and has been invited to more than 30 countries to assist in the implementation of newborn hearing screening and intervention programs.
National Goal Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) 1:3:6 Percent of Newborns Screened for Hearing Loss in U.S. Vocabulary Development
Hart & Risley, 1995 Dana Suskin, MD Birth of a Word Birth of a Word Deb Roy, MIT researcher, wanted to understand how his infant son learned language Wired house with video cameras to catch every moment (with exceptions) of his son's life
Parsed 90,000 hours of home video to watch "gaaaa" slowly turn into "water" Data-rich research for how we learn The Linguistic Genius of Babies Patricia Kuhl, PhD How babies learn one language over another by listening to the humans around them and "taking statistics" on the sounds they need to know. The Linguistic Genius of Babies
Neuroplasticity Childhood hearing loss is a neurodevelopmental emergency! Without early access to consistent intelligible speech, the auditory centers of the brain will not develop and normal intrahemispheric connections Auditory Access! Children hear 46 million words by age 4 years Hear 46 million words by 4 years of age (Risley and
Hart) Listening 20,000 hours to learn to readlistening at least 12 hour days for 1,667 days (Dehaene) Auditory exposure to learn new words and concepts increased up to 3 times necessary for children with hearing loss Case Studies Newborn identified at birth with connexin 26, severe to profound bilateral hearing loss, normal hearing parents Newborn identified at 2 years with rapidly progressive
bilateral SNHL, parents have a profound loss Seven year old recently identified with unilateral severe SNHL Middle school male with normal hearing but auditory processing problem in noise Fourteen year recently survived bacterial meningitis resulting in bilateral SNHL Dad, suffered sudden onset mild bilateral SNHL Grandmother, slow progressive bilateral SNHL Impact of HL on Quality of Life
Emotional & mental health Others perceptions of a persons mental acuity Social skills Family relationships Self-esteem Work & school performance Dementia in elderly Household income by up to $12,000/year Some Historical Landmarks Regarding AR in Audiology
Genesis in WWII (1942)
Audiologists Dispense Hearing Aids (1978) WHO Classification (1980) Cochlear Implants (1984 FDA approval) Early Newborn Identification (1990 Joint Comm) Communication Therapy (1990+) Neural Plasticity of the Auditory System (1995+) WHO Classification (ICF, 2001) Hearing Assistance Technologies (HAT) (2000+) Question
Does AR increases income for persons with hearing loss? Yes No Hearing Loss and Impact on Household Income Kochkin, S (2010).The Hearing Journal. 63(10):19-24,26,28. Treated Vs. Untreated HL
Impact on Household Income Kochkin, S (2010).The Hearing Journal. 63(10):19-24,26,28. Mild HL Linked to Brain Atrophy in Older Adults Early intervention could prevent slide toward speech comprehension difficulties Research suggests that hearing sensitivity has cascading
consequences for the neural processes supporting both perception and cognition Definitions
Auditory Training Aural Rehabilitation Audiological Rehabilitation Speechreading Lipreading Communication Rehabilitation Habilitation Rehabilitation
AR Definition The assessment, intervention, and management of communicative consequences of hearing loss (unknown author) ASHA Aural rehabilitation refers to services and procedures for facilitating adequate receptive and expressive communication in individuals with hearing impairment. (ASHA, 1984, p. 37) Audiologic/aural rehabilitation (AR) is an ecological,
interactive process that facilitates one's ability to minimize or prevent the limitations and restrictions that auditory dysfunctions can impose on well-being and communication, including interpersonal, psychosocial, educational, and vocational functioning. (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2001). Knowledge and Skills Required for the Practice of Audiologic/Aural Rehabilitation [Knowledge and Skills) David Hawkins Anything that facilitates: 1) hearing,
2) understanding of hearing loss, 3) coping strategies, 4) acceptance of hearing loss, and 5) involving communication partners. (Hawkins, D. 2003) Mark Ross Any device, procedure, information, interaction, or therapy which lessens the
communicative and psychosocial consequences of a hearing loss. Ross, M., JARA, 1997 McCarthy & Culpepper The purpose of an aural rehabilitation program is to focus on assisting hearing-impaired individuals in the realization of their optimal potential in communication,
which is needed in educational, vocational, or social settings. McCarthy & Culpepper, AJA, 1987, p. 305 Houston & Montgomery "the goal of aural rehabilitation for the adult is ambitious to increase the likelihood, the level, of successful communication over the clients lifetime." Houston, K.T., and Montgomery, A.A.
