Integrating Differentiated Instruction & Understanding by Design

Integrating Differentiated Instruction & Understanding by Design

INTEGRATING DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION (DI) & UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN (UBD) Carol Ann Tomlinson & Jay McTighe Notes by P. Samaddar, August 2011 UBD & DI Are mutually supportive and need one another In effective classrooms, teachers consistently attend to at least 4 elements: Whom they teach students Where they teach learning environment What they teach content How they teach instruction

2 LOGIC FOR COMBINING UBD & DI Understanding by Design (UbD) focuses on what we teach and what assessment evidence we need to collect - a curriculum model Differentiated Instruction (DI) focuses on whom we teach, where we teach, and how we teach (processes and procedures that ensure effective learning for varied individuals) predominantly (not solely) an instruction design model 3

SIMPLY PUTQUALITY CLASSROOMS evolve around powerful knowledge that works for each student require quality curriculum and quality instruction 4 In tandem, UbD and DI provide structures, tools, and guidance for developing curriculum and instruction based on current best understandings of teaching and learning

(See Axioms / Corollaries & Scenarios p. 4-11) 5 PROFESSIONALS IN ANY FIELD Act on most current knowledge that defines the field Are client-centered and adapt to meet the needs of individuals 6 GOAL IS TO SEE: the role of UbD in ensuring that educators identify and teach the essential knowledge,

skills, and enduring understandings that shape each of the disciplines and the role of DI in making certain that each learner has maximum opportunity to benefit from high-quality experiences with those essentials 7 CH. 2 WHAT REALLY MATTERS IN TEACHING? (THE STUDENTS) Guiding Questions: How can students' lives influence their classroom experiences? Why does it matter to teach responsively? What are some starting points for responsive teaching? 8

TEACHING IS AN ART To be an expert teacher is to continually seek a deeper understanding of the essence of subject, to increasingly grasp its wisdom Central to the art of teaching is the student; the student is the focal point of our work as teachers Students' lives should be shaped in dramatically better ways because of the power and wisdom revealed through highquality curriculum 9 HUMAN BEINGS ARE VARIED AND COMPLEX Varieties and complexities demand every bit as much study from the teacher as does curriculum content

The best teachers are mindful that teaching is judged by successful learning and that learners will inevitably and appropriately influence the effectiveness of the art we practice 10 CH. 2 GOAL To briefly explore some ways in which learner variance shapes the art of teaching Students should always be in the forefront of our thinking as we make, implement, and reflect on our professional plans 11

SOME CASES IN POINT As teachers become experienced, they develop refined sense of how the journey will unfold (e.g., time, benchmarks for progress, and particular routes of travel) fully mindful of the needs and interest of learners Each year, students reinforce the journey is a shared endeavour and that best-laid plans of the best teachers are just that plans, subject to change 12 EXAMPLES OF REAL STUDENTS WITH BARRIERS TO LEARNING (P.13-18 ) a personal crisis eclipsed teacher's well-developed plans

one struggled with issues of race and academic identity another struggled with learning problems in Writing a 3rd struggled when he couldn't keep still; when his way of learning became acceptable, he became a better learner 13 These examples are real students in real classrooms Their teachers invested time, care, and mental energy in crafting curricula that complemented their belief in the possibilities of each student and the role of knowledge in helping students achieve their potential

It is the optimism of teaching, of course, that if we keep trying, we will find a way to address problems that, in the meantime, obstruct learner success 14 STUDENTS ARE MUCH ALIKE AND VERY DIFFERENT Like all humans, students are looking for a sense of their own meanings, roles, and possibilities They come to the classroom first looking for things like affirmation, affiliation, accomplishment and autonomy 15

They are looking for adults who accept them, value them, guide them and represent for them what it means to be a competent and caring adult It is the teachers' job to make the link between the basic human needs of students and curriculum 16 SOME CATEGORIES OF STUDENT VARIANCE FIG. 2.1 (P. 17) Category of Student Variance Contributors to the

Category Some Implications for Learning Biology Gender, Neurological "wiring", Abilities, Disabilities, Development High ability/disability exist in a whole range of endeavours; will learn in different modes, timetables; some parameters for learning are somewhat defined, but are malleable with appropriate context and support Degree of Privilege

Economic status, Race, Culture, Support system, Language, Experience Students not in positions of power face greater school challenges Quality of students' adult support system influences learning Breadth/depth of student experience influence learning Positioning for learning Adult models, trust, self-concept, motivation, temperament, interpersonal skills Parents who actively commend

education positively affect their children's learning; trust, positive self-concept, positive temperament, and motivation to learn positively impact student learning; positive interpersonal skills and "emotional intelligence" positively impact student learning Preferences Interests, Learning preferences, Preferences for individuals Student interests will vary across topics/subjects; students vary in preference for how to take in and 17 demonstrate knowledge; students will relate to teachers differently

In truth, far more students would be successful in school if we understood it to be our jobs to craft circumstances that lead to success rather than letting circumstance take its course An inspiring mentor/principal, Dennis Tetreau once said to me, "Get ahead of kids!" 18 WHY IT MATTERS TO TEACH RESPONSIVELY (P.18) Responsive or differentiated teaching means a teacher is as attuned to students' varied learning needs as to the requirements of a thoughtful and

well-articulated curriculum - all with an eye to supporting maximum success for each learner Responsive teaching necessitates that a teacher work continuously to establish a positive relationship with individual learners and come to understand which approaches to learning are most effective for various learners 19 LEARNER SUCCESS BENEFITS FROM TEACHERS WHO ARE RESPONSIVE TO A LEARNER'S PARTICULAR NEEDS: teacher-student relationships contribute to student energy for learning the learning environment builds a context for learning students' backgrounds and needs builds bridges that connect learners and important content

student readiness allows for academic growth student interest enlists student motivation student learning profiles enables efficiency of learning 20 BASIC APPROACHES TO RESPONSIVE TEACHING Differentiation does not advocate "individualization" Teachers can work to benefit many more students by implementing patterns of instruction likely to serve multiple needs

Implementing patterns and procedures likely to benefit students who have similar needs (while avoid labeling) is a great starting point 21 CONSIDER 10 TEACHING PATTERNS THAT CUT ACROSS "CATEGORIES" OF STUDENTS AND BENEFIT ACADEMIC SUCCESS FOR MANY LEARNERS Find ways to know students intentionally /regularly e.g., stand at door; use dialogue journals, observation notes Cultivate a taste for diversity see pg. 22 for specific examples in this

section Incorporate small-group teaching into daily or weekly teaching routines Allow working alone or with peers give students the option Learn to teach to the high end foster complex and creative thinking, support for increased independence, selfasssessment, metacognition, flexible pacing

Use basic reading strategies throughout the curriculum "read-alouds", "close reads", "split entry comprehension journals" Offer more ways to explore and express learning varied products/performances Use clear rubrics that coach for quality Regularly use informal assessments to monitor student

understanding Teach in multiple ways part-towhole; whole-to-part; 22 BEGINNING AT THE BEGINNING Excellent teaching is of immense importance So is coherent, meaning-rich curriculum Learning happens within students, not to them 23

Always in our minds as we design curriculum must be these questions: Whom am I preparing to teach? How can I bring knowledge of my students to bear on the way in which I design curriculum? How can I help these particular students find themselves and their world in what I am about to teach? 24 THEN, AS WE DESIGN, CONTINUE TO ASK:

How might I teach in ways that best reveal the power of this design to these individuals? How might I learn more about these particular students as I watch them interact with the content and the ways in which I set about to teach it? In what ways might I ensure that each learner has full access to the power of this design in accordance with his or her particular needs? 25 The curriculum plans we make will be

energized and informed by awareness of the people for whom they are designed Curriculum design becomes a process through which we plan to communicate to real human beings our belief in the power of knowledge and the potential of the individual to develop power through knowledge 26 CH. 3 WHAT REALLY MATTERS IN LEARNING? (CONTENT)- P.24 What knowledge is truly essential and enduring? What's worth understanding? What powerful ideas

should all students encounter? Can differentiation and standards coexist? How can we address required content standards while remaining responsive to individual students? 27 CHALLENGES Too much content to teach given the available time (E.g., Marzano/Kendall (2005) if 30 minutes allocated to each identified benchmark, an additional 15,465 hours 9 more years of school would be required for students to learn them all! Some standards stated in ways that make them difficult to address Some standards too big, some too small Textbooks frequently exacerbate the situation High-stakes tests reduced to a series of

