Technical Theatre Vocabulary Designer: A person who creates or plans a specific part of the production, such as the costumes, lighting, set, make-up, or sound. Crew: Committee of technicians who work behind the scenes creating the scenery, props, and so on. Technical Rehearsals: Rehearsals emphasizing the performance of the productions technical elements prop changes, scenery shifts, light
changes, sound effects, etc. Props: Stage properties or items that might be part of the stage decorations. Items used by the actors for stage business and characterization. Property Master: Person in charge of the props for a Vocabulary Scenery: Curtains, backdrops, or any structures constructed to transform an empty stage into a suitable background for a play. Rendering: A rough sketch.
Sound Effect: special sounds that are not produced by the actual props on stage, but come from a prerecorded sound. Cue: The dialogue, sounds, movement, or business signaling an actor or a technician to respond as rehearsed. Lighting Designer: The person who plans and puts into effect the lighting for a play or stage production. Lighting Plot: a floorplan of the set showing the Vocabulary Stage Makeup: any cosmetic effect including hair,
that enhances or changes an actors appearance. Costumes: Outfits, including accessories and undergarments, worn by an actor in a production. Costume Plot: a chart listing all characters, the acts or scenes in which they appear, and all garments and accessories needed. Publicity Crew: the committee responsible for organizing and implementing all advertising for a production. House Crew: The group responsible for printing tickets and programs and managing the box office, audience, and physical theatre during a production.
Lesson Objectives THE STUDENT WILL : I D E N T I F Y T H E M A J O R D E S I G N E L E M E N T S O F T H E AT R E . E X P L A I N H O W T H E D E S I G N E L E M E N T S W O R K T O G E T H E R I N A PRODUCTION. W O R K H A N D S - O N T O D E S I G N F O R T H E D I F F E R E N T A R E A S O F T E C H T H E AT R E ( P R O P S , C O S T U M E S , L I G H T I N G , S O U N D , S C E N E RY , M A K E - U P , P U B L I C I T Y ) . U N D E R S TA N D A N D R E C O G N I Z E T H E R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S A N D
FUNCTION OF THE PRODUCTION TEAM. A director could never stage a show alone. Behind the scenes, a support team is hard at work. There is a lot to be done in a short amount of time. Sets must be built, lights hung, sound effects created, music selected, makeup
planned, costumes and props found or made, and publicity begun. P R O P S What are PROPS?
Stage properties or items that might be part of the stage decorations. Items used by the actors for stage business and characterization. Props are all things handled by the actors or used to dress (decorate) the set. Props help the audience know the setting, enhance characterization, aid the actor in stage business, and add symbolism to the play
Types of PROPS Hand propssmall items necessary to the plays action that can be carried by the actor Items like books, letters, dishes, flowers, etc. Stage propslarge props. Items like chairs, tables, benches, stools, desks, furniture, etc. Trim propsprops that serve to decorate the set.
Items like pictures, lamps, clocks, etc Literal vs Implied Literal props are stated in the script, usually in the stage directions. (Johnny picks up the axe.) Implied props are not stated in the script, but
assumed. Johnny is cutting wood. This probably means he needs an axe. Prop Crew Crewhead or Designer is called the PROPERTIES MASTER/ MISTRESS Responsible for gathering all the
props for the show Begins by reading the script and highlighting all the props need. Then makes a prop list. Where to get props? You can get props several ways: Buy Borrow Make Rent
Find in storage S c e n e r y What is SCENERY? C U RTA I N S , B A C K D R O P S ,
OR ANY STRUCTURES CONSTRUCTED TO TRANSFORM AN EMPTY S TA G E I N T O A S U I TA B L E BACKGROUND FOR THE P L AY DEPENDS ON MANY E L E M E N T S P L AY S R E Q U I R E M E N T S , T H E AT R E FA C I L I T I E S , B U D G E T,
TIME, AND CREWS C A PA B I L I T I E S Why do we have SCENERY? To create the settingto show the audience where and when the play takes place. To define the acting areagiving the actors places for entrances and exits and movement.