Auditory-visual integration: A practical approach. Seminars in Hearing, 18 (2), 1997. JP Gagn Aural rehabilitation is aimed at restoring or optimizing a patients participation in activities that have been limited as a result of a hearing loss and also may be aimed at benefiting communication partners who engage in activities that include person with hearing loss.
Gagn JP. Ear and Hearing. 2000, p36. Arthur Boothroyd, Ph.D. Adult aural rehabilitation is here defined holistically as the reduction of hearing-loss-induced deficits of function, activity, participation, and quality of life through a combination of sensory management, instruction, perceptual training, and counseling.
Boothroyd A, Trends in Amplification, 2007, p63. Aural Rehabilitation Intervention aimed at minimizing and alleviating the communication difficulties associated with hearing loss. (Tye-Murray N. Foundations of Aural Rehabilitation (video)
Audiologic Rehabilitation Any activity, method, resource, technology, and/ or device that facilitates and/or enhances communication and participation in activities. Hanavan, PC, 2010 Conversational Fluency relates to how smoothly conversation unfolds the books central theme
Tye-Murray N, Foundations of Aural Rehabilitation, p2. and preface, p ix. Hearing-Related Disability a loss of function imposed by hearing loss. The term denotes a multidimensional phenomenon. Tye-Murray, Foundations of Aural Rehabilitation, p2.
Summary of Definitions of AR and WHO 1980 Often describes approaches rather than objectives/goal Hearing and communication oriented Medically oriented: eliminate (treat) prescribe (cure) (International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicap ICIDH, WHO, 1980): Adapted from Gagne JP, 2007 ARA Institute, Louisville, KY.
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF: WHO, 2001) Health Condition (disorder/disease) Body Structures & Functions Activities (activity limitation)
Environmental Factors Participation (participation restriction) Personal Factors ICF (WHO: 2001)
Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Thus disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a persons body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Question Does hearing impairment means deaf, only? Yes No
ICF (WHO: 2001) Hearing impairment is a broad term used to describe the loss of hearing in one or both ears. There are different levels of hearing impairment: hearing impairment refers to complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears. The level of impairment can be mild, moderate, severe or profound; deafness refers to the complete loss of ability to hear from one or both ears.
ICF (WHO: 2001) Impairment is 'a loss or abnormality of body structure or physiological or psychological function' Activity limitation is 'the nature or extent of functioning at the level of the person' Participation restriction is 'the nature or extent of a persons involvement in life situations in relation to impairment, activities, health conditions, and contextual factors Health-related Quality of Life is 'the functional effect of an illness and its consequent therapy upon
the patient.' Satisfaction is the subjective assessment by the patient that his/her needs or expectations have been met. Applying WHO Taxonomy to HL Anatomy and physiology: Physical and functional integrity, including integrity of outer ear, middle ear, cochlea, neural pathways to the brain, and the brain itself. A major concern is with the status of the cochlea. With older patients, integrity of neural structures is important. Function: Includes hearing threshold, dynamic range,
frequency range, spectral and temporal resolution, acoustic pattern discrimination, direction and distance perception, attention, auditory working memory, processing speed, and ability to listen in noise. Applying WHO Taxonomy to HL Activity: The use of this capacitythe things one wants or needs to do with hearing in the real world. Examples include being alerted by sound, monitoring the environment, recognizing and localizing events and deducing their significance, monitoring and controlling
one's own speech, and enjoying auditory experiences. The activities of most concern, however, are perceiving the speech of others and engaging in spoken language communication. Participation: The contribution of these activities to daily life, include social interactions and relationships, employment, leisure, learning, control, creativity, etc. ICF (WHO: 2001) Psychological factors pertains to attitudes, self-image, motivation and assertiveness,
