Intro Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods Syllabus Quiz

Is the final comprehensive? Is attendance taken? Can attendance affect your grade? Will I be expected to participate regularly? Will there be group/paired discussions in class? Is cheating on tests/papers allowed?

Am I expected to be in class, seated and ready to participate at the beginning of class? How many tests, including the final, will there be in this class? True or False? 1. The titles psychologist and psychiatrist refer to the same profession. 2. Psychologists study behavior and the mind, but not biology. 3. Negative reinforcement is the same as punishment.

4. We cant do much to improve our memory. 5. Eyewitness testimony is some of the best evidence available in court. 6. All psychologists do is therapy. 7. A correlation between two variables means that one causes the other. 8. A person with schizophrenia has a split personality. 9. Many people come through adolescence with emotional scars and conflicts. 10. Most old people are at least a little bit senile.

What is Psychology? Write down your definition of psychology Brainstorm where you might look to find a definition Find a partner (or 2) and compare definitions and brainstorms Use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast the following definitions with the ones that you have generated.

Create a group definition for psychology Definitions of Psychology The science that deals with mental processes and behavior. Study of human or animal mental functions and behaviors The study of the soul or mind. The emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual, group, or

activity What is Psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Major Perspectives in Psychology Perspective is a way of viewing phenomena So, each perspective

represents a different emphasis or point of view used when studying a behavior or issue Major Perspectives in Psychology Psychology has multiple perspectives Biological Psychodynamic

Behavioral Humanistic Positive Psychology Cognitive Cross-Cultural Evolutionary Biological Perspective Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and

control behavior Focus may be at various levels individual neurons areas of the brain specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences

Psychodynamic Perspective View of behavior based on experience treating patients Psychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud) both a method of treatment and a theory of the mind behavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences drives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behavior early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations

Behavioral Perspective View of behavior based on experience or learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Psychologist associated Ivan Pavlov John Watson

B.F. Skinner Humanistic Perspective Developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

behavior reflects innate actualization focus on conscious forces and self perception more positive view of basic forces than Freuds Review Cognitive Perspective

How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior? Influences include Piaget studied intellectual development Chomsky studied language Cybernetics science of information processing Cross-Cultural Perspective The study of cultural effects on behavior and

mental processes The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups How are peoples thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture? What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate? Evolutionary Perspective

Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns Application of principles of evolution to explain behavior and psychological processes Review Column A

Column B Perspective Emphasis ___1. Behavioral A. How cultural factors influence behavior

___2. Biological B. Darwins theory of natural selection ___3. Cognitive C. The study of observable behavior ___4. Cross-cultural D. The study of positive emotions, psychological states, and positive individual traits

___5. Humanistic conflicts, E. The unconscious, sex, aggression, early childhood trauma, repression ___6. Psychoanalytic behavior F. Physical bases of human and animal

___7. Evolutionary G. How mental processes work ___8. Positive will H. Human potential, self-actualization, and free

Specialty Areas in Psychology Biological

Clinical Cognitive Counseling Educational Experimental Developmental

Forensic Health Industrial/organizational Personality Rehabilitation

Social Sports Similarities and Differences between clinical psychologists and psychiatrists Both trained in the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of psychological disorders Clinical psychologists receive doctorate (Ph.D. or Psy.D.)

Psychiatrists receive a medical degree (M.D. or D.O.) followed by years of specialized training in treatment of mental disorders Goals of Psychology

Describe... Explain... Predict... Control... ...behavioral and mental processes Scientific Method Set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in

creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions Small Group Activity All of us have the fundamental capacity to think and reason scientifically So You are walking in the desert and find a

man lying face down with a pack on his back, dead. How did he die? Only ask me yes/no questions Scientific Method Formulate testable questions Develop hypotheses Design study to collect data Experimental

Descriptive Analyze data to arrive at conclusions Use of statistical procedures Use of meta-analysis Report results Publication Replication Activity Origins of Psychology Will class participation kill you?

1. Statement of rival hypothesis 2. Selection of subjects 3. Pretest measure 4. Introducing the treatment 5. Posttest measure 6. Formulate alternative explanations The Scientific Method Example of how to report findings

Definitions Hypothesistentative statement about the relationship between variables Variablesfactors that can vary in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified (independent versus dependent) Operational definitionprecise description of how the variables will be measured

Theory A general principle or set of principles proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related Theory Tentative explanation for observed findings Results from accumulation of findings of individual studies

Tool for explaining observed behavior Reflects self-correcting nature of scientific method. Research Strategies 1. Descriptivestrategies for observing and describing behavior Naturalistic observation Case studies Surveys

Correlational methods 2. Experimentalstrategies for inferring cause and effect relationships among variables Descriptive Study

Describes a set of facts Does not look for relationships between facts Does not predict what may influence the facts May or may not include numerical data Example: measure the percentage of new students from out-of-state each year since 1980

Naturalistic Observation Researchers directly observe and record behavior rather than relying on subject descriptions. In naturalistic observation researcher records behavior as it occurs naturally. Case Study Method

Highly detailed description of a single individual Generally used to investigate rare, unusual, or extreme conditions Survey Methods Designed to investigate opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group. Usually in self-report form.

