Imperiali Of Africa sm Gavin K. Allie P. Josh R. - Kolby S. Imperialism in Africa Africa in the Early 1800s In the early 1800s, Africa was three times the size of Europe; its many people spoke hundreds of languages and had developed varied governments. In the early 1800s, North Africa and the Sahara were part of Muslim world: they were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.
During the same time period, an Islamic revival spread across West Africa. The revival began among the Fulani people of Northern Nigeria. The Scholar & preacher Usman dan Fodio denounced the local Hausa rulers corruption. He called for social & religious reforms based on the Islamic law, the sharia. Usman inspired Fulani herders and Hausa townspeople to rebel against their European oppressors. Usman & his successors set up a powerful Islamic state in northern Usman dan Fodio Preach
er Scholar Imperialism in Africa Africa in the Early 1800s In West Africa, their success inspired other Muslim reform movements; between 1780 and 1880, more than 12 Islamic leaders rose to power. They replaced older rulers, and set up new states in western Sudan. Europeans and Muslims controlled several smaller states. However, these tributary states were ready to turn to Europeans or others who might help them defeat their Asante Rulers.
Islam, for a long time, had influenced the east coast of Africa, where port cities like Mombasa and Kilwa carried on gainful trade. Slaves were the cargo for many, and captives were brought from the inside of Africa to the coast where they were shipped Imperialism in Africa Africa in the Early 1800s During this time, the Zulus emerged as a major force in southern Africa under Shaka, a ruthless and brilliant leader.
Between 1818 and 1828, Shaka waged conquered many nearby peoples; he drafted their young men and women into Zulu regiments. He also encouraged rival groups to forget their differences, which cemented a growing pride in the Zulu Kingdom. Shakas conquests set off mass migrations and war. This created chaos across much of southern Africa. Those driven from their homelands migrated north & conquered other peoples, creating their own powerful states. By the 1830s, the Zulus faced a new threat, the arrival of the well-armed,
mounted Boers, descendants of Dutch famers who were migrating north from the Cape Colony. In 1814, the Cape Colony passed from the Dutch to the British. Many Boers disliked British laws that abolished slavery & interfered with their way of life. Shaka the Great Ruthless Brilliant Imperialism in Africa Africa in the Early 1800s
In 1814, the Cape Colony passed from the Dutch to the British. Many Boers disliked British laws that abolished slavery & interfered with their way of life. To escape British rile, they loaded their goods into wagons and started north. Several thousand Boer families joined in on this Great trek. When the migrating Boers encountered the Zulus, fighting quickly broke out. Although in the beginning the Zulus had the upper hand, the Boer guns were able to defeat the Zulu spears. The struggle for control of the land would rage until the 1990s.
In the early 1800s, European nations began to outlaw the transatlantic slave trade. Meanwhile, the East Africa slave trade continued in Asia. Many people helped freed slaves resettle in Africa. In 1787, the British organized Sierra Leone in West Africa as a colony for former slaves. Later, free blacks from the United States settled in Liberia; by 1847, Liberia had Great Trek Imperialism in Africa European Contact Increases From the 1500s to the 1700s, Europeans traded along the African coast; Africans trading with Europeans but did not want to house them. Resistance by Africans, difficult geography, and diseases all kept Europeans
from moving into the interior of Africa, but in the 1800s, medical advances and river steamships changed all that In the early 1800s, European explorers began pushing into the African interior. Explorers (Mungo Park and Richard Burton) set out to map the course and sources of the great African rivers: the Niger, the Nile, and the Congo. The explorers where fascinated by African geography, but they did understand the people they met. All, however; endured great hardships while exploring Africa. Dr. David Livingstone blazed a trail that others soon followed.
In 1869, the journalist Henry Stanley trekked into Central Africa to find Livingston, who had been lost for many years. He finally tracked him down in 1871 in Tanzania, greeting him with the now-legendary phrase Dr. Livingstone, African Explorers Richard Burton Mungo Park Imperialism in Africa European Contact Increases Catholic & Protestant missionaries followed the explorers. All across Africa, missionaries converted many people to Christianity.
The missionaries were sincere in when helping the Africans; they built many schools, medical clinics, and churches. They also focused attention on the evils of the slave trade. Still, missionaries viewed the Africans paternalistically. They saw them as children in need of guidance; they urged Africans to reject their traditions in favor of Western ways. To them, African cultures and religions were degraded. The best-known explorer and missionary was Dr. David Livingstone. For 30 years, he crisscrossed Africa & wrote about the many peoples he met with
sympathy and less bias than did most Europeans. He greatly opposed the slave trade, which remained a profitable business for some African rulers and foreign traders. He believed the only way to end slavery was to open up the interior of Africa to Christianity and trade. Dr. David Livingstone Missionar y & Explorer Imperialism in Africa A Scramble for Colonies
Later on, the Belgian King Leopold II hired Stanley to explore the Congo River basin & arrange trade treaties with African leaders. Publicly, Leopold spoke of a civilizing mission to carry the light that for millions of men still plunged in barbarism will be the dawn of a better era. Inside, Leopold dreamed of conquest and profit. Leopolds activities in the Congo set off a scramble by other nations. Shortly afterwards, Britain, France, and Germany were pressing claims to the region. To avoid bloodshed, European powers met at an international conference in Berlin in 1884; no Africans were invited. At the Berlin Conference, Leopolds private claims to the Congo Free State was recognized by European states, but called for free trade on the Congo
and Niger rivers. They agreed that a European power couldnt claim parts of Africa until it set up a government office there. This led Europeans to send Berlin Conference 1884 Imperialism in Africa A Scramble for Colonies The rush to colonize Africa was on. 20 years after the Berlin Conference, the European powers partitioned almost all of Africa. As Europeans carved out claims, they established new borders. They redrew the map of Africa with little regard for traditional patterns of settlement or ethnic boundaries.
