II. Animal-like Protists : Protozoans Protozoan a protist with animal like characteristics. A. Characteristics of Protozoans 1. Protozoans are heterotrophs. 2. Are unicellular. 3. Most are mobile. -Protozoa means first animals. -Are classified by movement. B. Types of Protozoans Protozoans include 4 main phyla : 1. Zooflagellates 2. Sarcodines 3. Ciliates
4. Sporozoans 1. Zooflagellates (Zoomastigina) animal-like protists that swim using 1, 2, or many flagella. Characteristics of Zooflagellates -Most are unicellular. -Reproduction is sexual or asexual. -Zooflagellates live inside other organisms in long-term, symbiotic relationships, Ex : Trichonympha in gut of termites to break down wood. -Cause sickness, Ex :
Trypanosoma gambiense : African sleeping sickness multiplies in human blood & releases toxins. Symptoms : sleepiness, fever, weakness. Transmission : tsetse fly. Sarcodines 2. Sarcodines (Sarcodina) animal-like protists that use pseudopods for feeding & movement ---The Blob? Pseudopod False foot. A temporary cytoplasmic projection used for movement & capturing food.
-When moving, cytoplasm streams into the pseudopod, & the rest of the cell follows. This locomotion is called amoeboid movement or sometimes cytoplasmic streaming. -Some have shells that make up limestone, Ex : Foraminiferans (calcium shell) & Radiolarians (silicon shell). Amoeba the best known sarcodine -The best known sarcodine is the amoeba flexible, active cells with thick pseudopods that extend out to
the central mass of the cell. -Amoebas have no definite shape (constantly change form) & form hard cysts in poor conditions. -Amoebas reproduce asexually through binary fission. -The cysts of amoebas can be ingested in food and water & make people sick, Ex : Amebic dysentery. Ciliates 3. Ciliates (Ciliophora) animal-like protists that use cilia for
feeding & movement. Cilia short, hair-like projections used for movement. -Are the most numerous and diverse group of protozoans. -Live in fresh/salt water & form cysts. Paramecium the best known ciliate -One of the best known ciliates is the paramecium. -Some have Trichocysts barbed
structures for capturing food & protection. -Reproduction is sexual (conjugation) or asexual (binary fission). -Have 2 nuclei : A. Macronucleus controls cellular activities & holds genetic material. B. Micronucleus extra copy of DNA & is exchanged during conjugation. Sporozoans 4. Sporozoans (Sporozoa) animal-like protists that cant
move on their own & are parasitic, ex : Plasmodium causes malaria. Transmission : Anopheles mosquito. -Are protozoans that have NO structures for movement are non-motile. -Have complex life cycles that include sexual and asexual phases that occur in more than one host.
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