Indicators of an economically healthy forest

Indicators of an economically healthy forest

A vision for the forests of the White River Watershed Future 1 Economic Indicators Future 2 Economic Indicators Social/Cultural Indicators Environmental Indicators Future 3 Economic Indicators Social/Cultural Indicators Environmental Indicators Social/Cultural Indicators Environmental Indicators In 30 years we hope for

More local harvesting of high quality marketable wood products that are manufactured in the watershed with no waste. A local marketing cooperative Qualified, local forest practitioners and forest management that includes ecology as well as silviculture All forests and forest products to be sustainably certified No clear cutting or to have size limits for clear cuts Incentives that lead to good stewardship An emphasis on comprehensive, community based, management Examine/manage previous logging issues restoration? Maintained or increased hunting access Improved deer yards and herds A youth population that appreciates and participates in hunting and fishing Clean water Recognition of the role the forest plays in water quality Forests and logging roads that are managed to minimize soil erosion A forest that is high in biodiversity managed for biodiversity and

sustainability Regulation/monitoring of recreational use (ATV, snowmobile, mtn. bikes) Large areas of pristine wilderness to be accessible for recreation (define pristine) The same amount of private lands Landowners to have the right to harvest trees on their own land Maintain current balance between private and public land as well as current wilderness designations An aesthetic watershed where no littering or dumping occurs Multiple use Forests to provide economic livelihood (pay taxes) A plan for emergencies (ice storms, disease, etc.) Management that takes into consideration possible residential development (i.e. subdivisions) in planning and incorporates forested areas (wilderness) into any development plans A state that has addressed the inequities in the market Increased quality/quantity of forestry education Indicators of an economically, socially / culturally, and environmentally healthy forest. What is the current status and trend of an indicator? Indicators of an economically healthy forest Number/amount of products manufactured in the watershed

Number/amount of products/logs exported (need clarification) List of primary/secondary manufacturers Impediments to new manufacturing (start-ups) -legal/social/economic Number of foresters living and working in the watershed Number of acres of forests certified Board feet harvested annually in the watershed Number of visitor days to the area Forest Inventory and Stumpage Value Kelsey Cornelius Forest land covers 84% of the White River Basin (Vermont Agency of Natural Resources 2002) Comparison of Size Class, Growing Stock Volume, Sawtimber Volume, Stumpage Value for two endpoints: George D. Aiken Resource Conservation and Development Report, 1970. Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Inventory & Analysis, 1997 (data for Orange, Rutland, Washington, Windsor and Addison counties). Percent of stand-size classes, Vermont, 1966 Non-Stocked 2% Size Class Sapling and Seedling 17% Sawtimber 47% Percent of stand-size classes in 5 counties, Vermont 1997

Sapling and Seedling 6% Non-Stocked 0 % PoleTimber 34% PoleTimber 27% Sapling and seedling stands increased by 14 percent from 1948 to 1966 Sawtimber 67% Percent of Growing Stock by Species, Vermont, 1966 Aspen/Birch 17% White/Red Pine 9% Growing Stock Spruce/Fir 31% Percent of Growing Stock by Species, in 5 Counties, Vermont 1997 Aspen/Birch 8% Northern Hardwood 37% Oak/Hickory 1% White/Red Pine

18% Elm/Ash/Red Maple 5% Spruce/Fir 6% Sugar Maple accounted for 54% of N. Hardwood in 1966. 1997? Oak/Hickory 6% Elm/Ash/Red Maple 0% Northern Hardwood 62% Percent volume of sawtimber trees by species, Vermont, 1966 aspen/birch 11% white/red pine, spruce/fir 43% Northern hardwoods 40% Saw Timber Percent volume of sawtimber trees by species in 5 Counties, Vermont, 1997 aspen/birch 7 % oak/hickory 1% elm/ash/red maple

5% white/red pine, spruce/fir 27% oak/hickory 6% elm/ash/red maple 0% Northern hardwoods 60% Stumpage Price Stumpage Prices of Different Species 400 350 Price (in $ per thousand feet) 300 250 sugar maple yellow birch ash white pine spruce fir 200 150 100 50 0 1981