etc. Social factors are the viewpoint of society Model of Hearing-Related Disability Hearing Impairment Listening aids Lifestyle
Communication activity limitations Participation restrictions Physical environment
Psychosocial factors Tye-Murray N, Foundations of Aural Rehabilitation, p4. Frequent communication partner(s) Services Included in AR Plan
Diagnosis & quantification of hearing loss Hearing assistance technologies Auditory training Communication strategies training Informational/educational counseling Personal adjustment counseling Psychological support Communication partner training Speechreading training Speech-language therapy Inservice training
Question Which is provided by educator of the deaf and/or SLP? A.Aural rehab B.Audiologic rehab C.Physical therapy Aural Rehabilitation vs. Audiologic Rehabilitation Aural Rehabilitation
Broad breadth of services Variety of professional providers Audiologic Rehabilitation Narrow breadth of services Audiology professional providers Roles Audiologist: Audiologic Rehabilitation
SLP/EDHH: Aural Rehab Audiologic diagnostic evaluation Fitting, dispensing and evaluation of hearing aids Mapping cochlear implants Evaluating, fitting and dispensing HAT
Evaluating speech/language receptive and expressive abilities Treatment of speech/language disorders EDHH provides curriculum Rehabilitation vs. Habilitation Rehabilitation Restore lost function Adults
Acquired hearing loss Habilitation Develop skill not present beforehand Infants/children Congenital or pre-lingual onset AR Service Locations
University/College Private Practice Hospital
Community Center Otologists office Public/Private School Self-help groups School for the Deaf Internet Home with computer AR Providers
Audiologist Speech Language Pathologist Educator of the Deaf Communication Partner Other Team Members
ENT Parents Regular classroom teachers Psychology Geneticist Other specialties as necessary
Definition of Terms in Survey Traditional Variables Time of Onset
Degree of Loss Type of Loss Etiology Question Which is not a traditional variable for hearing loss? 1. Time of Onset 2. Rapidity of progression of hearing loss 3. Degree of Loss 4. Type of Loss 5. Etiology
Other Variables Progressive
Acceptance Family support Time of identification Time for implementation of AR Intelligence Motivation AR vs. Age of Client
Newborns Preschoolers Grade school Middle school
High school Post secondary Young adults Middle age Old age Hearing Loss Incidence
36 million persons in US have HL 4,000,000 babies born in US annually 1/1000 to 6/1000 born with HL 1 in 10 by age 60 Third most prevalent chronic problem in older persons 1.3% of children who receive special ed services were hard of hearing or deaf 5% of worlds population, about 360 million people, including 328 million adults and 32
million children, have disabling hearing loss Hearing Loss Projections Kochkin, S. MarkeTrak VII: Hearing Loss Population Tops 31 Million People, The Hearing Review, Vol. 12(7) July 2005, pp. 16-29. Time of Onset
Adventitious Sudden Progressive HL Prevalence and Age Degree of Hearing Loss
Minimal Mild Moderate Moderately Severe Severe Profound Common Etiologies
Most of the hearing loss is genetic with over 30 autosomal recessive (70-80%), dominant (2330%) and X-linked (2-3%) forms. A large proportion (60-75%) of nonsyndromic hearing loss in children has been localized to defects in a single gene, Connexin 26 (Cx26) on chromosome 13q11-12. A variety of mutations have been described in this gene with a 35delG hotspot mutation representing over half of the defects in Caucasians. Recently, other links with deafness and connexin
has been established Autosomal Recessive Non-Syndromic HL Question The Amy Tan Syndrome? A.Treacher-Collins B.BOR C.Pendred D.Stickler
E. Usher Common Syndromes Associated with Hearing Loss Name of syndrome Other features that may occur (besides hearing loss) Alport Kidney problems
Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) Neck cysts and/or ear tags and kidney problems Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Heart problems Pendred Thyroid enlargement or low thyroid function
White patch of hair or light-colored skin patches; eyes of two different colors, or bright blue eyes, or widely spaced eyes Jervell and Lange-Neilsen Syndrome Profound SNHL Prolongation of QT interval on EKG May develop arrhythmias resulting in sudden death Autosomal recessive inheritance Mutations in KVLQT1gene on chromosome 11p15 and