To create a mood or atmospheremakes a statement about the theme. Getting Started The director, technical director or scenic designer will carefully study the script to design a floor plan for each scene. A scenic design is created from
the floor plan (sketch). A model set is built to show a 3- D example of what the set will look like. Plans are developed and construction begins.
Renderings and Drawings Renderinga rough sketch Floor Plana drawing of the stage setting as seen from above (birds eye view); should be to scale Elevation Viewa front view of the set (looking from the audience); should be to scale
Section Viewa side view of the set (looking from the wing); should be to scale Model Set A small model of a set (think model plane). A miniature copy of the set, usually made of
paper/cardboard or sometimes wood. Set is in SCALEmeaning that it is proportionate to size. 1 inch=1 foot White modela colorless model of the set Final modela painted model of the set Backdrops Sometimes scenery includes large backdrops that have been painted to
look like a scene. Example: Guys and Dolls, Into the Woods Set pieces would be placed in front of the backdrop. Set Pieces Set pieces are large portable pieces of the
stage setting. Flatsact as walls Platformsact as floors May also include doors, a fountain, rocks, trees, stumps, fences Unit Setstock set
pieces that can be used over and over. Sound Sound in Theatre Music Effects Reinforcement Music
Pre-showmusic before the show to get the audience ready and set the mood. Intermissionmusic that takes place during intermission to keep the audience in the mood. Post showmusic that takes place during and after the curtain call to continue the experience Scene changemusic that occurs to transition from one scene to the other and
helps cover up background noise of the scene change Effects Sound effectsimportant elements in the show.Those special sounds that are not produced by the actual props on stage, but come from a pre-recorded sound. Help make things realistic. Sounds that used to be on independent
tracks are now blended (synthesized) to make a scored soundtrack. Reinforcement Help to make the actors louder and easier to understand and hear. AcousticsSound transmission characteristics that are in a specific room or space. Good Acoustics=Good Sound BalanceA good blend between the actors
voice and background music and sounds. Nature of Sound FrequencyThe rate at which objects vibrate. PitchTransmission of sound in the air. IntensityLoudness of the sound. TimbreDistinctive qualities of a sound that makes one different from another Sound Equipment
Tape Deck/CD Player Transducerdevice that converts energy from one state into another Microphone or Loud Speaker (The Cube) MicrophonesCorded, Cordless,
Wireless, Hanging AmplifierUsed to boost the signal received from a transducer. Sound Equipment EqualizerSelectively boosts frequencies . MixerMixes the input of several sources to be able to control them all. SpeakerPuts sound out to the audience.
MonitorPuts sound out backstage. Sound BoothWhere all the sound equipment is located. Sound Diagram INPUT Microphones Mixer Equalize r
Amp CD Player Tape Deck MP3 Player Equalize r Amp
Equalize r Amp OUTPUT Speakers Monitors Lighting Lighting Designer
Duh? A Lighting Designer designs the lights for a show. Responsible for making sure you can see the actors. Helps set the MOOD and TONE for a scene. Tools Script Instruments Gels and Gobos Lighting Plot Cues Cue sheet Instruments Schedule
Script Where you get your information about your design. The design needs to fit what is going on in the script (and the directors vision). You wouldnt put dim, blue lights in a scene during a sunny day.
Lighting Instruments, Etc. Light Tree portable place to hang lights. Electric batons over the stage wired to hang lights on. Catwalk over the house to hang light, give front lighting. Dimmer Box portable dimmer source Lighting Instruments, Etc. Shutters adjusts the ray of light. Lamp the light bulb for the lighting instrument.
Safety Chain/Cable a cable that connects the light to something stable to keep it from falling. Lightboard controls the lights Lighting Instruments, Etc. Fresnel Spotlight a short, fat light. The beam of light is soft and fuzzy.
