APA: In-Text Citations & Reference List CSUB Department of Nursing 2014 Quotations (p. 170) Using ellipses (p. 172) Use 3 ellipsis points within a sentence to indicate that you have omitted material from the original source () Use 4 points to indicate any omission between 2 sentences (.) Do not use ellipses at the beginning or end of sentences
2 Quotations Verbatim quotations ALWAYS require quotation marks: NO EXCEPTIONS Quotation = 4 or more words in a row taken EXACTLY from the source Length of quotation affects format: <40 words: in text, use 40+ words: block quotation (p. 171) No quotation marks Indented Double-spaced, same
font BUTavoid block quotations! (Block Quotations may be prohibited by Faculty). Direct quotations always require AUTHOR, YEAR, & PAGE NUMBER in citation Online sources without page numbers: use abbreviation para. or symbol (p. 172) 3
Quotations Avoid hanging quotes (verbatim sentences taken from source & used without introduction, explanation, or context) Example: Only two participants seemed to be unable to focus on specific patients (Gunther & Thomas, 2006, p. 372). Solution: paraphrase or place quotation within a sentence that enhances its meaning. Gunther & Thomas reported [o]nly two participants seemed to be unable to focus on
specific patients (2006, p. 372). 4 Quotations Avoid heavy reliance on lengthy quotations Avoid unnecessary block quotations (Block Quotations may be prohibited by Faculty). 5 Quotations This may seem odd, but students who are nervous about plagiarism sometimes
add inappropriate quotation marks Example: The research proved that some women were not unable to produce babies at age 30-years-old if they had not enough kilograms (Rubin & Sterner, 1998). What? DO NOT put quotation marks around paraphrased material if its not VERBATIM, its not a QUOTE! 6 General Info: In-text Citations (p. 174)
Every piece of scientific info requires appropriate referencing to give recognition to its author (citing once at the end of a paragraph NOT acceptable) References cited in text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text (APA, 2010, p. 174) 7 General Info: In-text Citations (p. 174) No such thing as too many citations
when in doubt, cite to avoid plagiarism use THE WALMART TEST (see Plagiarism PowerPoint) 8 KEY POINT!!! Read & seek clarification anytime it is needed! Note: The emphasis on proper citation should encourage you to use citations when appropriate. This is NOT a direction to submit a paper
that consists of continuous, back-to-back hanging quotes (verbatim sentences taken from sources & used without introduction, explanation, or context). 9 KEY POINT!!! Read & seek clarification anytime it is needed! OVERQUOTATION (a pattern of quotations with no attempt to paraphrase or synthesize ideas) is a serious writing problem. The instructors response will be a substantial grade deduction. Rationale: A string of quotations with little/no
10 original student writing fails to demonstrate an understanding of the material. Also, a string of quotations plucked from different sources is usually awkward, & fails to convey a meaningful, coherent point. General Info: In-text Citations Include citation info either within text of sentence (to emphasize author or year), or at end of sentence (most common) (p. 174) Info contained in text of sentence doesnt need to
be repeated at the end of the sentence Example: A study conducted by Smith (1999) resulted in similar findings. A study conducted in 1999 resulted in similar findings (Smith). A study conducted by Smith resulted in similar findings (1999). Paraphrases (Author, year). Do NOT cite page # Quotations (Author, year, page #). (p. 170) 11
General Info: In-text Citations (p. 174 - 175) 1 author: cite name every time Allen 2 authors: cite both names every time Allen and Crane (2004) within a sentence, or (Allen 12 & Crane, 2004) at the end of a sentence, every time 3-5 authors: cite all authors the 1st time; on later citations use primary authors last name followed by et al. (meaning: and others) to represent other authors (Allen, Crane, Bright, & Edmon, 2004) 1st time
(Allen et al., 2004) rest of paper 6+ authors: use primary authors name followed by et al. every time (Allen et al., 2004) every time Reference List (Ch. 6-7) Fresh page, next page number in sequence Times New Roman font (12 point) Title: References (Level 1 Heading - 13 Boldface) Double space every line, NO extra spaces Authors names flush left (first line) Hanging indentation of subsequent lines
Alphabetize by name of first author listed (primary author), leave all names in order of appearance on the article! No missing entries, no extra entries Reference List States are abbreviated (p. 187) Publishers, Co., or Inc. are omitted, Books & Press are retained (p. 187) 14 Reference List Review examples in APA book carefully for
the following Spacing Italics (Title of book or journal, volume) Parentheses (year, Eds., issue #, page #s) Capital Letters (First word of title & subtitle = title after a colon) Commas & Periods 15 Reference List Journal (p. 198) Book (p. 202) Dictionary/Reference Book (p. 204) Chapter (p. 202)
Government Report (p. 205) 16 Secondary Source (p. 178) Primary source preferred, if possible When using a secondary source: Refer to primary author(s) and reference when appropriate, but only secondary author(s) appear on reference list Example see p. 178 Hold an article in your hands. The article in 17
your hands is the secondary source that is citing primary sources. Please consult with your faculty when citing sources in this format, you may be better off paraphrasing.
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