Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom ...
Embedding formative assessment with teacher learning communities Dylan Wiliam Learning forum L7 at the North of England Education Conference, January 2010: York, UK www.dylanwiliam.net www.ioe.ac.uk Formative assessment: a new definition An assessment functions formatively to the extent that evidence about student achievement elicited by the assessment is interpreted and used to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions that would have been
taken in the absence of that evidence. (Wiliam, 2009) Unpacking formative assessment Key processes Establishing where the learners are in their learning Establishing where they are going Working out how to get there Participants Teachers Peers Learners Aspects of formative assessment Teacher
Peer Learner Where the learner is going Where the learner is How to get there Clarify and share learning intentions
Engineering effective discussions, tasks and activities that elicit evidence of learning Providing feedback that moves learners forward Understand and share learning intentions Activating students as learning resources for one another
Understand learning intentions Activating students as owners of their own learning Five key strategies Clarifying, understanding, and sharing learning intentions curriculum philosophy Engineering effective classroom discussions, tasks and activities that elicit evidence of learning classroom discourse, interactive whole-class teaching Providing feedback that moves learners forward feedback
Activating students as learning resources for one another collaborative learning, reciprocal teaching, peer-assessment Activating students as owners of their own learning metacognition, motivation, interest, attribution, self-assessment (Wiliam & Thompson, 2007) and one big idea Use evidence about learning to adapt instruction to meet student needs Examples of techniques Learning intentions sharing exemplars Eliciting evidence mini white-boards Providing feedback
match the comments to the essays Students as owners of their learning coloured cups Students as learning resources pre-flight checklist Sustaining the adoption of formative assessment with teacher learning communities www.ioe.ac.uk A model for teacher learning Content, then process
Content (what we want teachers to change) Evidence Ideas (strategies and techniques) Process (how to go about change) Choice Flexibility Small steps Accountability Support Choice Belbin inventory (Management teams: why they succeed or fail) Eight team roles (defined as A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way.) Company worker; Innovator; Shaper; Chairperson; Resource investigator;
Monitor/evaluator; Completer/finisher; Team worker Key ideas Each role has strengths and allowable weaknesses People rarely sustain out of role behavior, especially under stress Each teachers personal approach to teaching is similar Some teachers weaknesses require immediate attention For most, however, students benefit more by developing teachers strengths Flexibility Two opposing factors in any school reform Need for flexibility to adapt to local constraints and affordances Implies there is appropriate flexibility built into the reform Need to maintain fidelity to the theory of action of the reform, to minimise lethal mutations So you have to have a clearly articulated theory of action
Different innovations have different approaches to flexibility Some reforms are too loose (e.g., the Effective schools movement) Others are too tight (e.g., Montessori Schools) The tight but loose formulation combines an obsessive adherence to central design principles (the tight part) with accommodations to the needs, resources, constraints, and affordances that occur in any school or district (the loose part), but only where these do not conflict with the theory of action of the intervention. Strategies and techniques Distinction between strategies and techniques Strategies define the territory of formative assessment (no brainers) Teachers are responsible for choice of techniques Allows for customization/ caters for local context Creates ownership
Shares responsibility Key requirements of techniques embodiment of deep cognitive/affective principles relevance feasibility acceptability Small steps According to Berliner (1994), experts excel mainly in their own domain. often develop automaticity for the repetitive operations that are needed to accomplish their goals. are more sensitive to the task demands and social situation when solving problems. are more opportunistic and flexible in their teaching than novices.