KCNE1gene on chromosome 21q22 Potassium channel genes Waardenburg Syndrome Hearing loss approximately 20% Pigmentation abnormalities of skin and hair Lateral displacement of medial canthi of
eye Heterochromia of iridi Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome (BOR) Hearing loss 93% Mixed hearing loss 52% Conductive hearing loss 33% Sensorineural 29% Pre-auricular pits 82% Branchial fistulae 49%
Cupped or mildly altered auricle 36% Renal abnormalities 67% Treacher Collins Syndrome Conductive hearing loss 50% Malformed ossicles Malformation of auricle Very small jaw and chin
(micrognathia) Malar hypoplasia Down slanting palpebral fissures Defects of lower eye lids Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Leading cause of non-syndromic HL (1/3rd) Hearing loss, often delayed onset, can fluctuate Small for gestational age Growth failure Skin rashes
Enlarged abdominal organs Blood count abnormalities Reduced head growth Developmental delay Comorbidities Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders or diseases in addition to the primary disease or disorder; or effect of disorders or diseases Children with congenital SNHL have a relatively
high incidence of comorbid conditions, either congenital or acquired Etiologies Genetic Autosomal, x-linked, mitochondrial, non-syndromic, syndromic
Myelization Type of Loss Conductive Sensorineural Mixed
Auditory Processing Disorder AR Service Plans Adult Home Vocational Social/
Avocational (Tye-Murray, 2009, p 16) Child Home Educational Social/
Extracurricular AR Services Services for persons with hearing loss Served Unserved Underserved Lack of services due to Lack of outreach and immediate or extended support services
Attitudes of service delivery personnel Lack of adequate reimbursement for AR Communication and environmental barriers (Tye-Murray, 2009, p 14) Cost-Effectiveness and Costs Cost-effectiveness is the relationship between the money spent and the benefits accrued Cost is the actual expense for providing Examples: Trends in Educational Placement and Cost-Benefit
Considerations in Children With Cochlear Implants Reimbursement Medicare U.S. Social Security program that reimburses hospitals and physicians for medical care provided to qualified persons 65 years or older (federal program) Medicaid U.S. Title XIX program under the Social Security Act that is jointly funded by the federal and state governments that reimburses healthcare providers Private insurance plans (some provide for services while others do not)
IDEA youth birth to twenty-one who qualify Out of pocket payment Triad of Evidence-Based Practice Evidence-Based Practice. Developed with Keith Posley, MD, Stanford Medical ... medresidents.stanford.edu Evidence-Based Practice EBP is the integration of best research evidence with
clinical expertise and patient values Levels of evidence to support EBP Five-step approach (Canadian Cochrane Network/Centre Affiliate Representatives) Question How many persons that could benefit from wearing hearing aids in the U.S. have hearing aids?
A.1 in 5 B.1 in 3 C.1 in 4 D.1 in 6 Hearing Aid Use Only 1 in 4 wear hearing aids who could benefit from amplification S. Kochkin. MarkeTrak
VIII: 25 year trends in the hearing health market. The Hearing Review, Vol. 16 (11), October 2009, pp.1231. Other Areas of AR
Auditory processing disorders Tinnitus Hyperacusis Vestibular and balance disorders AR Professional Organizations
AAA (American Academy of Audiology) AAS (American Auditory Society) AG Bell Association ARA (Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology) ASHA (American Speech Language Hearing Association) EAA (Education Audiology Association) ISA (International Society of Audiology) AR Foundations
DRF (Deafness Research Foundation) Consumer Organizations HLAA (Hearing Loss Association of America) Hearing Loss Web ALDA (Association of Late-Deafened Adults)
Hands & Voices Terminology: Hearing Loss NAD Deaf-mute, deaf and dumb, hearing impaired terminology d/Deaf Wikipedia Hearing Loss Association of America Hard of Hearing, Hearing Impaired or
DeafWhich Is Correct? Kiersey Circle of Courage Belonging
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Naved Chowdhury Rijit Sengupta [email protected][email protected] At first the number of boundary partners might be overwhelming. We must try to group similar partners according to the type of behavioural changes sought. Boundary partners are different from strategic partners.
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