Leopold and other wealthy Belgians exploited riches in the Congo, including copper, rubber, and ivory. Soon, horrifying reports of Belgian overseers brutalizing villagers surfaced. Forced to work for barely anything, laborers were beaten or mutilated. The overall population declined drastically. Eventually, international outrage forced Leopold to gives his personal colony to the Belgian government. It became the Belgian Congo in 1908. Under Belgian rule, the worst abuses were ended.
The Belgians still regarded the Congo as an exploitable possession. Africans were given little to no role in the government, and all the wealth of their mines left Africa for Europe. Imperialism in Africa A Scramble for Colonies France took a giant share of Africa. In the 1830s, France invaded and conquered Algeria in North Africa. The victory cost tens of thousands of French lives, but killed many times more Algerians. Later on, France extended its influence along the Mediterranean into Tunisia; it also won colonies in West and Central Africa. At its height, the French Empire in
Africa was as large as the U.S. Britains share of Africa was very scattered. However, it included heavily populated regions with many rich resources. Britain took chunks of West and East Africa. It gained control of Egypt and pushed south into the Sudan. In southern Africa, Britain clashed with the Boers, who were descendants of Dutch settlers. Britain acquired the Cape Colony from the Dutch in 1814. At that time, many Boers fled British rule, migrating north and establishing their own republics. In the late 1800s, the discovery of gold and diamonds in the Boer lands started
conflict with Britain. The Boer War, which lasted from 1899 to 1902, involved bitter guerrilla fighting. The British won in the end, but at great cost. The Boer War Imperialism in Africa A Scramble for Colonies In 1910, the British united the Cape Colony and the former Boer republics into the Union of South Africa. The new constitution set up a white-run government and laid the foundation for a system of complete racial segregation that would remain in force until 1993. Other European powers joined the colonization scramble, many in part to bolster their national image, while also furthering their
economic growth and influence. The Portuguese carved out large colonies in Angola and Mozambique. Italy occupied Libya and then pushed into the horn of Africa, at the southern end of the Red Sea. The newly united German empire took lands in eastern and southwestern Africa, including Cameroons and Togo. A German politician, trying to ease the worries of European rivals, explained, We do not want to put anyone in the shade, but we also demand our place in the sun. Union of South Africa Imperialism in Africa Africans resist Imperialism
Europeans met armed resistance across Africa. The Algerians battled the French for many years. In West Africa, where he was building his empire, Samori Tour fought French forces. The British battled the Zulus in southern Africa. They also fought the Asante in West Africa. When their king was exiled, the queen of the Asante, Yaa Asantewaa, was put in command of their country. She led the fight against the British in the last Asante war. Another woman who became a military leader was the clever tactician Nehanda, of the Shona in Zimbabwe. Sadly, Nehanda was captured and executed. However, the memory of her achievements inspired later
generations to fight for freedom. In East Africa, the Germans fought the Yao and the Herero. Fighting was especially fierce in the Maji-Maji Rebellion of 1905. The Germans triumphed only after burning acres and acres of farmland, leaving thousands of civilians to starve. Famous Female Leaders Nehanda Yaa Asantewaa Imperialism in Africa Africans resist Imperialism
Like feudal Europe, Ethiopia was divided up among a number of rival princes who ruled their own domains. In the late 1800s, Menelik II, a reforming ruler, began to modernize Ethiopia. Menelik II hired European experts to plan modern roads & bridges and set up a Western school system. He imported the latest weapons and European officers to help train his army. So when Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1896, Menelik was prepared. At the battle of Adowa, the Ethiopians decimated the Italian invaders. Ethiopia was the only African nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence.
During the Age of Imperialism, a Western-educated African elite, or upper class, emerged. Some middleclass Africans admired Western ways, rejecting their own culture, while others valued African traditions, condemning Western societies that upheld liberty and equality for whites singularly. Menelik II Bibliography Imperialism in Africa. IB History. 2008 Silvapages. 14 June 2009
Krieger, Larry S. "World History Perspectives on the Past." World History Perspectives on the Past. Fifth Edition. Evanston Illinois: DC Health and Company, 1997. Print. Scramble for Africa. Imperialism. 1999 - 2003. Regentsprep. 13 January 2010 World History. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Education, 2007. 392-398. Print.
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