Institute for the Study of Invasive Species (ISIS)
United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection Act Section 7721 (PPA 7721) Farm Bill Autumn J. Smith-Herron Director Texas Invasive Species Institute Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX What is the farm bill? Funding program Multi-year law
Renewed about every 5 years Agricultural and food policy tool Assistance to farmers (new deal) Food Stamp Program Agricultural Act of 2017 Ag research conservation Universities, States, Federal Agencies, Non Profit, and
Tribal Organizations Timeline Open Late June July 45 days SPHD/SPRO reviews September Goal Team Reviews Team Lead, 5 Federal Specialists, 1
Scientist October Federal Budget December Spending Plan February -March Statistics from 2019 PPA 7721 2019 Funds $59,550,338.00
Received 7 $352,207.00 2020 funds $66,000,000.00 407 6 goal areas Farm Bill Design and Structure Goal 1 (S and A)
S = Simple surveys Priority lists are provided for you Traps and lures provided by APHIS A = gather and analyze available data No field work Modeling suggestion that will predict arrival, establishment, or dispersal patterns of invasive species Goal 2 Improve/develop domestic inspection techniques Ports of entry, mail/parcel facilities, interstate movement
Goal 3 Develop field technology, lab testing, or provide screening Trap/lure development Support identification for APHIS Use/develop DNA diagnostic tools Resolve cryptic species
6 goal areas Farm Bill Design and Structure Goal 4 Safeguard nursery production Explore the role of pests and pathogens in a nursery setting inspect, audit, certify nursery stock (USDA will certify/train) Goal 5 Public education and outreach to prevent the introduction of high
consequence pests Encourage positive behavior Increase the number of people reporting high consequence pests Goal 6 Rapid response and mitigation Develop new control technologies
Develop guidelines First responder 2020 Priority Pest Lists (2): High Priority Commodity and Taxonomic surveys (and research) Bundle by commodity (Corn, Pine, Citrus, cotton etc.) Use the Commodity and Taxonomic Survey Bundle by Pest Use the Pests of Economic and Environmental Importance
Current Projects (2019-2020): Mollusk Goal CAPS Hoppers Goal 1S Bark Beetles Goal 1S Angiostrongylus in mollusks Goal 3
Current Texas Needs (in part): Goal 1S moth surveys Laurel Wilt Research (Ambrosia beetles) Citrus Greening
Greenhouse studies contaminated mulch and nurseries Goal 1 Analysis (None from Texas) Goal 6 Mitigation (only one from Texas) Goal 3 Taxonomic expertise Preparing your suggestion Choose your Goal Area Choose your Strategy Technical
Approach Impact and Benefit Prior Experience Upload budget Stakeholder Collaboration Plant Pest and Disease Management and Disaster Prevention Program Stakeholder Project Suggestion Reviewer Team
Members: 13 State Plant Regulatory Officials for Oregon, Ohio, Florida, New York, California, Indiana, Texas, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maine, Tennessee, Connecticut, and Washington 3 other State Plant Health Officials from Kansas, Maryland, and South Carolina Academics from the agriculture programs at Sam Houston State University in Texas and the University of California at Davis 5 Specialty Crop Industry representatives U.S. Forest Service officials Decision Lens
criteria weight grant Final score __________________________________________________________________ Out of money Questions?
Goal Area Guidance Goals: Broad Project Category Objectives: helps to narrow down the overarching goals Strategies: Plans of action Rationale Examples of funded projects in academia
Goal 1A (Analysis) Gather and Analyze Existing data Data pulled from existing databanks No surveys Develop new approaches in using data to improve predictive modeling Goal 1A Objectives: 1. Identify risk factors and high-risk pathways through analysis of available data 2. Develop risk based models and decision support tools to
reduce the arrival and establishment of exotic plant pest species. Goal 1A Strategies 1. Define biotic and abiotic variables, detect patterns, and test hypotheses that will improve the understanding of where exotic pest arrive, establish, and spread. 2. Development or application of decision support tools using data from various sources to target high risk surveillance areas. 3. Develop and implement data-sharing protocols for risk analysis. 4. Analyze evaluation techniques in order to aid the USDA in decision making.