"factlets" 28 HOW CAN WE ADDRESS THE CONTENT OVERLOAD CHALLENGES POSED BY STANDARDS AND TEXTBOOKS? Learning results should be considered in terms of understanding the "big ideas" and core processes within the content standards Ideas are framed around provocative "essential questions" to focus teaching and learning More specific facts, concepts, and skills are then taught in the context of exploring and applying the larger ideas and processes P. 26 How does this look in practice? (Art & Ancient Civilization Units)

29 When the curriculum, instruction, and assessment focus on such "big ideas" and essential questions, they signal to students and parents that the underlying goal of all school efforts is to improve student learning of important content, not merely to traverse a textbook or practice for standardized tests. 30 PLANNING BACKWARD (P.27) Tomlinson/McTighe propose three-stage backward design process for curriculum planning Stage 1. Identify desired results Stage 2. Determine acceptable evidence Stage 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction Goal is to make our teaching engaging and effective

for learners, while always keeping the end in mind 31 BACKWARD DESIGN AVOIDS 2 FAMILIAR "TWIN SINS" "Activity-oriented" instruction & "Coverage" 32 PLANNING TEMPLATES FIGURE 3.1 & 3.2, P. 30 & 31 Stage 1 Desired Results Established Goal (s): Understanding (s): Essential Quesiton (s):

Knowledge Students will know Skill Students will be able to Stage 2 Assessment Evidence Performance Task (s): Other Evidence: Stage 3 Learning Plan Learning Activities: 3 Versions of this Template Available Would you like them? 33 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT BACKWARD DESIGN ANSWERS P.32 & P. 33

How do we identify the "big ideas" that we want students to understand? How do we develop the accompanying essential questions? Do you have to follow the template order (top to bottom) when you design? Can you use the three stages of backward design to plan a lesson as well as a unit? 34 APPLYING DIFFERENTIATION (RESPONSIVE TEACHING) TO THE UBD FRAMEWORK P.33-37 Stage 1 Established goals serve as focal point for teaching ALL students The "big ideas" & essential questions provide intellectual richness and promote transfer of all

learning Like content standards, desired understandings and questions should remain a constant target, regardless of differences in students' backgrounds, knowledge, interests and preferred learning modalities The big ideas and essential questions provide the conceptual pillars that anchor the various disciplines 35 APPLYING DIFFERENTIATION (RESPONSIVE TEACHING) TO THE UBD FRAMEWORK Some differentiation may be needed with more specific knowledge and skill objectives as students vary in prior knowledge and skill levels Responsive teachers target their instruction to address significant gaps in knowledge and skills Responsiveness follows from effective

diagnostic assessments that reveal if such prerequisite knowledge and skills exist 36 APPLYING DIFFERENTIATION (RESPONSIVE TEACHING) TO THE UBD FRAMEWORK - STAGE 2 Logic of backward design dictates evidence from goals Teachers "think like assessors" to determine assessments that will provide the evidence for the identified knowledge, skills and understandings in Stage 1 Examine verbs in content standard and benchmark statements as this suggest the nature of needed evidence 37

APPLYING DIFFERENTIATION (RESPONSIVE TEACHING) TO THE UBD FRAMEWORK Wiggins and McTighe propose that understanding is best revealed through various facets - when learners can explain, interpret, apply, shift perspective, display empathy and reflectively selfassess (See also slides.) We need to match our assessment measures with our goals 38 APPLYING DIFFERENTIATION (RESPONSIVE TEACHING) TO THE UBD FRAMEWORK It is important to note that although we may offer students options to show what they know and can do, we will use the same criteria in judging the response

Teachers needs to find practical balance point between completely individualized assessments and standardized, "one-size-fitsall" measures Classroom assessments can indeed be responsive to students' differences while still providing reliable information about student learning 39 APPLYING DIFFERENTIATION (RESPONSIVE TEACHING) TO THE UBD FRAMEWORK - STAGE 3 Develop teaching and learning plans to help students achieve the desired results of Stage 1 and equip them for their performances of understanding in Stage 2 In Stage 3 responsive teaching flourishes as we consider variety in the background knowledge, interests, and preferred learning modalities of our students Figure 3.3 pg. 36 (and next slide) offer visual

summary of these past 6 slides Backward design provides the structure to support flexibility in teaching and assessing in order to honour the integrity of content while respecting the individuality of learners 40 APPLYING DIFFERENTIATION TO THE UBD FRAMEWORK VISUAL SUMMARY (P.36) Stage 1 Desired Results Established Goal (s): Should not be differentiated Understanding (s): Essential Question(s):

Should not be differentiated Knowledge Students will know Skill Students will be able to May be differentiated Stage 2 Assessment Evidence Performance Task (s): Other Evidence: Stage 3 Learning Plan Learning Activities: May be differentiated

Should be differentiated 41 Should be differentiated CH. 4 WHAT REALLY MATTERS IN PLANNING FOR STUDENT SUCCESS (P.38) What are the attitudes and skills of responsive teachers, and why do they matter? What might the attitudes and skills of successful planning for differentiation look like in practice? What are indicators of effective differentiation in the classroom? 42

COMPELLING CURRICULUM AND THE OTHER HALF OF THE TEACHING EQUATION Clarity is reflected by experts who have identified core of each discipline Clarity is shown through one's ability to organize and use ideas and skills to address problems rather than with retention of data Clarity about content reveals our awareness that human beings seek to make sense of their world and that the big ideas of the disciplines reveal the big ideas of life To grasp key concepts and principles of any subject helps us better understand ourselves, our lives and our world 43 Clarity about what really matters in the disciplines

enables us to teach for understanding Provide intellectual diet that yields thoughtful, capable, confident learners and citizens THE MORE POWERFUL THE CURRICULUM, THE GREATER THE POSSIBILITIES FOR THE CLASSROOM, THE TEACHER, AND THE STUDENTS 44 We are teachers of human beings The essence of our job is making sure that the curriculum serves as a catalyst for powerful learning for students who, with our guidance and support, become skilled in and committed to the

process of learning To be effective, teachers must continually attend to the quality of both curriculum and instruction Because the human beings we teach differ significantly in many dimensions, the means by which we attempt to make a rich curriculum "work" for those students will have to be many and varied 45 ESSENTIAL ATTITUDES AND SKILLS OF DI While most teachers desire to attend to learner variance, few teachers in fact translate that ideal into classroom practice There are few models of how such classrooms

would look and little personal experience with the concept Worthy step is looking at key attitudes and skills necessary for differentiated or responsive teaching Measure own instructional strengths and needs and set a course for persistent movement toward the kinds of classrooms that fully support the success of academically diverse student populations 46 9 ATTITUDES & SKILLS THAT TYPIFY TEACHERS WHO HELP ALL LEARNERS THEY: Establish clarity about curricular essentials Accept responsibility for learner success Develop communities of respect Build awareness of what works for each student Develop classroom management routines that contribute to success Help students become effective partners in their own

success Develop flexible classroom teaching routines Expand a repertoire of instructional strategies Reflect on individual progress with an eye toward curricular goals and personal growth 47 The stronger we are as professionals in each of these areas, the more successful our students are likely to be as learners Significant deficits in any of the areas are likely to result in learning deficits for at least some of the students who count on us

P.40 56 brief examination of meaning of the attitudes & skills and why they are significant in student success; scenarios show how they might look in practice Next: My Take-Away's 48 Feel free to skip to Slide 64 MY TAKE AWAYS - ESTABLISHING CLARITY ABOUT CURRICULAR ESSENTIALS Goals matter as we can't teach everything Take care to teach that which is most durable and useful Powerful understanding-based goals will nearly always "belong" to everyone

