Industrial Revolution -

Industrial Revolution -

Industrial Revolution New Ways of Thinking Re-Cap What problems arose during the Industrial Revolution? The transition from agriculture to urban industry was What was done because of this? Eventually people demanded better working conditions through: Labor unions = better hours and working conditions Child labor laws

The right to vote (first men and then women) New Ways of Thinking As a result of a rapidly changing lifestyle, people turned to different ideas to help explain what was happening and untimely what should happen. Where do you think these ideas came from?

New Ways of Thinking The different ideas that became prevalent during the Industrial Revolution can be divided into two main categories. These are still debated today. 1. Laissez -Faire Economic Capitalism 2. Socialism

Laissez-Faire Economics Laissez-Faire is a French term that means let do, or leave it [economy] alone Laissez-Faire economists call for the government to keep its hands-off the economy Famous Laissez-Faire economists to

know: Adam Smith (Father of Capitalism) Thomas Malthus (Population) David Ricardo (Iron Law of Wages) Adam Smith - Father of Capitalism Believed that the unregulated exchange of goods and services would eventually help everyone A free market will allow for more goods

at lower prices A growing economy encourages capitalists to invest in new business which creates jobs Pointed to the success of the Industrial Age - which had no/little government interference Thomas Malthus on Population

Believed population would outpace the food supply Believed that war, famine, and disease kept populations under control Urged families to have fewer children (especially the poor)

Early on, people believed this but his predictions proved to be false. Food supplies grew even faster than population. David Ricardo - Iron Law of Wages Also believed the poor had too many kids Believed in a cycle of

poverty: When wages are high people have more children When there are more people to hire, wages go down When wages are lower, and there are too many people, unemployment is high Utilitarianism A revision of Laissez-Faire economics

Allowed for government interference in the economy Believed the goal of society should be to provide the greatest happiness (utility) to the greatest number of people Supported individual freedom (provided happiness) Supported

government involvement to help the struggling middle class Called for giving the right to vote to working men and women Right to vote = suffrage Socialism People control production

and distribution of goods and services. The Socialists Allowed for government interference in the economy on three different levels 1. UTOPIAN SOCIALISM-peaceful, set up of communities which share work and profit, no vote by people

2. DEMOCRATIC SOCIALISM- people are informed of advantages, vote for this type of socialism, still in practice in West Germany, Sweden, Israel, and during part of the twentieth century in Great Britain. 3. SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM-part of the system of communism this calls for violent revolution by the proletariat to defeat the capitalists . Today: All call for some or complete government

ownership and control of business. Utopian Valued the good of Socialism society over individual rights Believed capitalism created a divide between rich and poor Believed that instead of individual business controlling the means of production, society

as a whole should Goal of socialism is to make society better off at the expense of Robert Owen Socialist AND business owner Refused to use child labor Campaigned for child labor laws and labor unions

Owen set up a Utopia in New Lanark Scotland where he transformed life with ideas and opportunities which were at least a hundred years ahead of their time. Child labor and corporal punishment were abolished, and villagers were provided with decent homes, schools and evening classes, free health care, and affordable food.

Scientific Socialism - Karl Marx German philosopher that teamed with another socialist - Friedrich Engels to write the Communist Manifesto Believes that economics is the driving force in history A constant struggle between haves and have-nots Believed that the haves have always controlled society (called the bourgeoisie) -The have-nots are called the proletariat and are the working and poor class -Hated capitalism because he believed it called for a few to be rich, while the rest were poor -Believed that in the end the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie and create a communist (class-less) society where wealth is equally shared

Marx said that the workers would rise up and stab the owners with their pitchforks Ok, so he didnt say that, but he said that the continued divide between the haves and the have not's would end in a bloody revolution. And that private property would cease to exist.

Name that economic philosopher of the late 1800 and your favorite biology teacher at CHS Communism like Marx discussed We have never really seen in the world. Maybe China, Russia, and

Cuba, but those didnt look like what Marx talked about

Recently Viewed Presentations