5. Identify data sources (off shore and domestic) that can be used to analyze risk pathways Goal 1A Rational and 2019 funded projects * With the increase in trade and domestic commodity flow, there is an increased need to identify plant pest threats. * The use of analytical tools are requested to help USDA APHIS to better utilize resources to target high risk pathways and prevent pest entry. Examples of funded projects: 1. Sweetgum inscriber: assessing a $150.000.000 threat to American urban and production forests
2. Narrowing down the priority offshore wood boring pests in Asia 3. Multi-Institutional Analysis of Surveillance and Molecular Diagnostic Procedures for Helicoverpa armigera 4. Improving predictions of pest plant invasion risk through development and implementation of new decision making tools Goal 1A 2019 funded projects 1. Implementation of systems approach to manage risks of seed borne pathogens (Regulatory Framework for Seed Health) 2. Improving detection and dispersal models for Asian longhorned beetle to enhance prediction of infestation dynamics 3. Final implementation of the OPEP mollusk models potential
impact, likelihood of introduction and survey feasibility 4. Forecasting plant pest spread using Tangible Landscape technology 5. Honeybee health: what causing bee populations to decline? 6. Improved Risk Modeling and Monitoring for Invasive Fruit Pests Goal 1S (Survey) Pest surveillance to ensure early detection of exotic plant pests before they become established Field surveys Use CAPS list (Cooperative Agriculture Pest Survey) bundle
Goal 1A Objectives: 1. Fund national priority pest surveys in support of specialty crops, trade, and regulatory activities 2. Target multiple, high priority, exotics pests for survey Goal 1S Strategies 1. Fund pest surveys with broad participation by states that target multiple, high priority exotic pests, specialty crop commodities, and high risk pathways 2. Surveys should be important to cooperators for biological, agricultural, environmental, and/or economic reasons, and have
quarantine significance 3. Fund surveys that aim to fill gaps in knowledge about the distribution of program pests **** Target surveys change from year to year (See Priority pest lists Pests of Economical and Environmental Importance (EEI) and Commodity and taxonomic survey list). Goal 1S Rational and funded projects * Provide states with adequate funding to cover survey activity expenses. * Early detection is critical to avoid economic and environmental damage. * These surveys are important to identify pest free areas for export certification purposes.
Examples of funded projects: 1. Stone Fruit Commodity Survey 2. Grape Commodity Survey 3. Fruit Fly Detection 4. Survey for Old World Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and Pests of Tomato 5. Survey for Exotic Delphacids and Associated Pathogens 6. Sudden Oak Death Survey 7. Survey for Viruses in Imported and Domestically Produced Perennial Ornamental Nursery Stock Goal 2 Domestic Inspection
Domestic inspection activities at vulnerable areas Targeting products and commodities that potentially carry pests of regulatory concern Goal 2 Objectives: 1. Promote and expand inland inspections of containers and mail facilities. 2. Expand the use of canine teams for domestic inspection activities 3. Promote increased levels of inspection for regulated articles for interstate movement. Goal 2 Strategies
1. Inspections in states receiving international and interstate regulated cargos that present a risk of moving plant pests (includes development of new inspection techniques). 2. Emphasize new capacities of agriculture detection canine teams at destination inspections (including parcel facilities and shipping containers). 3. Inspection activities for regulated articles moving internationally or by interstate. 4. Develop the analytical capacity to identify and/or design including the process for inspections. Goal 2 Rational and funded projects * Detect pests and prohibited items that may have escaped undetected through
ports-of-entry at a second line of defense * Canine teams have demonstrated effectiveness at ports-of-entry in CA and FL. * Increase the number of inspections and audits in order to increase protection against introduction of pests. Examples of funded projects: 1. California Agriculture Detector Dog Team Program 2. Florida Detector Dog Inspection and Enhanced Domestic Pest Detection 3. Pre-Clearance X-ray Support-NewGeneration 4. Critical Entry Point Monitoring for the Pests of Biosecurity Concern 5. Farm Bill Canine Team Training
Goal 3 Increase Identification Capacity and Pest Detection Technology Develop, provide technology transfer training for, and deploy survey procedures and tools to improve our ability to rapidly detect and identify pests of regulatory significance. Goal 3 Objectives: 1. Improve all aspects of early detection technologies and resources 2. Develop or improve detection tests and identification capacity for various taxonomic groups containing high priority pests.