Able to communicate the importance of the classroom agenda and the capacity of every student to benefit from and contribute to that agenda Remember to pre-assess learners' proficiency with those goals Goals give teacher road map for the learning journey that directs ongoing assessments and adjustment of teaching and learning plans throughout the unit Based on important concepts and principles likely to be engaging, link with experiences/interests of students, can establish relevanceleading to enhanced motivation

Flexible with entry points Teacher more likely to be at ease in offering students options to explore and express learning in a mode appropriate for the student's learning profile 49 MY TAKE AWAYS - ACCEPTING RESPONSIBILITY FOR LEARNER SUCCESS If a student is not growing even if he or she is making As the teacher is not teaching that student The teacher accepts the premise that if he or she doesn't ensure that the day works for the child, it may be a lost day Part of the teacher's job is to establish an environment in

which shared responsibility for successful learning is part of the classroom ethic and practice A teacher in an effectively differentiated class will not allow economics, gender, race, past achievement, lack of parental involvement, or any other factor become an excuse for shoddy work or outcomes that are less than a student is able to accomplish 50 MY TAKE AWAYS - ACCEPTING RESPONSIBILITY FOR LEARNER SUCCESS Get to know each student, continually map the progress of students against essential outcomes, find alternate ways of teaching/alternate paths to learning to ensure continual growth of each student Send consistent messages to students that if something didn't work today, both teacher and student will be back at it tomorrow and the day after until success occurs Provide support systems that articulate and model

what quality work looks like and what it takes to attain quality results 51 MY TAKE AWAYS - DEVELOPING COMMUNITIES OF RESPECT We learn to accept and appreciate one another's variances Celebrate one another's victories and support one another's efforts It is crucial for students to accept and ultimately understand both their commonalities and differences Classroom has to be a place where each student fees safe (not seen as a failure, a nerd, a test score, a social pariah) and also challenged 52

MY TAKE AWAYS - DEVELOPING COMMUNITIES OF RESPECT Teachers in such classrooms: Communicate respect and positive expectation Seek out, affirm, and draw on the unique abilities of each student Elicit and value multiple perspectives on issues, decisions, and ways of accomplishing work Make sure all students are called upon to participate regularly Help students identify and adhere to constructive ways of interacting with one another Design tasks that enable each student to make important contributions to the work of the group Ensure languages, cultures, and perspectives of varied cultures are represented in the important work of the group Help students reflect on the quality of their contributions to the developing classroom community Seek and respond to students' ideas about how to foster 53 respect in the classroom MY TAKE AWAYS BUILDING AWARENESS OF

WHAT WORKS FOR EACH STUDENT Hunt and gather info about what best propels learning for each student Make opportunities to communicate individually with individual learners Garner info on students' interests, dreams, and aspirations Work to understand each student's profile of academic strengths and weaknesses Understand the inevitable learning profile variance that exists in groups and individuals Observe students working individually, in small gorups, and in the class as a whole with the intent to study factors that facilitate or impede progress for individuals and for the groups as a whole Create opportunities to learn from parents, guardians, and community members about students 54 MY TAKE AWAYS CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT ROUTINES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO SUCCESS

Multiplicity of tasks, combined with frequency and rotation is one reason why teaching is so exhausting Developing a system through which students learn to play a large role in managing themselves, their work, and their success is not an ideal, but a necessity Students are capable of doing many of the routine operations in a classroom, and they benefit from the responsibility They beome more aware of classroom operations, more independent as thinkers and problem solvers, more a part of a team effort and they develop more ownership in outcomes

Teachers are then freer to provide the kind of assistance to students that makes good use of his or her professional abilities DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOMS ENLIST EVERYONE'S BEST EFFORTS IN MAKING SURE THE CLASSROOM OPERATES SMOOTHLY 55 MY TAKE AWAYS CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT ROUTINES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO SUCCESS Teachers in such classrooms: Establish high expectations for routines as an important factor in student growth Study operational routines to make sure they are working well Work with students to develop a rationale and rules for effective classroom operation Make clear on an ongoing basis criteria for success in varied roles in varied tasks Gather info from students about what is and is not working well for them as individuals and as part of small groups Seek student advice on making class operate effectively Enlist students in performing routine functions whenever possible

Help students perform those functions effectively and efficiently Ensure everyone's participation in making the classroom work 56 MY TAKE AWAYS HELPING STUDENTS BECOME EFFECTIVE PARTNERS IN THEIR OWN SUCCESS Students need to: become effective in speaking about and playing a role in addressing their own learning goals and needs become effective in charting their own success develop a growing sophistication about one's strengths and weaknesses, understanding what facilitates and hinders one's learning, setting and monitoring personal learning goals, and so on become increasingly more self-reliant (this is also propelled by the need to provide differently for different learners in order to maximize their growth It is important for students to participate in crafting their own success. They need to be able to: say

that particular work is too hard or too easy for them distinguish between more productive and less productive working arrangements determine when they are moving toward goals and when they are becoming derailed set personal goals beyond those established for the class as a whole 57 MY TAKE AWAYS HELPING STUDENTS BECOME EFFECTIVE PARTNERS IN THEIR OWN SUCCESS Teachers in such classrooms: Help students understand, accept, and ultimately benefit from their differences Nurture a growing awareness of students' particular strengths Help students acknowledge areas of weakness Facilitate ways to remediate or compensate for weaknesses Guide students in developing a vocabulary related to learning preferences and in exercising those preferences that facilitate their growth Ask students to reflect on their own growth, factors that

facilitate that growth, and likely next steps to ensure continual growth Support students in setting and monitoring personal learning goals Provide opportunities for students to talk with their parents or guardians about their growth and goals 58 MY TAKE-AWAYS DEVELOPING FLEXIBLE CLASSROOM TEACHING ROUTINES Continually seek varied ways of thinking about time, materials, tasks, student groupings, teacherguided instruction, space, grading, and so on Simply put, there is no other way to craft a classroom that works well for each learner 59

MY TAKE-AWAYS DEVELOPING FLEXIBLE CLASSROOM TEACHING ROUTINES Teachers in such classrooms: Allow for students' different pace of learning Gather both basic and suplementary materials of different readability levels that reflect different cultures, connect with varied interests, and are in different modes (e.g., auditory and visual) Experiment with ways to rearrange furniture to allow for whole-class, small-group and individual learning spaces Vary student groupings so that in addition to meeting readiness needs, they enable students to work with peers who have similar and dissimilar interests, learning preferences, in random groups, in groups selected by the teacher and those students select themselves Regularly teach to whole class, small groups based on assessed need, and to individuals Teach in a variety of ways to accommodate students' varied readiness, needs, interests and learning preferences Ensure grades communicated both personal growth and relative standing 60 in regard to specified learning outcomes

MY TAKE-AWAYS EXPANDING A REPERTOIRE OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Comfortably and appropriately using an array of instructional strategies engages learners Students need an element of variety, novelty and surprise injected into the classroom Teacher who has many instructional tools at hand is better equipped to find the tool that fits the purpose, the agility in reaching out to students 61 MY TAKE-AWAYS EXPANDING A REPERTOIRE OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Teachers in such classrooms:

Use a variety of strategies when they present to the class as well as when students are actively engaged in learning Use strategies that enable them to address readiness, interest, and learning profile needs Guide students in understanding how to work with instructional approaches effectively (Anne Davies keep ongoing list of strategies "posted) Help students reflect on which strategies work well for them, why that might be the case, and what that reveals to the student about him-or-herself as a learner 62 MY TAKE-AWAYS REFLECTING IN INDIVIDUAL PROGRESS WITH AN EYE TOWARD CURRICULAR GOALS AND PERSONAL GROWTH Teachers in such classrooms: Use pre-assessment data to begin planning for both in-common learning goals and individual learning needs Use ongoing assessment to ensure as close a match as possible between instruction and learner needs Observe personal growth relative to a student's particular profile

