Council of Trent Reforms Missionary work Ignatius of Loyola Counter Reformati
on Establish schools Inquisitio n The Reformation created a loss of religious unity in W. Europe
Some countries became Protestant and others remained Catholic Civil Wars in England, France and German States French religious wars (1562-1598)
Huguenots (French Protestants) vs. Catholics Peasant Wars in German States inspired by Protestant challenges to authority
Treaty of Augsburg Allowed German Princes to determine the religion of the people of his state Spanish Catholics vs. English Protestants
Spanish armada defeated after attempting to invade England Thirty Years War (1618- 1648) War that began in German
States as a Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire Treaty of Westphalia Treaty ending the war Provided religious toleration to Protestants and Catholics within the Holy Roman Empire Reformation
increased antiSemitism in Europe persecution of Jews in both Catholic and Protestant countries Were forced to live in separate neighborhoods Ghettos Strong religious feelings led people to accuse others of
being witches Led to deaths of accused people Often were women Individual monarchs and states gained power as Church power declined
Paved the way for the rise of nation-states Humanism led people to question church authority Some clergy were corrupt and interested in worldly gain Martin Luther posted 95 Theses protesting indulgences The Printing press helped spread Reformation ideas
Effects Many new Protestant churches develop Catholic Church began reforms Religious intolerance and anti-Semitism increase Religious conflicts spread across Europe Effect on the Renaissance Humanism; Art celebrates individual expression
Merchants sponsor artists to beautify cities Rulers sponsor artists and philosophers Political, social, and artistic theories spread Social
Changes Effect on the Reformation Individuals interpret the Bible themselves Growing prosperity of merchants
German merchants resent flow of money to Church in Rome Decline of feudalism and growth of power of kings and princes Printing press
Rulers defy Pope and become Protestant Growing emphasis on individual and spread of learning
Luthers ideas spread; Bibles printed in vernacular Closure Identify two effects that the Reformation and counter reformation had on Europe.
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