INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING - Mcphee

INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING - Mcphee

INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING Bellringer What is hasty generalization? Give an example

What is circular reasoning? Give an example EOC All English classes EOC April 17, parts 1 and 2 in the morning, 3 and 4 in the afternoon Tuesday, April 18 History in the morning Wednesday, April 19 ACT makeup

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Types of Reasoning Deductive reasoning goes from general to specific Inductive reasoning goes from specific to general DEDUCTIVE

DEDUCTIVE VS. INDUCTIVE There are several ways to present information when writing, including those that employ inductive and deductive reasoning. The difference can be stated simply: Inductive reasoning presents facts and then wraps them up with a conclusion. Deductive reasoning presents a thesis statement and then

provides supportive facts or examples. Which should the writer use? It depends on content, the intended audience, and your overall purpose. DRAW THIS: Deductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning starts with a premise, which we accept to be true. Then, from that rule, we make a conclusion about something specific. Example: All turtles have shells The animal I have captured is a turtle I conclude that the animal in my bag has a shell

Deductive Reasoning A conclusion reached with deductive reasoning is logically sound, and airtight, assuming the premise is true. If a penny is a flat disc, copper in color and has a profile

of Honest Abe on it, then I can be sure the penny in my pocket has those qualities. DEDUCTIVE If your audience is not likely going to read the entire written piece, then deductive reasoning might make more sense, as the reader can look for what he or she wants by quickly scanning first sentences of each paragraph. Here is an

example: My backyard is in dire need of cleaning and new landscaping. The Kentucky bluegrass that was planted there five years ago has been all but replaced by Creeping Charlie, a particularly invasive weed. The stone steps leading to the house are in some disrepair, and there are some slats missing from the fence. Perennials were planted three years ago, but the moles and rabbits destroyed many of the bulbs, so we no longer have flowers in the spring.

DEDUCTIVE CONTD. The reader knows from the very first sentence that the backyard is a mess! This paragraph could have ended with a clarifying conclusion sentence; while it might be considered redundant to do so, the scientific community tends to work through deductive reasoning by providing (1) a premise or argument which could also be

called a thesis statement, (2) then evidence to support the premise, and (3) finally the conclusion. Purposes for this kind of writing include business letters and project documents, where the client is more likely to skim the work for generalities or to hunt for only the parts that are important to him or her. Again, scientific writing tends to follow this format as well, and research papers greatly benefit from deductive writing.

Deductive Reasoning The strength of deductive reasoning is that conclusions derived with it are fully certain. The weakness, which was illustrated in the most recent example, is that no new information is added. The fact that the penny in my pocket is a copper disc with Lincoln on it was clear from the initial data, so the

conclusion hasn't added any new information. Deductive Reasoning All dogs are mammals and mammals have kidneys. Therefore your dog has kidneys.

Deductive Reasoning All squares are rectangles, and all rectangles have four sides. All squares have four sides. Deductive Reasoning

All chemists are smart if chemists are scientists and all scientists are smart. INDUCTIVE If you want your audience to discover new things with you, then inductive writing

might make sense. Here is an example: My dog Max wants to chase every non-human living creature he sees, whether it is the cats in the house or rabbits and squirrels in the backyard. Sources indicate that this is a behavior typical of Jack Russell terriers. While Max is a mixed breed dog, he is approximately the same size and has many of the typical markings of a Jack Russell. From these facts along with his behaviors, we surmise that Max is indeed at least part Jack Russell terrier.

INDUCTIVE CONTD. Within that short paragraph, you learned about Maxs manners and a little about what he might look like, and then the concluding sentence connected these ideas together. This kind of writing often keeps the readers attention, as he or she must read all the pieces of the puzzle before they are connected.

Purposes for this kind of writing include creative writing and perhaps some persuasive essays, although much academic work is done in deductive form. Inductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning is making a conclusion based on a set of experiences or data. If I observe that something is true many times, concluding that it will be true in all

instances is a use of inductive reasoning. Example: All sheep that I've seen are white All sheep must be white Inductive Reasoning

The strength of inductive reasoning is that new information came be stated. The weakness is that the new information cannot be proven. Inductive Reasoning

All swans we have seen have been white; therefore all swans are white. Inductive Reasoning All swans we have seen have been white; therefore the next swan we see will be white.

Inductive Reasoning All known planets travel about the sun in elliptical orbits; therefore all planets travel about the sun in elliptical orbits.

Deductive or Inductive? Since all men are mortal, and Socrates is a man, Socrates is mortal. DEDUCTIVE

Deductive or Inductive? Exploration of the surface of Mars has produced some surprising facts. Therefore exploration of the surface of Jupiter will produce some surprising facts. INDUCTIVE

Deductive or Inductive? Since Chris is a good athlete, Chris's sister must be a good athlete also. INDUCTIVE

Deductive or Inductive? The sun is a star; the sun has planets; therefore some stars have planets. DEDUCTIVE

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