Engage students in setting personal goals and evaluating progress toward those goals Reflect consistently on individual and group growth in order to adjust instruction in ways of greatest benefit to individuals and the class as a whole Help parents understand a student's personal growth and standing relative to in-common goals Note to self: Design index card for gathering observations 63 where I can sort as I go (saves time at report card time) THE COMMON SENSE OF IT ALL P.56-57 The goal is not perfection but persistence in the pursuit of understanding important things! Differentiated or responsive teaching stems from an affirmative answers to 3 questions and the determination to live out the answers a little bit better today than we did yesterday. 64

1. Do we have the will and skill to accept responsibility for the diverse individuals we teach? To develop positive ties with students to encourage their growth To see their dreams and uncertainties To study and respond to their cultures To work with students to build positive learning communities 65 2. Do we have a vision of the power of highquality learning to help young people build lives? To

know what really matters in the discipline To ensure student understanding of what mattersmost To discover what's relevant and compelling to individuals To build student engagement in learning 66 3. Are we willing to do the work of building bridges of possibility between what we teach and the diverse learners we teach? To To To To To seek out students' strengths and deficiencies develop flexible teaching routines create learning options for varied needs

coach for success monitor individual growth against goals 67 That is the essence of expert teaching. It dignifies our work and our profession even as it dignifies the students we teach. 68 EXCELLENT SOURCES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR A WIDE RANGE OF STUDENTS (Saskatoon Public School Division) (University of Virginia, Curry School of Education Reading Quest) (English Companion Web Site) Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom: Strategies and Tools for Responsive Teaching by Carol Ann Tomlinson (ASCD, 2003) Time for Literacy Centers: How to Organize and Differentiate Instruction by Gretchen Owocki (Heinemann, 2005) What Are the Other Kids Doing While You Teach Small Groups? By Donna Marriott (Creative Teaching Press, 1997) Winning Strategies for Classroom Management by Carol 69 cummings (ASCD, 2000) CONSIDERING EVIDENCE OF LEARNING IN DIVERSE CLASSROOMS CH. 5 What should count as evidence of learning? Of understanding? How might we differentiate our assessments without sacrificing validity and reliability? How can we maintain standards without

standardization? How can assessment promote learning, not simply measure it? 70 ASSESSMENT HELPS US ANSWER Did the student learn it? To what extent does the student understand? How might I adjust my teaching to be more effective for learners with varying needs? 71 By considering in advance assessment evidence needed to validate that the desired results have been achieved, teaching becomes more purposeful and focused. Teachers have a consistent framework within which they can make modifications for their

students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. Three Assessment Principles #1: Consider Photo Album Versus Snapshots p.60 #2: Match the Measures with the Goals p.64 #3: Form Follows Function p.70 72 1ST OF 3 KEY PRINCIPLES TO INFORM/ GUIDE CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT 1. CONSIDER PHOTO ALBUMS VERSUS SNAPSHOTS P.60 Selected-response format (e.g., multiple-choice, true-false) Written or oral responses to academic prompts (short-answer format) Performance assessment tasks, yielding Extended written products (e.g., essays, lab reports) Visual products (e.g., PowerPoint shows, murals) Oral performances (e.g., oral reports, foreign-language dialogues) Demonstrations (e.g., skill performances in PE)

Long-term, "authentic" projects (e.g., exhibitions) Portfolios (systematic collections of student work over time) Reflective journals or learning logs Informal, ongoing observations of students (e.g., teacher note taking, probing questions, exit cards, Quick-Writes) Formal observations of students using observable indicators or criterion list Student self assessments Peer reviews and peer response groups 73 An Assessment Photo Album p.63 74 "Multiple measures are essential because no one test can do it all. Therefore, no test, no matter how good it is, should be the sole criterion for any decision. " (1994 Dr. Michael Keen) Providing multiple and various assessment types increases

opportunity for students to work to their strengths and ultimately the likelihood of their success An Assessment Photo Album Graphic organizer especially valuable for team planning Helps ensure assessment evidence meets goals Working with colleagues to forge consensus about what it looks like when students achieve desired results, educators realize more coherent curricula, more reliable assessments, and greater consistency in grading and reporting across classrooms and schools Like judicial system, need "preponderance of evidence" to convict students of learning! Validity and reliability enhanced when we ensure types of assessment are effective for particular learners in providing evidence of their achievement Note to Self: Seattle trip re: Common Assessments 75 2ND OF 3 KEY PRINCIPLES TO INFORM/GUIDE CLASSROOM

ASSESSMENT 2. ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLE - MATCH THE MEASURES WITH THE GOALS, P.64 Carefully consider desired results Three types of educational goals: 1. declarative knowledge what students should know and understand 2. procedural knowledge what students should be able to do (skill), and 3. dispositions what attitudes or habits of mind students should display (evidence through observations, examples, portfolios, and selfassessments) In a differentiated classroom there is particular meaning in attending to student proficiency with all three kinds of knowledge It matters that data provide info on student strengths and needs with knowledge, understanding and skill Note to Self Learning journal pocket for admission / exit slips

76 Stage 1 Desired Results Strengths Weaknesses Knowledge Understanding Skills Dispositions / Habits of Mind Note to Self: How could I enter the 3 types of educational goals for consideration in template? We should include a variety of assessment pictures in our assessment "photo album" Goals should dictate the nature of our assessment, not what is easiest to give and

grade 77 ASSESSING UNDERSTANDING What is the difference between knowing & understanding? How will we know that students truly understand the big ideas that we have identified? How might we allow students to demonstrate their understanding in diverse ways without compromising standards? Knowing is binary you either know something or you don't; declarative facts and basic concepts fall into this category assessing factual knowledge can be readily accomplished through objective tests and quizzes featuring "correct" answers Understanding is more a matter of degree. E.g., sophisticated insight, a solid grasp, an incomplete or nave conception or a misunderstanding answer revealed along a continuumthis has implications for how we assess and how we describe results The term understand can be used in such diverse waysWiggins/McTighe propose 6 facets (indicators) of how

understanding is revealed provide guidance as to the kinds of assessments we need to determine the extent of student understanding Basic approach (not 6): explain and apply 78 6 FACETS OF UNDERSTANDING WHEN WE TRULY UNDERSTAND, WE: Explain Via generalizations or principles: provide justified and systematic accounts of phenomena, facts, and data; make insightful connections and provide illuminating examples or illustrations Interpret Tell meaningful stories; offer apt translations; provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events; make it personal or accessible through images,

anecdotes, analogies, and models Apply Effectively use and adapt what we know in diverse and real context we can "do" the subject Perspectiv e See and hear points of view through critical eyes and ears; see the big picture Empathy Find value in what others might find odd, alien, or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior direct experience SelfShow metacognitive awareness; perceive the personal Knowledge style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both

shape and impede our own understanding; be aware of what we do not understand; reflect on the meaning of learning and experience 79 PROVIDE AUTHENTIC VS. INAUTHENTIC WORK Inauthentic Work Authentic Work Fill in the blank Conduct research using primary sources Select an answer from given choices Debate a controversial issue

Answer recall questions at end Conduct a scientific of chapter investigation Solve contrived problems Solve "real-world" problems Practice decontextualized skills Interpret literature Diagram sentences Do purposeful writing for an audience While both drills and authentic application are necessary, too often find overemphasis on decontextualized drills..need to "play the game" Note to Self: Nutrition Unit ideas to use on p.68

80 TO CREATE MORE AUTHENTIC "PERFORMANCES OF UNDERSTANDING" THE GRASPS FRAME P.70 INCLUDE: G a real-world goal R a meaningful role for the student A an authentic (or simulated) real-world audience (s) S a contextualized situation that involve real-world application

