IGERT EARS Lacawac Workshop on Lake ... - Kent State University

IGERT EARS Lacawac Workshop on Lake ... - Kent State University

IGERT EARS Lacawac Workshop on Lake Sentinels: Craig Williamson Miami University Ganguly, A. R., K. Steinhaeuser, D. J. Erickson III, M. Branstetter, E. S. Parish, N. Singh, J. B. Drake, L. Buja, Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 10.1073/pnas.0904495106, 2009. Ganguly, A. R., K. Steinhaeuser, D. J. Erickson III, M. Branstetter, E. S. Parish, N. Singh, J. B. Drake, L. Buja, Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 10.1073/pnas.0904495106, 2009. What will the impacts be on water resources and terrestrial ecosystems? How do we begin to address such daunting

challenges of environmental change? Where in the complex landscape should we sample for the best information? Lakes! Lowest point in the landscape Respond to environmental change, and leave signals in the sediments You Need EARS! Environmental Aquatic Resource Sensing

You Need GLEON! Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network Advanced sensors to network lakes across continents to look at lake sentinels. Lakes as Sentinels and Integrators of Environmental Change What is a lake sentinel? Any physical, chemical, or biological characteristic of a lake that responds to environmental forcing in an informative and quantifiable way. What is a paleoecological lake integrator? Historical sentinels in the sediments that provide information relevant to climate change over longer time periods

Lakes are not Isolated Ecosystems Photosynthesis by phytoplankton, benthic algae, macrophytes Endogenous C drives lakes towards autotrophy = Autochthonous carbon Integral part of watershed Receive runoff, streamflow, groundwater Inputs of fixed C = POM, DOM (measured as DOC) Exogenous C drives lakes towards heterotrophy = Allochthonous carbon Area Receiving Incident Sunlight

DOC Sources to Lakes Roulet & Moore 2006 Nature 444:283 Leaching of dissolved organic matter from terrestrial sources feeds fixed C to aquatic ecosystems Allochthonous Sources of Fixed Carbon Vary with plant species

Pocono Study Lakes Lake Lacawac 52 hectares Mesotrophic DOC ~ 5 mg/l UV Z1%320nm ~ 0.5 m Lake Giles 100 hectares Oligotrophic DOC ~ 1.5 mg/l UV Z1%320nm ~ 3-4 m Light decreases with depth. Why? Lake Giles 2009 PAR (% Subsurface)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 Sept Usually use a semilog plot for light. The 1% (of surface PAR) depth = Compensation Depth Lake Giles 2009 PAR (% Subsurface)

1 10 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 Sept Lake Giles 2009 Temperature

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10

Sept 15 20 25 What causes temperature changes with depth? Why do light and temperature profiles differ? Lake Giles 2009 Temperature 0 5 10

15 20 25 0 5 10 15 April Sept 20

25 Comparing April and September: 1) What are two seasonal changes in temperature? 2) What are the causes of these differences? 3) What are the implications of these differences? Lake Giles 2009 Oxygen (mg/l) 0 5 10

15 0 5 10 April Sept 15 20 25 What causes these changes with depth and season? Role of abiotic vs biotic factors, auto- vs. allochthony?

Where is the compensation depth? Lake Giles 2009 Temperature 0 5 10 15 20 25 0

5 10 April Sept 15 20 Lake Giles 2009 Oxygen (mg/l) 25 0 5

10 15 0 5 10 15 20 25 April Sept Lake Giles 2009 PAR (% Subsurface)

1 10 100 0 5 10 15 April Sept 20 25

What does water transparency tell us? Where is the compensation depth? How did oxygen change since 1990? Lake Giles April Oxygen 1990 vs. 2009 0 5 10 15

0 5 10 15 1990 2009 20 25 Not much change early in year (April) How did oxygen change since 1990? 0

Lake Giles Sept Oxygen 1990 vs. 2009 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 1990 2009

20 25 3 major types of change late in year (Sept.) UV Transparency: 14 year trends 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001

2003 2005 1% UV320nm Depth (m) 0 4 8 12 16 July data: Lake Giles, N.E. Pennsylvania, USA Z1% from epilimnetic Kd

Increase in Allochthony? 40 Lake Giles 30 2.0 1.5 20 1.0 10 1% PAR (m)

0 1990 0.5 1995 2000 2005 DOC (mg/l) 2010 40

Lake Giles 30 1.5 1.0 20 0.5 10 0 1990 0.0 1995

2000 2005 2010 1% PAR (m) ad/DOC Climate Change? 40 Lake Giles 30

0.4 0.3 20 0.2 10 0 1990 0.1 1995 2000

2005 2010 1% PAR (m) Precip-75d Reduced Acid Precipitation? 40 Lake Giles 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.8

5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0 30 20 10 0 1990 1995 2000 2005

2010 1% PAR (m) pH Reduced Acid Precipitation? 40 Lake Giles 9 30

6 20 3 0 10 -3 0 1990 12

-6 1995 2000 2005 2010 1% PAR (m) ANC (uE/l) What sentinels of environmental change can you find in Lacawac? Environmental Drivers: Energy:

- Temperature, wind Mass: -Precipitation, particulates, Dissolved substances. Lake sentinel: Any physical, chemical, or biological characteristic of a lake that responds to environmental forcing in an informative and quantifiable way.

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