ERS Stands for Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight; long skinny light; only light that can use gobos. The beam of light is hard (focused) or soft (fuzzy). Gels Gels - colored, translucent plastic. A color filter in a color frame that is put it in front of an instrument to change the light color. Gel Frame a frame that holds the gel
Gobos Gobo a thin metal template inserted into an ERS to create a shadow pattern of light. Gobo Frame a frame that holds the gobo Lighting Plot A sort of floor plan of where the lighting instruments go in the theatre. Includes lighting trees, catwalks, and electrics. Shows where to hang the lights and where each
light is focused to (areas). Areas Areas spots on the stage where lights are focused to. Over lapping circles of light. Lights are focused into areas to make it easy to light one part of the stage at a time. Cues Cues Tells when there is a
change. A lighting cue is marked where the lighting changes. Cues are marked in the script. During the shows, when the line/action happens, the cue happens.
Cue Sheet Cue Sheet A list of all the cues, when they happen and what they are. Helpful because you dont have to flip through the script to find the cue. Easy to see and read. Instrument Schedule Instrument Schedule All the information
about each instrument. Information: Areas Gel Color Dimmer Special Notes Other Lighting Personnel Master Electrician
Lightboard Operator (aka Lightboard Op) Master Electrician Master Electrician the person responsible for ensuring the lighting instruments are hung, focused, patched, and run according to written and verbal instructions from the lighting designer. Sometimes called the M.E.
Lightboard Operator Lightboard Op the person responsible for running the lightboard during rehearsals and the show. Follows cues and directions from the Director, Lighting Designer, and/or Master Electrician Make-Up Stage Make-up
Sets the actors appearance. Enhances what the actor looks like on stage. Makes facial features easier to see by the audience. Genetics, environment, health, disfigurements, fashion, age, personality. Drawings Renderings and Sketchesquick drawings to
get the ideas down on paper. Make-up Worksheetassists in making sketches. Has places for colors and notes. Helpful for beginners. Working DrawingsShow front view and side view. Very detailed draws of make up on the actor Types of Make-up Cake MakeupMost common in theatre today. Both dry and moist, pigmented material
compressed into cake form. Comes in bases, highlights and shadows. Crme Makeupmoist, non-greasy foundation makeup. Does need powder to be set. Types of Make-up Liquid Makeupused in theatre, but very limited to body makeup. Difficult to blend. Dry MakeupMakeup that is dry when
applied to skin. Face powder is most common (used to set cake or crme makeup) Types of Make-up GreasepaintCommon before cake and crme makeup. Applied usually wet and then smeared in. Does not do highlights and shadows well. Used
with stippling. Spirit Gumused to apply extra pieces of makeup and hold Application Techniques Highlights and Shadows!! HighlightsFacial highlights are those areas that reflect
more light. ShadowsFacial shadows are the areas that reflect less. Highlights are a bit Application Techniques Corrective MakeupUsed to enhance natural appearance or cover something that
should not be there. Similar to everyday makeup. StipplingMethod of applying makeup by daubing or patting with a sponge. Gives the skin a look of texture (appears rough). Use a Stippling Sponge! 3-D Makeup Nose Putty Derma Wax
Gelatin Latex Prosthetics Hair (Beards and Mustaches) Make-up Morgue Makeup Morguea collection of different parts of the face and body.
Different looks for eyes, mouths, noses, hands, ears, etc. Can include old age, gore, hair, fantasy, animals, etc. Kind of like a scrapbook of different looks. Costumes WHAT ARE COSTUMES? They are clothes that actors wear in a play. They help portray the character. Help the audience understand the time and place of the story. Differ from everyday clothes.