P student-generated products and performances, and S Consensus-driven performance standards (criteria) for judging success Do not mean to imply that everything we teach or assess needs to be framed using GRASPS However, for the important ideas and processes, authentic tasks have merit 81 3RD OF 3 KEY PRINCIPLES TO INFORM/GUIDE CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT 3. FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION, P. 70 The way we design and use classroom

assessment should be directly influenced by the answers to four questions: What are we assessing? Why are we assessing? For whom are the results intended? How will the results be used? What & Why has been addressed. Now we turn attention to purpose. 82 CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT PURPOSES Summative generally used to summarize what has been learned (evaluative); often encapsulated and reported as a score or a grade e.g., tests, performance tasks, final exams, cluminating projects and work portfolios typically "count" Diagnostic "pre-assessments"; precede instruction; check students' prior knowledge, skill levels, identify misconceptions, interests. Or learning style preferences;

assist teacher planning/guide differentiated instruction e.g., skill checks, knowledge surveys, nongraded pre-tests, interest or learning preference checks, and checks for misconceptions Formative occur concurrently with instruction; guide teaching and learning for improving achievement; include both formal and informal methods ungraded quizzes, oral questioning, observations, draft work, think-alouds, studentconstructed concept maps, dress rehearsals, peer response groups, and portfolio reviews 83 Waiting until end of teaching to find out how well students have learned simply too late; diagnostic & formative assessments are critical In DI classroom, techer continuously examines ongoing assessment data for individuals as means of adapting "up-front" teaching plans

"Diagnosis, of course, is never completed. Every contact with students reveals something that the teacher did not know before, something important for intelligent planning of instruction"(Taba & Elkins, 1966, p.24) 84 RESPONSIVE ASSESSMENT TO PROMOTE LEARNING IN DIVERSE CLASSROOMS Assess before teaching, p.72 Offer appropriate choices, p.73 Provide feedback early and often, p.77 Encourage self-assessment and reflection, p.79 85 Notes to Self:

Gather sense of learns' starting points as unit begins (e.g., readiness status relative to essential content goals for the unit) Key points in year insight about a student's interests or preferred routes to learning Informed, can begin to form instructional groups, assign appropriate tasks, locate appropriate learning materials FA assist teacher in refining his or her understanding of a learner's needsto maximize growth Allow students to work to their strengths One-size-fits-all approach is not fair Allow choice, but always with intent of collecting needed evidence based on goals 86 PRODUCT & PERFORMANCE TIC-TACTOE Version 1 Version 2

Written Visual Oral Written Visual Oral Research report Poster Lesson Presentatio n

FREE Poster Speech News Article Graphic Organizer Oral presentatio n Persuasive essay FREE Debate

Information brochure PowerPoi nt Radio interview Editorial Campaig n poster FREE Tic-tac-toe adaptation (p.74) great structure for giving students choices of products and performances while keeping the end in mind (next slide); for a major project, we might allow students to produce three products, picking one from each

column 87 Regardless of how open-ended the task & how many product/performance options imperative to identify a common set of evaluative criteria All students should be judged by a rubric containing: To be valid and reliable, key criteria must be connected to the content: clear, accurate, and complete explanation of "balanced diet", with an appropriate example that illustrates the concept the criteria are derived primarily from the content goal, not the response mode May need to add student-specific criteria for the needs of particular learners May also ad product-specific criteria for different product genres (e.g., neatness, composition, effective

use of colour secondary criteria) 88 3 CAUTIONS: 1. 2. 3. Aim is to collect appropriate evidence of learning based on the goals, not to simply offer a "cool" menu of product possibilities Options we provide must be worth the time and energy required (The juice must be worth the squeeze!) Consider when it is important to offer product and performance options and how many should be offered, striking a balance between a single path and a maze of

options feasability? 89 PROVIDE EARLY FEEDBACK & OFTEN (P.77) Vince Lombardi, legendary football coach, "Feedback is the breakfast of champions". Grant Wiggins (1998) "Praise keeps you in the game; real feedback helps you get better" 4 Qualities of Effective feedback. Must be: (1) timely, (2) specific, (3) understandable to the receiver and (4) allow for adjustment 90

Specificity is key to focused adjustment Pinning a letter (B-) or a number (82%) is no more helpful than comments such as "Way to" or "Try harder" they do not advance learning Consider kid-friendly rubrics sometimes language of rubric is lost on the learner Use models and exemplars make the "invisible visible" Show exemplars of work at students approximate level of proficiency who did or did not demonstrate proficiency Can students tell from feedback what they have done well and what they could do next time to improve? Students need opportunity to act on the feedback to refine, revise, practice and retry build into instructional plans regular opportunities for feedback and refinement. Learning demands it! 91 ENCOURAGE SELF-ASSESSMENT & REFLECTION Most Effective Learners

Less Effective Learners Are metacognitive - Mindful of how they learn Set personal goals Regularly self-assess and adjust their performance Use productive strategies to assist learning "How am I doing?" "What do I need to do to improve?" Seem to go through school as if in a cloud Seem clueless about their preferred learning style Seem clueless about strategies that can enhance their achievement "What did I get?" "What are you going to give

me?" Metacognitive strategies can be taught, and the benefits to learners can be notetworthy One straightforward approach is to have learners regularly respond to reflective questions (see next slide) 92 18 REFLECTIVE QUESTIONS TO RESPOND TO What do you really understand about? What are you most proud of? How does your preferred learning style influence? What questions/uncertaintie

s do you still have about? What are you disappointed in? What grade/score do you deserve? Why? What was most effective in? How difficult was for you? How does what you've learned connect to other learning? What was least effective in?

What are your strengths in? How has what you've learned changed your thinking? How could you improve? What are your deficiencies in? How does what you've learned relate to the present and the future? What would you do differently next time? To what extent has

your performance improved over time? What follow-up work is needed? 93 Focus on (a) nonnegotiable goals for the class and (b) personal/individual goals that are important to the development of each learner Adjust the format of the rubric (p.81)insert two small boxes into bottom left/right corners of each box in a rubric left box is for student to self assess when handing in ; right teacher provide opportunity to discuss discrepancies Insert two boxes below rubric: Comments & Goals/Actions: Goal is for student to become progressively more effective at honest self-appraisal and productive selfimprovement Rubric becomes practical & robust vehicle for feedback, self-assessment and goal-setting

94 EFFECTIVE ASSESSMENT CORNERSTONE OF TEACHING INDIVIDUALS FOR UNDERSTANDING: Serve not only as indicators of student understanding but as data sources enabling teachers to shape their practice in ways that maximize the growth of the varied learners they teach Are not only indicators of student success with content goals but a dynamic part of the instructional process Not only measures students but assists them in becoming evaluators of their own learning 95 CH. 6 RESPONSIVE TEACHING WITH

UBD IN ACADEMICALLY DIVERSE CLASSROOMS P.83 What should be the curricular "givens" in instructional planning? How can teachers use classroom elements flexibly to support student success? How can teachers make instructional planning more manageable and efficient? How can teachers select instructional strategies that are responsive to student need? How do teachers organize and manage their classrooms to support responsive instruction? 96 SHIFT FROM PLANNING TO DELIVERY Well-managed classroom: "duet of thinking" UbD & DI Can I answer:

What matters most for all my students to learn? What instructional sequence will maximize learning? How are my students faring as individuals as they make sense of important ideas/skills? Who needs my assistance to achieve understanding? How might arrange class time/space to ensure those options? How will I ensure that I/my class are working as a team to benefit everyone in the class? What work will benefit students as I work with other students? How will I gather evidence of student success with units' essential goals? 97 4 OVERARCHING QUESTIONS IN TEACHER'S MIND: Who are the students I will teach?