Goal 3 Strategies A. Develop and improve traps and lures by: 1. 2. 3. 4. Increasing efficiency of catching targets Improving ease of removing targets for identification Developing novel traps, lures, and survey strategies Develop and apply quality control standards to traps and lures
for field use Goal 3 Strategies (continued) B. Develop the expertise and capacity to identify a greater variety of plant pests by: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. Screening a greater volume and variety of survey samples from states Enter a cooperative agreement to become expert in systematics and taxonomy to augment national identification needs (become screening center) Develop interactive taxonomic keys for pests of concern Resolve unresolved species complexes to support identification needs Collect sequence data for plant pests (pathogens and invertebrates) of high impact. The use of specimens that have already been expertly identified
and confirmed (and maintained) in collections are stressed. Provide screening aids, reference specimens, and tools for first detectors. Develop recorded or deliver live training sessions to assist taxonomists/identifiers in distinguishing exotic pests from native species Provide coordinated training on taxonomy, screening, and non-target pest recognition (train field personnel) Goal 3 Strategies (continued) C. Develop, validate, transfer, and increase the deployment of diagnostic tools, including DNA-based tools or other technologies where needed to detect specific plant diseases and invertebrates. For example:
1. 2. 3. Develop molecular tools or validation of existing tools for screening CAPS pests Develop diagnostic tools to support the exclusion of a species in order to restrict pathways of introduction Develop tools based on systematic research to resolve poorly understood taxa Goal 3 Rational and funded projects
* Aid in the development of support tools allows for rapid response when new introductions are detected * PPQ specialists forms a virtual laboratory to support pest identification needs. Taxonomic experts (in academia) help to fill gaps. Examples of funded projects: 1. Enhancing taxonomic and molecular diagnostics capacity for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) 2. Targeted identification of pheromones and related attractants for invasive cerambycid beetles 3. Development of Diagnostic Tools for All Life Stages of Anastrepha and Other Pest Fruit Flies
4. Resolving species complexes of Bactrocera fruit flies 5. Lure and Color Trap Development for monitoring of Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. 6. Continued Expansion of Discover Life Native Bee Identification State Guides to Central Prairie States and Texas Goal 3 - 2019 funded projects 1. Lepidoptera Attractants 2. Morphological and DNA diagnostic tools for larval and adult softwood boring beetles (Cerambycidae). 3. Taxonomic Assistance to APHIS Field Operations for Surveys of Exotic Plant Pests
4. Plant Diagnostic Laboratory Accreditation Trainings on Quality Management and of External Auditors 5. Pest Screening and Identification Services at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History 6. Rearing of quarantine significant insects to support PPQ research programs 7. Bee Bycatch in Different Moth Trap Technologies 8. West Virginia Insect Collection and Museum Project Goal 4-Safeguard Nursery Production Develop management strategies for the mitigation
of pests and pathogens in nursery setting. Encourage the development and harmonization of standards to support audit-based nursery certification initiatives. Goal 4 Objectives: 1. Develop science-based best management practices and risk mitigation that will exclude, contain, and control regulated pests in the nursery production chain. 2. Develop and harmonize audit-based nursery certification programs Goal 4 Strategies
1. Fund projects that explore the role of certain pests within nursery production systems. Example projects from other states (2018): National Ornamentals Research Site at Dominican University of California to develop Phytophthora ramorum management methods Best Management Practices for Control of Bacterial Gall on Loropetalum (Pseudomonas savastanoi) Caneberry nursery production in the U.S.: What are the high risk viruses circulating in the system? 2. Specialty crop pilot studies for high value genera that the USDA is (or may be) certifying.
Example projects from other states (2018): National Harmonized Systems Approach to Nursery Certification Harmonizing Grapevine Nursery Stock Certification Programs in the Northwest Goal 4 Rational and 2019 funded projects * Conduct research studies to enable APHIS to exclude, contain, and eradicate pests/pathogens in the nursery environment. Increase the understanding of pests/pathogens and host material in order to refine policies, protocols, and regulations. Examples of 2019 funded projects (academia): 1. Can organic-approved chemicals control glassy-winged sharpshooters
expressing resistance to conventional insecticides? 2. Testing nursery stock for the presence of pathogens that cause Cytospora canker in peaches 3. Vector Identification and Mitigation for Palm-Infecting Phytoplasmas 4. Collection of Nursery Inspection Data for the Central Plant Board 5. Audit Training for State and Federal Personnel Plant Pest Management Accreditation Programs Goal 5 Outreach and Education Prevent the introduction or spread of highconsequence pests into and throughout the U.S. Through high-risk pathways. Goal 5 Objectives:
1. Provide education and encourage behaviors that enhance safeguarding. 2. Increase the number of people actively looking for and reporting highconsequence pests at vulnerable points along high-risk pathways. 3. Increase public acceptance and support of APHIS high priority plant pests and disease eradiation and control efforts. Goal 5 Strategies 1. Provide education and information to key audience groups (First detectors, Distribution Center Employees, Travelers, Consumers, Youth). 2. Promote and expand the use of the APHIS plant biosecurity curriculum. 3. Increase public acceptance and support of APHIS high
priority pest and disease eradication and control efforts. 4. Develop and implement volunteer programs to support pest detection Goal 5 Rational and funded projects * Outreach and education programs support and enhance efforts to prevent the introduction or spread of high-consequence pests. * These programs also increase the number of people actively looking for and reporting high-consequence pests. 1. Plant Biosecurity and Invasive Species Youth Outreach 2. Florida First Detector 3. Detecting and reducing major agricultural pest snails in farms and gardens through
community outreach and surveys 4. Forest Pest Outreach 5. Invasive Pest Outreach: Focus Firewood 6. Asian Longhorned Beetle Awareness Campaign 7. Don't Move Firewood Outreach Campaign 8. Evaluative, Collaborative, and Strategic Approach to Dont Pack a Pest Campaign for Student and Faculty Intern. 9. Integrated Texas State Wide Invasive Pest and Plant Public Education and Outreach Program Goal 6 Enhance mitigation and rapid response Develop pest mitigation tools and technologies
to be used during pest response activities to reduce potential adverse impacts and further spread of detected pests of concern. Goal Objectives: 1. Develop or adapt new control technologies, tools, and treatments for use in plant health emergencies. 2. Improve knowledge, response options, and capabilities prior to onset of plant health emergency. 3. Support use of existing tools and initial response protocols for containment, control, and/or eradication of plant pests.
Goal 6 Strategies 1. Develop, promote, and implement new control technologies, tools, and treatments for use in plant health emergencies - Includes quarantine treatments and biological controls 2. Improve the knowledge base, response options, and capabilities prior to plant pest emergencies. - i.e. establishment and training of rapid response teams 3. Implement programs that employ existing tools and initial response protocols for containment, control, or eradication.
4. Provide technical assistance prior to, during, and immediately following the development of a plant health emergency. Goal 6 Rational The time between the detection of an exotic pest and corresponding unified response activities is a critical window in which to limit international trade impacts, environmental damage, and economic costs. APHIS will provide funds for the initial response protocols of survey, regulatory, and control activities, including: - Travel costs associated with personnel mobilization; - Technical working group and subject matter expert activities;
- Resource purchasing for incident activities; - Vehicle use and maintenance; - Communications and outreach activities (news and media events to alert stakeholders and public) - Program command post startup and overhead; - Identification and diagnostic equipment and personnel; - Rapid survey and detection tools and equipment; - Information technology equipment and support; - Development of action plans; - Safety equipment and personnel protective devices; - Mitigation and containment costs. Goal 6 funded projects (2019 academia)
1. Development and Evaluation of Navel Orangeworm for Sterile Insect Release Program 2. Non-target testing of parasitoids for the biological control of Shot Hole Borers (Euwallacea sp.) 3. Development of Emergency Detection, Monitoring and Management Strategies for the Red Palm Weevil. 4. Bagrada bug: Establishment Potential in Florida 5. Developing RNAi for Suppression of Exotic Wood-Boring Buprestids 6. Testing biological control-based IPM strategies to protect ash at early and peak stages of emerald ash borer infestation 7. Attract-and-kill to monitor and manage the khapra beetle 8. Identifying Effective Treatments for Spotted Lanternfly Control 9. Patterns and consequences of complex interactions between ash tree size and resistance to
Emerald ash borer and effects 10. Enhancing Exotic Plant-Pest Management by Creating New Pest Response Guidelines with University Collaboration 11. Modeling Agricultural Timber Risks and Southern Pine Beetle Aggregation 12. Detection surveys and eradication of the invasive Diaprepes root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) in South Texas National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) Special focus area Strives to establish and support a network of clean plant centers that provide high quality asexually propagated plant material free of plant pathogens and pest The plants will be made available to states in support of nursery certification
programs, nurseries, and growers. Objectives: 1. Governance and structure: enable interaction among industry, research, etc. to determine the resources and structure necessary to ensure viable clean plant systems. 2. Operations: provide rapid and safe introduction, diagnostics, therapeutics, and release of selections for commercial development and other purposes 3. Foundations: Provide healthy stock to industry. National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) Strategies
1. Develop a network (flow of information). 2. Seek, maintain, and enhance a network of facilities and expertise for testing and providing therapy for specialty crops. 3. Establish of foundation of plant material that test negative for pathogens. 4. 5 Million Annually (Texas wrote 2 and Received 2) Questions and Comments
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