Costume design requires much study and experience. The study of costuming will help you understand another aspect of theatre and performance. WHAT REQUIREMENTS MUST A DESIGNER MEET? 1. THE COSTUMES OF THE DESIGNER MUST READILY
REVEAL TO THE AUDIENCE THE CHARACTERS PERSONALITY. WHAT REQUIREMENTS MUST A DESIGNER MEET? 2. THE COSTUMES MUST REVEAL THE: a. AGE b. OCCUPATION c. WEALTH d. SOCIAL POSITION
WHAT REQUIREMENTS MUST A DESIGNER MEET? 3. The costumes must reflect the setting of the play, both time and place. COSTUMES SHOULD BE CAREFULLY PLANNED Study the period of when the story takes place. Research in costume books. Look in encyclopedias.
Old magazines (people or national geographic). Paintings. There are 4 things to consider when planning a costume. 1. Consider the line or silhouette. That is the curvature of the costume. For example, a short, straight sack silhouette is indicative of the late 1920s. There are 3 basic types of silhouette:
1. The draped line, like in an Indian sari. 2. The fitted line, like mens tights in Shakespearean times. 3.
Combination, like fitted bodice And draped skirt. 2. Consider the choice of fabric. A. Fabric helps to suggest social status. 1. Luxurious texture suggests wealth. 2. Rough textures suggest poverty B. The weight of the fabric is important too. 1. Regal robes require bulky material.
2. Fairies from Midsummer Nights Dream need light weight material that will flow easily. 3. Consider the color. Proper choice of color will help establish the plays mood and the personality of the character.
Blues and greens are restful Red coveys danger or anger Black denotes tragedy Purple suggest royalty White is associated with purity and innocence 4. Consider decoration. Decoration includes trim and accessories attached to the costume.
Buttons Lace Hats Shoes
Fans Canes Jewelry Costumers Costume Designermeets with the director. Researches the play, then designs the costumes for the entire play to fit the period. Costumes with compliment
each other and the scene design. Costume CrewThe committee in charge of costuming the show. HOW DO WE GET COSTUMES?? Making Renting Buying Borrowing
Costume Plot Costume PlotA chart listing each character, the acts or scenes in which they appear, and all the garments, undergarments, and accessories needed. Costume plots tell you what you need to get. Then you can meet with the actor or cast and find out who already has what. Publicity
Publicity Crew The publicity crew is responsible for organizing an advertising campaign and publicizing the show. The advertising campaign should begin as soon as the cast is announced. Check with your director concerning your schools policy on releasing news to the media. Publicity Crew
After rehearsals begin, prepare several publicity photos and stories to release to the school newspaper or local newspaper. Show members of the cast in rehearsal or crew members working on interesting parts of the show. Every picture should look like fun and make all who see it want to be part of the audience. Your director will help you organize a photograph session before one of the early rehearsals.
Photo Call Photo calls of the actors in costume are usually scheduled closer to the dress rehearsals. Photographs made at those sessions can be used as part of the lobby display as well as for opening night
photographs. Advertising School-wide advertising is extremely important. Consider placing posters in the halls, classrooms, and cafeteria. A handmade banner above the auditorium entrance, a decorated bulletin board in the hall, or an attractive lobby display can draw much attention to the upcoming production.
Even something as simple as placing bookmarks in the school library can help advertise the production. What to include for Publicity? On any posters or advertising items, be sure to include: name of the play playwright publishing company
theatre / location date and time of the performances admission price Announcements The week tickets go on sale, try using short announcements or reminders on the school intercom and in the school bulletin. Make a slide for the broadcast channel. Ask for information to be
given over the school announcements. Create a slide to be shown by teachers. Appreciation After the final performance, it is important for the publicity crew to remove all posters or advertisements for the production.
Letters of appreciation should be sent to all persons or businesses who helped promote the production. Essential Questions Please answer the essential questions below. 1. What the major technical components of a production of a play?