What matters most for students to learn here (curriculum)? How must I teach to ensure that each student grows systematically toward attainment of the goal and moves beyond it when indicated (instruction)? How will I know who is successful and who is not yet successful with particular goals (assessment)? 98 BELIEFS THAT SHAPE VISION OF EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS (REVISIT OF CH.1) Virtually all students should consistently experience curricula rooted in the important ideas of a discipline that requires them to make meaning of info and think at high levels Students need opportunities to learn the "basics" and opportunities to apply them in

meaningful ways There is a need for balance between student construction of meaning and teacher guidance. Students need to know the learning goals of a unit or lesson and criteria for successfully demonstrating proficiency with the goals (3 Stages of backward design assist this). 99 Based on this foundation, and consistently using preassessment and formative assessment data to guide teacher thinking - planning for differentiated instruction can proceed on sure footing Teacher now like a jazz musician sometimes planned, sometimes improvisational see analogy p. 89 Answers: How will I arrange my time and theirs to ensure continual growth? How do I make sure students have resources for

their readiness needs, interests, learning profiles? How do I know when to start/stop various segments of the plan for class as a whole need to extend for various learners (interests? Lingering needs?) How do I help students transition at different times for different purposes and keep class focussed? How do I give directions for multiple tasks efficiently and effectively? 100 HIGHLIGHTING USE OF CLASSROOM ELEMENTS FIG 6.2 ELEMENT EXAMPLES OF USE Time Negotiated delay of due dates/times for tasks Compacting/exempting students from work on which they show mastery Using homework contracts or learning centers (e.g., deficit skills)

Space Create quiet zone where noise/visual stimuli minimal Posting/using room arrangement charts to rearrange quickly Resources Collect textbooks of different readability levels Bookmarking web sites Using video and audio clips to teach Student Groupings Use pre-assigned groups..know by cue where to move Plan for like and unlike readiness, interest, and learning profile groups Teaching Strategies Teach with both part-to-whole; whole-to-part emphasis Intersperse lecture with small-group discussions

Make connections with key ideas/skills and students' cultures and interests Learning Strategies Provide practical, analytical, and creative options Provide tiered practice and assessments Encourage students to work alone or with a peer Use "expert groups" to help teach key ideas Teacher Partnerships Have students perform any classroom functions that are not imperative for teacher to perform Survey parents for insights into students' interests.. Work with a differentiation partner 101 CLUSTERING LEARNER NEEDS TO MAKE INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING MORE EFFICIENT P.94

More manageable than trying to meet every individual need; this way of thinking allows for reasoned/reasonable approaches "anticipatory planning" - support with reading, vocabulary, some work too slowly, others too fast, some have trouble sitting still, some attending for long periods of time, some like word problems, others terrified Promote student success; students strengths are springboards for success; learning problems inhibit success; Reflect on student patterns and ask, "How might I plan to address key patterns in student learning as part of classroom routines?" Clustering" seems more attainable than IEP for each student; see addressing clusters as part of routine rather than interruption Select instructional strategies that support responsive 102 teaching ADDRESSING PATTERNS OF STUDENT NEED, FIG. 6.3, P.97 Some

patterns Sample Ways to address Patterns Reading support Reading partners/buddies; Highlighter Teacher read alouds ; Excerpts on tape Vocab building Provide key vocab lists with clear definitions Pinpoint essential vocab Have students hunt for key vocab Word walls; vocab posters with words/icons Attention Think-Pair-Share groups Choices of tasks/modes of working Multiple modes of teacher presentations Shifting activities during class period

Use graphic organizers Strengths in area of study Use jigsaw, interest groups, interest centers, or expert groups Provide advanced materials Encourage independent studies Use learning contracts, or learning agendas to personalize content Targeted instruction & practice Routinely meet with students in small groups Assign homework targeted to student need at key points 103 FIG. 6.4 INSTRUCTION STRATEGIES TO MATCH LEARNER NEED Category of Student Need

Some Instructional Strategies Effective in Responding to Need Readiness Tiering Compacting Think-Alouds Varied homework Highlighted texts Text digests Writing frames Small-group instruction Personalized spelling & vocab Learning contracts Learning menus Materials at varied reading levels Word walls Guided peer critiques

Interest Interest centers Interest groups Expert groups WebQuests Web inquiries Group investigation Independent studies Orbitals Independent studies I-Search Design-a-Day Personalized criteria for success Learning Profile Visual organizers Icons Varied work options

Entry points Intelligence preference tasks (Sternberg or Gardner) Opportunities for movement Varying modes of teacher presentation 104 Multiple Categories RAFTs Graphic organizers ThinkDots Complex instruction Personal agendas Cubing MY TAKE AWAYS Goal of differentiated instruction is providing

opportunity and support for the success of far more students than is possible in a onesize-fits-all approach to teaching and learning "Teachers who establish 'orderly and enabling' learning environments were most likely to teach for meaning and understanding" (Knapp et al, 1992, p.13) Backward design creates a framework of high expectations for students and differentiation supports a variety of students in meeting those expectations (p.101) 105 MANAGING DIFFERENTIATED CLASS FIG. 6.5, SEE MORE DETAIL P.102105 Areas Sample Strategies Managing time

Some move ahead, own pace with homework contracts Provide anchor activities..teach students to use them when they finish work Controlling noise Provide/use signals; teach students to monitor noise levels & adjust Use headsets; earplugs Movement Task/team charts to locate where they should be Gopher in group gets

materials Make a seating area in room that faces away from the action Classroom space Experiment w/ arrangement of furniture; ways to get out of way Centers-in-a-box (some work on floor) Independent work area, absentees who need to make up work, etc. Materials distribution Table or area materials monitor

fill this role Use in-class personal folders marked with student name, class period, and seating area; helps from getting work lost Monitoring student work List of standards/criteria one pg per student; spot-check; record obs Sticky notes for observations Notebook one sheet per student Student record-keeping; designated trays/folders Time for teacher with small groups

Teacher "off-limits" and why Establish "experts" to answer st. questions when teacher w/ other sts Use materials already available; do less grading of daily work; go slowly and deliberately in learning to differentiate Use necessary practice, anchor tasks, personal agendas, centers, contracts, .students use to learn 106 routinely & independently Move slowly. Tackle one area at a time

TAKE AWAYS Do I have the will to do better? Use the principle of substitutionnot one of addition Persist..becomes tolerablethen a sense of accomplishment Difficult to change habits It requires persistent intent for teachers to break old teaching habits and replace them with routines that are flexible enough to support the success of many kinds of learners Tiering RAFTS role, audience, format, topic 107 WONDERFUL LISTS P.COPY & LAMINATE Figure 6.1, p. 87 Instructional Strategies that Support Various Teacher Roles Figure 6.2, p. 91-94 Options for Flexible Use

of Classroom Elements (time, space, resources, student groupings, teaching strategies, learning strategies, teacher partnerships) 108 CH. 7 TEACHING FOR UNDERSTANDING IN ACADEMICALLY DIVERSE CLASSROOMS, P.108 How does teaching for deep understanding differ from "coverageoriented" instruction? How should we "uncover" the content to develop and deepen student understanding of important ideas and processes? What instructional approaches help students to make meaning for themselves? 109

What about those students who haven't TAKE-AWAYS Understanding must be earned; understanding "big ideas" requires students to construct meaning for themselves Active intellectual work, guided by teacher, is needed on part of student Roles for student think, question, apply ideas to new situations, rethink, and reflect Role for teacher stimulate thought, show examples and counterexamples, ask probing questions, set up authentic applications, play devil's advocate, check for understanding , and require explanation and justification use multiple approaches & support systems; effective wholeclass, small-groups, and individualized approaches 110 "UNCOVERING" THE CONTENT, P.109 Covering content conveys the wrong

idea.propose a shiftteaching for understanding calls for teachers to "uncover" the content (see metaphor e.g., - iceberg, p.110) Most powerful "big ideas" reside below the surface of basic facts & skills Teaching methods that go in depth including problem-based learning, scientific experimentation, historical investigation, Socratic seminar, research projects, problem solving, concept attainment, simulations, debates & producing authentic products & performances 111 USE ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS IN TEACHING Provides learners with a glimpse into the origin and meaning of the content they are learning in a different way than surface

coverage of sterile facts These questions are open-ended E.g., (LA) How does what you read influence how you read? How do effective writers hook and hold their readers? Try to cultivate a metacognitive awareness of how and why specific skills are beneficial and when they are best applied 112 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS CONT'D Essential quesitons serve as doorways to understanding (see further e.g.'s p. 112 114) Pose EQ at beginning of instruction for diagnostic purposes. Student responses reveal what students know (or think they know) while exposing misconceptions Pose same question midway through a unit of study (formative assessment) and at the end

of instructionmark conceptual growth over time 113 6 PRACTICAL TIPS FOR USING ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS Less is more Ensure key vocabulary is understood (necessary to explore the questions) Use "kid language" Help students personalize questions (share examples, personal stories, and hunches Post the essential questions in the classroom Use follow-up strategies such as those on next slide to engage far more students and deepend their understanding and their thinking