1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 McEvoy, T. (2004). Stumpage Price Data from 1981. Extension Forestry in Vermont. Retrieved from http://stumpage.uvm.edu/19813.html Forest Products Industry: Primary Production Adam Lucas Sawmills, 2002 Vermont = 185 (187 in 1995) White River Watershed = 12 Six with annual production > 100 Mbf Six with annual production < 100 Mbf Interviewed Gabriel Bolton of Wagner Forest Management on direct and indirect impacts of primary production, including excavating contractors, fuel purchase for equipment, purchase of parts for equipment, maintenance of equipment, some local housing when necessary, and use of local markets and stores, property taxes, recreation use. Year 2000 employment in (1) Farming, Fishing, and Forestry (FFF), and (2) Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, and Mining occupations (AFFM) Occupation COUNTY

TOWN FFF AFFM Addison Hancock 0 0 Granville 5 (2.7%) 15 (8%) Braintree 15 (2.4%) 26 (4.2%) Randolph 29 (1.2%) 101 (4%) Chittenden 6 Rutland 14 (0.7%) 43 (2%) Orange Rutland (0.9%) 10 (2%)

Washington Roxbury 7 Windsor Barnard 18 (3.6%) 42 (8.4%) Rochester 10 (1.6%) 30 (4.8%) White River Junct. 5 (2.5%) 9 (0.4%) 5 (3.2%) (0.4%) Center for Rural Studies: The U.S. Census Bureaus VT State Data Center. 802656-3021 or on-line < http://crs.uvm.edu/census/2000dps/ > Forest Products Industry: Secondary Production Paula Zampieri Economic Impact of the Value-Added Portion of the Forest and Wood Products Industry in Vermont, 2001: $300 million in VT personal income 6.2% of VT employment (down from 16.5% in 1987) Value Added Products

Selection of Manufactured Forest Products Architectural Millwork Bentwood Custom Cabinets Carvings/ Sculptures Furniture/ custom Furniture, Outdoor Furniture, Parts Furniture Production Millworks Moldings Picture Frames Toys Turnings Woodenware State Watershe State wide Watershed d wide 31 1 11 0 63 1 40 0 84 1 16 0 26 1 37 1 26

1 31 1 29 1 29 0 26 0 38 3 Source: Agency of Commerce and Community Development, State of Vermont Secondary Wood Products Industry: Study and Strategic Plan, January 10, 2002. Mills 1987 1993 2000 State WR WR Counties Towns 406 339 255 201 85 102

22 9 5 Granville Manufacturing Co., Granville, VT Vermont Wood Specialists, Granville, VT Stanley Tools, Pittsfield, VT Richard Holmquist, Cabinet Maker, White River Jct., VT Hartford Woolen Co., Hartford, VT Vermont Dept. of Forests, Parks and Recreation, Agency of Natural Resources, Vermont Wood Product Manufacturers and Crafters 2000, 1990, 1993, 1987, 1963, Vermont Wood Product Manufacturers and Craters Association, Waterbury, VT. Forest Land Conservation Kelly Hayes Current Use Appraisal (CVA) program In 2000, acres enrolled in Current Use Appraisal: 1,628,404 acres covering 27.4% of the states land area. 1,152,000 acres forested, compromising 70.8% of all acres in CVA In 1983: 108,000 acres in CVA (2.4% of VT) In 1998: 1,050,767 acres in CVA (23.4% of VT) White River watershed: 25-35% of private forestland Other forest conservation activities: Vermont Family Forests, Chateaugauy No Towns area, New England Forestry Foundation, Upper Valley Land Trust, Vermont Land Trust Town Stockbridge Braintree Washington Pomfret Bethel Chelsea

Barnard Roxbury Tunbridge Sharon Rochester Randolph Brookfield Royalton Hartland 2001 Property Tax Use Value Total Town % UVA (per $100) Acres Acres of Town 2.07 2.19 2.27 2.25 2.41 1.89 1.31 2.21 1.80 2.00 2.40 2.76 1.88 1.84 2.21 13,741 10,857 10,193 9,827 10,882 9,302 11,050 8,416 8,545

7,513 10,403 6,647 5,246 4,339 3,186 29,517 24,499 24,870 25,216 28,992 25,549 31,168 26,746 28,627 25,357 35,948 30,630 26,496 25,875 28,774 46.6 44.3 41.0 39.0 37.5 36.4 35.5 31.5 29.8 29.6 28.9 21.7 19.8 16.8 11.1 Indicators of a

socially/culturally healthy forest Number of acres clearcut each year and size of those cuts Presence of a single watershed wide forester Number of acres of private land open to hunting and recreation Deer hunting and habitat Town recreation plans are coordinated Number of recreational accesses Acres of land that are roadless Restrictions on right to harvest on own land Number of acres in private/public ownership State/federal land management plans (?) Number of forestry programs in local high schools Incentives available to encourage teachers to include forestry Number of forestry education opportunities in the watershed Hunting Chris Wolff 19 89 19 91