2. Pick a design area. How does this type of design affect the overall theatrical production? 3. Why is it important to understand all aspects of technical theatre, regardless of your role in a production? Project Choices- PROPS PROPS IN SCRIPT Go through the script and write down ALL the props. Some will be literal (you can see it listed in the script) and some are implied
(it is hinted at in the script). Create a prop list using your script as a reference. You should list the PAGE #, PROP, WHERE TO FIND IT (Make, Borrow, Buy, Find), CHARACTER (who uses it), and NOTES (any special notes on what the prop should look like, etc.) RENDERINGCreate a color rendering for ONE prop for EACH character in the script. Project ChoicesSCENERY 1. BACKDROP SKETCHUse a WHOLE SHEET of 6x10 white paper to sketch and color a backdrop for The Yellow Boat.
You will then enlarge your sketch. You will GRID your design and then lightly grid your enlargement. You will use the grid spaces to enlarge your backdrop. 2. RENDERINGRender a bird's eye view and a front view of your set. LABEL it with estimated height, etc. Use color. a. SCALE DRAWINGSUsing your rendering, you will draw your set (floor plan and elevation) to scale (1/2 inch scale). b. SCALE
MODELUsing your floor plans and sketches, you will make a white model set using manila folders. Your model will need to be in 1/2 inch scale. Project ChoicesSOUND SOUND CUESGo through the script and analyze it for sound needs. Mark sound cues in your script with SQ. Do not number them yet. Some of your cues will be literal and some will be implied.
LIST OF EFFECTSUsing the cues you labeled in your script, create a Cue Worksheet with the page number, type of cue, and length of cue (estimate). PRE-SHOW AND INTERMISSION MUSICas the designer, you are setting the mood for the show before the show even starts. Make a list of at least 30-45 minutes worth of songs that will set the mood. Put them in a particular order and list the length of each song. Include the artist and title of the song. Project ChoicesLIGHTING
LIGHTING NEEDSCreate a Lighting Needs worksheet with the correct information for each sceneLook at where it is, what time of day it is, what possible colors might be needed, lightness or darkness, etc. MAKE A GOBODesign your own gobo that could be used in the show. First, draw your design (silhouette) on the gobo worksheet. Then, re-draw your design on the black circle. Cut out the design. This is the gobo you will turn in. LIGHT CUESGo through the script and mark all the light cues
(with LQ), including blackouts. Create a Lighting Cue Sheet. Do NOT number them until you have all your lighting cues marked. Project Choices- MakeUp RENDERINGAfter being assigned a character, you will complete a drawing of your make-up design. It MUST be in COLORED PENCILS, using shadow and highlights. THE APPLICATIONIn class, you will apply your design to either yourself or another student (who has agreed to it). You will need to bring makeup and applicators.
Project Choices- costumes SKETCHES/ RENDERINGSDesign 3 costumes for a CHORUS member in The Yellow Boat. Use color pencils and label each piece. FINAL RENDERINGTrace your renderings onto plain white paper. Color and design the form on plain white paper. Cut out the white paper costume creation, leaving a small edge of white around the costume. Glue the drawing onto a piece of construction paper. Add fabric and examples of accessories and label the construction paper. Place the title
of the play and the character name on the front of the construction paper. Place your name with pencil on the back of the paper. COSTUMEUsing your design on your final rendering, you are going to recreate the costume for one of you to wear and model for the class. You may use found items (such as trash, old clothes, etc.). You can adapt these items to fit what you need, but DO NOT BUY ANYTHING!!! You have NO BUDGET for the show. I want to see how creative you are. You may also use anything to assemble your costume, but the final product must look neat/tidy and the costume must be functional (you have to be able to take it off and put it on easily).
Project Choices- Publicity POSTERDesign and construct a poster with the title, playwright, and publisher information, admission price, as well as dates, time and location of the show. Lettering needs to be large enough to read. Can be done by hand or on a computer. Include graphics that are show-specific. PROGRAMDesign and construct a program cover and layout, including graphics for the cover and cast/crew
pages. ANNOUNCEMENTWrite a catchy, fun announcement to be read over the announcements. Include the show title, playwright, dates and times, admission price, location, etc. You can record the announcement and add music and effects if desired.
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