114 FOLLOW-UP STRATEGIES (11) TO DEEPEN STUDENT THINKING, FIGURE 7.1, P.115 Remember "Wait Time I & II" at least 5 secs after a question and after a response Call on students randomly (note-cards/ sticks) Use probes and follow-ups? "Why? Can you explain? Do you agree? How do you know? Please give an example." Cue responses to open-ended questions "There is not a single correct answer to this question. I want you to consider alternatives." Ask students to "unpack their thinking" Describe how you arrived at your answer." Periodically ask for summaries Could you please summarize the key points of.thus far?" NOTE TO SELF CREATE A ONE PAGE LAMINATED CARD OF THESE IDEAS 115

STRATEGIES TO DEEPEN STUDENT THINKING CONTINUED Play devil's advocate students defend reasoning against different points of view Survey the class How many people agree with? Pose metacognitive/reflective questions "How do you know what you know? How did you come to understand this? How might you show that you understand?" Encourage student questioning students generate own questions Use think-pair-share allow individual thinking time and discussion with a partner, and then open up for class discussion. 116 6 FACETS OF UNDERSTANDING AS INSTRUCTIONAL TOOLS, P.117

EXPLAIN INTERPRET APPLY PERSPECTIVE EMPATHY SELF KNOWLEDGE These 6 Facets: Serve as a framework for generating learning activities (p.118 brainstorming learning activities using the 6 facets) List of action verbs related to facets suggest kinds of learning experiences that actively engage students help thoughtful exploration of topics Helpful role in responsive teaching Can be provided for student choice (e.g., jigsaw)

117 Vygotsky, 1978) we construct meaning and deepen our understanding when we discuss ideas with other, hear different points of view, and collaboratively "uncover" content NOTE TO SELF CREATE A ONE PAGE LAMINATED CARD OF THESE IDEAS 118 INCLUDE THE NOVICE OR STRUGGLING LEARNER IN MEANINGFUL OPPORTUNITIES The "Ladder" is a flawed metaphor for learning

IEP / low students shouldn't be kept from working with abstract ideas; shouldn't be kept with low level, skill-drill activities, rote memorization of discrete facts, and min-numbing test prep worksheets Bloom asserts it is important for all learners to work at all levels of the taxonomy (use of Bloom's taxonomy misguided) Not suggesting basics are unimportant; meaningful learning can be achieved with interplay of drill and practice in combination with authentic tasks 119 PULLING IT ALL TOGETHER: THE WHERETO FRAMEWORK WHERETO principles embody research-based principles and reflect best practices of the most effective teachers Not expected that each of the WHERETO

elements are seen within every lesson WHERETO is intended to guide a series of lessons within a larger unit of study 120 THE WHERETO FRAMEWROK W (clear learning targets) How will I help learners know what they will be learning? Why this is worth learning? What evidence will show their learning? How their performance will be evaluated Note to Self: create bulletin board with archery "target"; goals & rationale for learning the content Discuss culminating performance task; rubrics to judge student performance; provide examples - no mystery; allow differentiated products and performances without lowering standards ("diverse excellence"; avoid cookie-cutter imitation)

121 H How will I hook and engage the learners? In what ways will I help them connect desired learning to their experiences and interests? Before you try to teach them, you've got to get their attention!" E.g.'s of effective hooks: Provocative essential questions, counterintuitive phenomena, controversial issues, authentic problems and challenges, emotional encounters, and humour Be mindful that hooks have carry-over value; match the hook with the content and thje experiences of the learners by design as means of drawing them into a productive learning experience

122 E How will I equip students to master identified standards and succeed with the targeted performances? What learning experiences will help develop and deepen understanding of important ideas? Coming to understand requires active intellectual engagement on the part of the learner Select a balance of constructivist learning experiences, structured activities and direct instruction (see p.87 chart) 123 R How will I encourage the learners to rethink

previous learning? How will I encourage ongoing revision and refinement? Few learners get it the first time! Can not revisit everything, but R should be considered with the very important content If it is worth understanding it is worth rethinking. If it's worth doing, it's worth reflecting upon 124 E How will I promote students' self-evaluation and reflection? Often over looked, students need help developing metacognitive skills of selfevaluation a, self-regulation and reflection Art Costa & Bena Kallick (2000) "habits of mind" Note to self: look at this resource again

125 PROMOTE STUDENT SELF ASSESSMENT AND REFLECTION THROUGH ASKING QUESTIONS SUCH AS: What do you really understand about..? What is still confusing? How could you improve? What would you do differently next time? What are you most proud of? What are you most disappointed in? What are your strengths in.? What are your deficiencies in.? How does your prefered learning style influence? How does what you've learned changed your thinking? How will you make use of what've you've learned? 126

SET OF POSTERS? STOP AND THINK! HOW AM I DOING? CAN I DO THIS BETTER? WHAT HAVE I LEARNED? 127 T How will I tailor the learning activities and my teaching to address the different readiness levels, learning profiles, and interest of my students? Much of this book provides suggestions for DI 128 O How will the learning experiences be organized to maximize engaging and effective learning?

What sequence will work best for my students and this content? Carefully consider: Order/sequence of learning activities Wisdom of "climb-the ladder" model of learning is being challenged Effective teachers immerse students in meaningful and challenging tasks and problems Students come to see the need for basics as well as the larger purpose that they serve Consider other approaches problem-based learning, process writing, Socratic seminar, the 5 E's in science, and Web quests Reverse the conventional part-to-whole in favour of more holistic experiences that require students to construct meaning 129 for themselves CH. 8 GRADING AND REPORTING ACHIEVEMENT, P.128-140 What are the nonnegotiable principles of effective grading? What might reporting look like in a classroom

shaped by UbD & DI? What grading and reporting practices support learning and encourage learners? 130 Student variability is viewed not as a problem but as a natural and positive aspect fo working with human beings, and in contrast, at the end of the day, students must be described through a standardized and quantitative procedure that appears insensitive to human differences (report card) McTighe / Tomlinson believe that sound grading and reporting practices can be a natural extension of a rich, differentiated curriculum and a seamless part of the instructional process

131 PRIMARY GOAL OF GRADING & REPORTING P.129 To communicate to important audiences, such as students and parents, high-quality feedback to support the learning process and encourage learner success "How will we know that we are providing high-quality feedback to parents and students? How might we ensure that the information we transmit in the grading and reporting process is useful in supporting the learning process? How should we grade and report in ways that 132 GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GRADING & REPORTING

#1 Grades and reports should be based on clearly specified learning goals and performance standards (Ken O'Connor for grades to have any real meaning we must have more than simply a letter/number relationship; needs to be descriptions of the qualities in student work for each symbol in the grading scale) #2 Evidence used for grading should be valid (measures what we intend it to measure) #3 Grading should be based on established criteria, not on arbitrary norms do not report student's achievement relative to others in the class 133 GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GRADING & REPORTING