Youth kills 19 93 19 95 19 97 Rifle kills 19 99 20 Type of Kill Year 01 Windsor Totals Muzzle Loader 19 87 Rifle kills Archery kills

Youth kills 180000 1000 160000 140000 800 120000 600 100000 1677 80000 400 60000 2003 Deer Kills 1913 40000 200 20000 2002 Deer Kills 0 0 8415 9000 8000 7000 6000 Addison 5000 Number of 3148 4169 4000 KillsOrange Total Resident 3000 997 756 Rutland 2000

Total Non-Resident 1000 1620 Washington 0 713 6578 Archery kills Number of Kills Number of Licenses Sold Table 3:5: Comparison ofKills DeerinKills 2002 Table 1: Total Resident and Non-Resident License Sales Table 2003 Deer the Between White River and 2003 Watershed in the 1987 White- 2003 River Watershed, VT by County

20 03 Muzzle Loader Type of Kill Source: Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, Waterbury & Pittsford Offices Fishing Dave Rosa Fishing License Sales - R esident & Non-R esident 1987 - 2003 110000 Interviews with Mike Stidena (Fishing Guide), Ron Rhodes (WRP Board), Brad Yoder (Fishing Guide) Past ten years has seen two 100-year floods Main stem from Bethel to Rochester, only caught 2 brook trout in past 12 years Resident 99% mortality rate on stocked fish, due primarily toLicense high temps Sales River is perhaps too clean, with not enough nutrients Non-Resident Some evidence of overfishing License Sales However, guiding business is strong 105000 100000 95000 90000 85000

80000 75000 70000 65000 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 Stats. from Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department 5000 0 Year Hiking Trail Access and Use Chris Anderberg 443.73 miles of hiking trails in the Hiking/Walking White River Watershed (Vermont Center for Geographic Information, 2002), including: County

Permitted Randolph Town Forest Public Trails Clark Brook Trail Private Total Ainsworth State Park Trails Middlebury Gap Addison 3 Trail 48 Mount Cushman State Forest45 Trails Silent Cliff Hancock Branch Trail Brandon Gap Orange 4 1 5 Mt. Horrid (Brandon gap N) Great Cliff Trail Rutland 35 Chittenden 8 Brook Trail 43 Mount Horrid Overlook Liberty Hill Texas Gap Trail Washington 33 3 36 Barnard Trail Long Trail (portion)

WindsorTrail (portions) 34 3 37 Appalachian Grand Totals 151 18 169 Trail Use Clark Brook Trail Use Hancock Trail Use Texas Branch Falls Trail Use Chittenden Brandon GapBrook SouthTrail TrailUse Use Brandon Gap North Trail Use 450 1000 6000 900 2000 1800 900 400 1800 800 1600

5000 800 3501600 700 1400 #of of Visitors # #of Visitors Visitors ### of Visitors of Visitors of Visitors 700 3001400 4000 600 1200 600 1200 250 500 1000 3000 500 1000 ##ofof Visitors Visitors Visitors #Visitors of

Visitors # #ofof 200 400800 400 800 1502000 300600 300 600 100 400 200 400 200 1000 50200 100 100 0 0 0 00 01995 1995 1985 1995 1995 1986 1996 1996 1987 1996 1996 1997 19981991 1999 2000 1995

1997 1998 19921999 1997 1998 2000 1988 1997 1989 1990 1998 1999 1993 19991994 2000 1997 1998 1999 Year Year Year Year Year Year 2001 2000 2001 1996 2001 2000 Source: Jeff Harvey, U.S. Forest Service Rochester Station 2001 Snowmobile Access and Use Taylor Cameron Vermont Association of Snow Travelers (VAST) 140 clubs statewide Over 45,000 members combined Nearly eighty percent of the 4500 miles of trail in Vermont are on private lands