Samples and Sampling Populationlarge (potentially infinite) group represented by the sample. Findings are generalized to this group. Sampleselected segment of the population Representative sampleclosely parallels the population on relevant characteristics Random selectionevery member of

larger group has equal change of being selected for the study sample Correlational Study Collects a set of facts organized into two or more categories measure parents disciplinary style measure childrens behavior

Examine the relationship between categories Correlation reveals relationships among facts e.g., more democratic parents have children who behave better Correlational Study Correlation cannot prove causation Do democratic parents produce better behaved

children? Do better behaved children encourage parents to be democratic? May be an unmeasured common factor e.g., good neighborhoods produce democratic adults and well-behaved children Correlation Does Not Prove Causation

Stress Illness Illness Stress Stress Illness

Stress Poverty Illness Coefficient of Correlation Correlational coefficient - numerical indication of magnitude and direction of the relationship between two

variables - falls in range of -1.00 to +1.00 - 2 parts: number and sign - number indicates strength - sign indicates direction Correlational Coefficient The closer the correlational coefficient is to 1.00 (+ or -), the stronger the correlation Positive correlationtwo variables vary

systematically in the SAME direction Negative correlationtwo variables vary systematically in OPPOSITE directions CORRELATION DOES NOT NECESSARILY INDICATE CAUSATION Correlation vs Causation A may cause B

B may cause A A and B can interact A third variable C may cause both A and B Research suggests that morning people are more optimistic than evening people. Newspaper Confusion

Experiments Direct way to test a hypothesis about a cause-effect relationship between factors Factors are called variables One variable is controlled by the experimenter e.g., democratic vs. authoritarian classroom

The other is observed and measured e.g., cooperative behavior among students Activity I want to know Identify what research method is the best way to answer the following research questions Naturalistic observation Case studies

Surveys Correlational methods Experimental Experimental Variables Independent variable (IV) the controlled factor in an experiment (i.e. the one you manipulate) hypothesized to cause an effect on another variable

Dependent variable (DV) the measured facts hypothesized to be influenced by IV Independent Variable Must have at least two levels categories male vs. female numeric ages 10, 12, 14

Simplest is... experimental vs. control group experimental group gets treatment control group does not Control group is exposed to all experimental conditions EXCEPT the independent variable Activity 1.4 Operational Defs Experimental Design

Random sampleevery member of the population being studied should have an equal chance of being selected for the study Random assignmentevery subject in the study should have an equal chance of being placed in either the experimental or control group Randomization helps avoid false results Sources of Bias

Demand characteristics (Experimenter bias*) subtle cues or signals by the researcher that communicate type of responses that are expected Selection bias* - the assignment of participants to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differences among the groups are present at the beginning of the experiment.

Control of Bias Placebo control groupexposed to a fake IV (placebo), the effects of which are compared to group receiving the actual IV Double-blind studytechnique in which neither the experimenter nor participant is aware of the group to which participant is assigned Limitations of Experimental

Designs Often criticized for having little to do with actual behavior because of strict laboratory conditions Ethical considerations in creating some more real life situations Designing an Experiment Choose a clich and design an experiment to test its validity Examples:

An acorn doesnt fall far from the tree An apple a day keeps the doctor away You cant teach a old dog new tricks All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy Lie down with dogs and wake up with fleas Beauty is in the eye of the beholder A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush Good fences make good neighbors Many hands make light work

Ethical Guidelines Informed consent and voluntary participation Students as participants Use of deception Confidentiality of information Information about the study and debriefing Using Animals in Psychological

Research 90% of psychology research actually uses humans, not animals, as subjects Many psychologists are interested in the study of animal behavior for its own sake (comparative psychology) Animal subjects are sometimes used for research that could not feasibly be conducted on human subjects

Using Brain Imaging in Psychological Research Used for both descriptive and experimental research (Henson, 2005). Types: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Functional MRI (fMRI) The Brains Mysteries

Brain activities are revealed via: PET Scan positron emission tomography Reveals brain activity based on blood flow, oxygen use, and glucose consumption MRI Magnetic resonance imagery High resolution images w/o x-rays Functional MRI

Reveals precise brain structure and activity Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008

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