#4 Not everything should be included in grades assessment and grading not synonymous terms assessment focuses on gathering info about student achievement that can be used to make instructional decisions. Grading is an end-point judgment about students achievement diagnostic or pre-assessments should never be included in grades Formative assessments should rarely be factored into a final grade. They provide opportunities for students to practice, take mental risks, learn from mistakes, and revise their work; enable teachers to analyze student performance to date and provide targeted feedback for improvement not a time for heavy evaluation 134 Grades

should be derived largely from the results of summative assessments carefully designed to allow students to demonstrage accumulated proficiency related to identified content goals #5 Avoid grading based on averages (mean); suggest evaluating students' achievements later in a learning cycle rather than those earned earlier Second chances matter more than the speed of learning "Grade fog" misleading picture of actual knowledge and skill levels e.g., early scores underestimate student's later achievement 135 KEN O'CONNOR (2002) What a student learns should be more important

than when he or she learns it. Grades should be determined from various sources of evidence, rather than calculated Involves judgment guided by clear goals, valid measures, and explicit performance standards we can render fair and defensible judgments through grades Averaging required by district, recommends using median or mode Assigning zeroes distorts record See Tom Guskey quote p. 133 136 #6 Focus on achievement, and report other factors separately A grade should give as clear a measure as possible of the best a student can do Should leave out things like effort, completing

work on time, class participation, progress, attendance, homework, attitude, behaviour, etc. Teachers within school/district need to be consistent when factoring all elements 137 DIFFERENTIATION, GRADING, AND MOTIVATION: A SPECIAL CONCERN Teachers reflect a concern that grading can harm the motivation of some of their students Struggling students (e.g., doomed to liave at the bottom of the grading heap) Learning disabilities, language issues, emotional students' lives; cards stacked against them Goal in DI classroom is to create a sense of safety, appropriate challenge, mutual respect, and community Competitive grading creates serious problems for advanced learners just as it

138 DIFFERENTIATION, GRADING, AND MOTIVATION: A SPECIAL CONCERN, CONT'D Most able learners often work only for the grade with little regard for the benefits, pleasures, and challenges of learning As adults they will need: Persistence in the face of difficulty The ability to take intellectual risks, and Pleasure in work 139 REPORTING SYSTEMS THAT SUPPORT STANDARDS & DIFFERENTIATION A single grade cannot effectively report all that we need to say about a student's learning Advocate at least two, and preferably three, separate factors

be reported: 1. grades for achievement of goals 2. progress toward goals, and 3. work habits This multipart approach to grading and reporting provides a) clarity of communication and b) impact on student motivation Fairness demands an acknowledgment of where they have come based on where they began Acknowledge productive work habits e.g., completing work on time, asking questions for clarification, persisting when faced with challenging material, and listening to feedback and making needed revisions (they contribute to achievement and are valued both in school and in the wider world) 140

REPORTING SYSTEMS THAT SUPPORT STANDARDS & DIFFERENTIATION. CONT'D Provide a continuum or rubric for work habits What we report signals what we value We increase the number of learners who can have a chance at success in school when we based achievement on worthy criteria, chart each student's personal progress along a continuum that specifies those criteria, and provide each student's habits of learning as a part of reporting procedures Success breeds success! 141 THINK ABOUT REPORTING "SYSTEMS" RATHER THAN JUST REPORT CARDS This includes multiple methods for communicating to parents and the learners themselves e.g., checklists, rubrics, narratives, portfolios; parent conferences; student-involved conferences; or related means of

communicating student achievement, progress, and habits The richer the system, the more likely we are to achieve the goal of providing accurate info that supports future learning and encourages growth Final thought: principles of backward design, differentiation, and grading are compatible and mutually supportive together they support clear, fair and honest communication of standards-based achievement that concurrently honours the uniqueness of individuals 142 INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BACKWARD DESIGN, DIFFERENTIATION & GRADING Copy / laminate charts p. 138-140

143 CH. 9 BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER: CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION THROUGH THE LENDS OF UBD AND DI How do the principles of backward design and differentiation look when they are used together in the planning process? What are the potential benefits to learners of classrooms in which both models are used? What should we expect to see in classrooms using backward design and differentiation? 144 REVIEW 9 ESSENTIAL GOALS OF UBD & DI 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. Identify desired learning results for the subject and topics they teach Determine acceptable evidence of student learning Plan learning experiences and instruction based on the first two principles Regard learner differences as inevitable, important, and valuable in teaching and learning Address learners' affective needs as a means of supporting student success Periodically review and articulate clear learning goals that specifiy what students show know, understand, and be able to do as a result of each segment of learning

145 ESSENTIAL GOALS OF UBD & DI, CONT'D Use systematic pre-assessment and ongoing assessment aligned with designated goals to make instructional decisions and adaptations 8. Employ flexibility in instructional planning and classroom routines to support success for each learner 9. Gather evidence of student learning in a variety of formats Notes to Self: Enlarge / laminate p. 145 chart Integrating and Applying the Big Ideas of UbD & DI Plan to use "You Are What You Eat" unit ideas p.146-161 7. 146 OBSERVALBE INDICATORS IN UBD/DI

CLASSROOMS, P. 162-165 THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: Each student Is treated with dignity and respect Feels safe and valued Makes meaningful contributions to the work of the group A balanced emphasis on individuals/group as whole Students work together collaboratively are grouped flexibly (similarities/differences) Varied student perspectives are sought & various approaches to learning are

honoured Big ideas/essential questions are central to the work of students, the classroom activity, and the norms/culture of the classroom High expectations; incentives for each student to learn the big ideas and answer the essential questions All students have respectful work tasks and assessments focus on what matters most in the curriculum high-level thinking, and tasks that are 147 equally appealing and engaging to learners Big ideas, essential questions, and criteria/scoring rubrics are posted Samples/models of student work are visible OBSERVALBE INDICATORS IN UBD/DI CLASSROOMS, P. 162-165 THE CURRICULUM: Unit/courses have coherent design: content standards, big ideas, essential questions clearly aligned with assessments and learning activities Multiple ways to take in and explore ideas Multiple forms of assessment understanding demonstrated in various ways

"authentic" performance tasks to assess understanding (application & explanation) Teacher, peer and self-evaluations of products or performances include criteria/performance standards for group as well as attention to individual needs and goals Unit/course design enables students to revisit and rethink important ideas to deep their understanding Use a variety of resources (textbook only one among many) 148 OBSERVALBE INDICATORS IN UBD/DI CLASSROOMS, P. 162-165 THE TEACHER: Informs students of big ideas/essential questions, performance requirements, and criteria at beginning of unit/coursecontinues to reflect on those elements Helps students connect big ideas/essential questions to their backgrounds, interests, and aspirations Hooks and holds students' interest while they examine, explore big ideas and EQ's; includes acknowledging and building on student interests Helps students establish and achieve personal learning goals in addition to class content

goals Uses variety of instructional strategies; interacts with students in multiple ways to promote deeper understanding of subject matter Use pre-assessments to determine skill needs, understanding, uncover misconceptions, provide feedback for improvement, and make instructional modifications Routinely provides for student differences in readiness, interest, and mode of learning Rather than "telling" facilitates active construction of meaning Understands individuals learn in different ways and different timetables Uses variety of strategies to support students' varying needs for growth in reading, writing, vocabulary, planning, and other fundamental skills that enable academic success Uses questioning, probing, and feedback to encourage learners to "unpack their thinking", reflect and rethink Uses a variety of resources (more than the textbook) Provides meaningful feedback to parents and students about students' achievement, progress, and work habits 149 Notes to self: Make master data sheet for each student where I record achievements, progress and work habits Make posters or key vocab from previous

slide on bulletin board Rubrics / criteria lists include both the group and individual criteria 150 OBSERVALBE INDICATORS IN UBD/DI CLASSROOMS, P. 162-165 HE LEARNERS Students : Can describe goals (big ideas & essential questions) and performance requirements of the unit/course Can explain what they are doing and why Can explain how their classroom functions and how its various elements work to support success of each learner and of the class as a whole Contribute actively to the effective functioning of the classroom routines and share responsibility with the teacher for making the class work Are hooked at the beginning and engaged throughout the unit as a result of the nature of the curriculum and the appropriateness of the instruction for their particular needs Can describe both the group and individual criteria by which work will be evaluated

Have opportunities to generate relevant questions and share interests and perspectives Are able to explain and justify their work and their answers Are involved in self-or peer assessment based on established criteria and performance standards Use criteria/rubric(s) to guide and revise their work Regularly reflect on and set goals related to their achievement, progress, and work 151 habits T 152

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