Expenditures: Average of $511 million spent on snowmobiles, accessories, and trips in Vermont A typical snowmobiler will spend close to $4,000 on snowmobile related expenses annually, will ride an average of 990 miles in a year, and will spend 7.2 nights in a hotel or resort while riding ATV use on VAST trails has caused a great deal of conflict as ATV popularity grows Forest Education Brianna Parke K-12 Programs in Vermonts 285 public schools 10 of 21 vocational technology centers list forestry or natural resources programs (1996) The Great Northern Forest Curriculum, Fairbanks Museum/Planetarium, St. Johnsbury, VT VT Fish & Wildlife programs: Fall Naturalist, Project Learning Tree, and Project Wild VT Dept. of Forest, Parks, and Recreation programs Forestry education: UVM Extension Forestry, technical workshops through Dept of Forest, Parks and Recreation, Consulting Foresters Assoc. of VT, VT Professional Loggers Assoc., Logger Education to Advance Professionalism (LEAP) Land owners and general public: Center for Northern Studies, Sterling College, VT Youth Conservation Corp., UVM Average 1997 enrollment yearly teacher in natural participation resource in Forest curricula Parks in and Landowner participation

inand theFish forest stewardship program, 1990-1997: Recreation post-secondary schools and Wildlife in Vermont: programs: Private Property and Zoning Caitlin Fitzpatrick Zoning Windsor Co. Ordinance Barnard YES Bethel YES Pomfret YES Rochester YES Royalton NO Sharon NO Stockbridge YES Hartford YES Gaysville YES White River Jct. ? Addison Co. Hancock Granville

NO NO Orange Co. Braintree Brookfield Chelsea Randolph Tunbridge Washington Zoning Ordinance YES YES YES YES NO YES Washington Co. Roxbury NO Rutland Co. Chittenden NO Rutland (city) YES Rutland(town) NO Indicators of an environmentally healthy forest

Number of forest management plans that include ecology as well as tree production Number of acres in land trust, easements, current use Cost sharing programs communities/federal/state (?) All loggers in the watershed are trained in the application of BMPs (?) Healthy, sustainable deer herd Develop list of habitat characteristics (?) Monitoring water in all logging operations (not just clear cuts) Pre- and post- monitoring of logging jobs (temperature/turbidity) Miles of class IV roads managed by towns Deer Yards and Biological Diversity Dan Evans An estimated 40,691 acres of deer yards in the White River Watershed 15,554 acres (38 %) are located within 100 meters of major roads 14,789 acres (36 %) located outside of high risk areas, not including those on public land 3,681 acres (11 %) are located on public / conserved lands Soil Protection and Water Quality Carla Fenner and Christina Twomey Best Management Practice Kyle Clark Acceptable Management Plan paper, effective as of August 15, 1987 Practice #1: Steep pitches (greater than 10%) on permanent truck roads shall not exceed 300 feet in length. Practice #4: Drainage ditches shall not terminate where they

will feed water directly into streams or other surface waters Practice #10: Logging activities, except for the necessary and proper construction of stream crossing structures, shall be kept out of stream channels. Use Value Appraisal (UVA) law, 1978 1. To keep Vermonts agricultural and forested land productive, 2. To slow development on these lands, and 3. To establish greater equity in property taxation on undeveloped land. Statutory changes: Act 220 (1984), Act 262 (1986), Act 57 (1987), Act 200 (1988), Act 178 (1996) and Act 60 (1998) Forest Stewardship Program Fish Habitat and Stocking Colin Kaferle County Windsor Town Total Mileage 2001 Total Mileage 2004 (Incl. Class 1, 2, 3, (Incl. Class 1, 2, 3, and St Hwy) and St Hwy) Change Forest Fragmentation Barnard Bethel Pomfret Royalton Sharon Stockbridge Hartford 69.485 Michael Birkby

83.058 Braintree Brookfield Chelsea Randolph Tunbridge Washington 63.363 93.777 62.107 49.882 173.974 69.035 83.308 63.363 94.157 62.457 50.352 174.284 -0.45 0.25 0 0.38 0.35 0.47 0.31 50.855 80.39 70.44 119.698 78.794 58.015 50.855 81.73

70.44 119.698 78.694 58.015 0 1.34 0 0 -0.1 0 Roxbury 42.249 42.249 0 Hancock Granville 18.187 29.094 18.557 29.094 0.37 0 Chittenden Rutland 29.162 76.441 29.882 76.111

0.72 -0.33 1248.971 1252.281 3.31 Orange Washington Addison Rutland Total

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