represent problems in qualitatively different ways than novices. have fast and accurate pattern recognition capabilities. Novices cannot always make sense of what they experience. perceive meaningful patterns in the domain in which they are experienced. begin to solve problems slower but bring richer and more personal sources of information to bear on the problem that they are trying to solve. Example: CPR (Klein & Klein, 1981) Six video extracts of a person delivering cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 5 of the video extracts are students 1 of the video extracts is an expert Videos shown to three groups: students, experts, instructors Success rate in identifying the expert: Experts:
90% Students: 50% Instructors: 30% Looking at the wrong knowledge The most powerful teacher knowledge is not explicit Thats why telling teachers what to do doesnt work What we know is more than we can say And that is why most professional development has been relatively ineffective Improving practice involves changing habits, not adding knowledge Thats why its hard And the hardest bit is not getting new ideas into peoples heads
Its getting the old ones out Thats why it takes time But it doesnt happen naturally If it did, the most experienced teachers would be the most productive, and thats not true (Hanushek, 2005) Hand hygiene research (Pittet, 2001) Study Focus Compliance rate Preston, Larson & Stamm (1981)
Open ward 16% ICU 30% Albert & Condie (1981) ICU 28% to 41% Larson (1983)
All wards 45% Donowitz (1987) Pediatric ICU 30% Graham (1990) ICU
Neonatal ICU 29% Doebbeling et al. (1992) ICU 40% Zimakoff et al. (1992) ICU 40%
Meengs et al. (1994) ER (Casualty) 32% Pittet, Mourouga & Perneger (1999) All wards 48% ICU
36% We need to create time and space for teachers to reflect on their practice in a structured way, and to learn from mistakes (Bransford, Brown & Cocking, 1999) Always make new mistakes Esther Dyson Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try again. Fail again. Fail better. Samuel Beckett, Worstward Ho Support Teacher learning is just like any other learning in a highly complex area In the same way that teachers cannot do the learning for their learners, leaders cannot do the learning for their teachers What is needed from teachers
A commitment to the continuous improvement of practice; and A focus on those things that make a difference to students What is needed from leaders A commitment to engineer effective learning environments for teachers : creating expectations for the continuous improvement of practice keeping the focus on the things that make a difference to students providing the time, space, dispensation and support for innovation supporting risk-taking A case study in risk Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) A rare, but extremely serious, congenital condition in newborn babies (~25 per 100,000 live births) in which the aorta emerges from the right ventricle and so receives oxygen-poor blood,
which is carried back to the body without receiving more oxygen the pulmonary artery emerges from the left ventricle and so receives the oxygenrich blood, which is carried back to the lungs Traditional treatment: the Senning procedure which involves: the creation of a tunnel between the ventricles, and the insertion of a baffle to divert oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle (where it shouldnt be) to the right ventricle (where it should) Prognosis Early death rate (first 30 days): 12% Life expectancy: 46.6 years The introduction of the switch procedure Senning
Early death rate Senning 12% Transitional 25% Transitional Switch Bull, et al (2000). BMJ, 320, 1168-1173. Impact on life expectancy Life expectancy: Senning: 46.6 years
Switch: 62.6 years Making a commitment Action planning Forces teachers to make their ideas concrete and creates a record Makes the teacher accountable for doing what they promised Requires each teacher to focus on a small number of changes Requires the teacher to identify what they will give up or reduce A good action plan Does not try to change everything at once Spells out specific changes in teaching practice Relates to the five key strategies of AfL Is achievable within a reasonable period of time Identifies something that the teacher will no longer do or will do less of
and being held to it I think specifically what was helpful was the ridiculous NCR forms. I thought that was the dumbest thing, but Im sitting with my friends and on the NCR form I write down what I am going to do next month. Well, it turns out to be a sort of Im telling my friends Im going to do this and I really actually did it and it was because of that. It was because I wrote it down I was surprised at how strong an incentive that was to do actually do something different that idea of writing down what you are going to do and then because when they come by the next month you better take out that piece of paper and sayDid I do that? just the idea of sitting in a group, working out something, and making a commitment I was impressed about how that actually made me do stuff. (Tim, Spruce Central High School) Supporting change with
teacher learning communities www.ioe.ac.uk Teacher learning communities Plan that the TLC will run for two years Identify 8 to 10 interested colleagues Composition Similar assignments (e.g. early years, math/sci) Mixed-subject/mixed-phase Hybrid Secure institutional support for: Monthly meetings (75 - 120 minutes each, inside or outside school time) Time between meetings (2 hrs per month in school time)
Collaborative planning Peer observation Any necessary waivers from school policies A signature pedagogy for teacher learning Every monthly TLC meeting should follows the same structure and sequence of activities Activity 1: Introduction (5 minutes) Activity 2: Starter activity (5 minutes) Activity 3: Feedback (25-50 minutes) Activity 4: New learning about formative assessment (20-40 minutes) Activity 5: Personal action planning (15 minutes) Activity 6: Review of learning (5 minutes)
Every TLC needs a leader The job of the TLC leader(s) To ensure that all necessary resources (including refreshments!) are available at meetings To ensure that the agenda is followed To maintain a collegial and supportive environment But most important of all not to be the formative assessment expert Peer observation Run to the agenda of the observed, not the observer Observed teacher specifies focus of observation e.g., teacher wants to increase wait-time Observed teacher specifies what counts as evidence provides observer with a stop-watch to log wait-times
Observed teacher owns any notes made during the observation Summary Raising achievement is important Raising achievement requires improving teacher quality Improving teacher quality requires teacher professional development To be effective, teacher professional development must address What teachers do in the classroom How teachers change what they do in the classroom Formative assessment + Teacher learning communities A point of (uniquely?) high leverage A Trojan Horse into wider issues of pedagogy, psychology, and curriculum Force-field analysis (Lewin, 1954) What are the forces that will support or
drive the adoption of formative assessment practices in your school/district? + What are the forces that will constrain or prevent the adoption of formative assessment practices in your school/district?
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