Leading the Post Observation Conference to Improve Teacher Professional Practice Presenters: Ann C. Gaudino, Ed.D. Carlos Carmona, M.S., NCSP Natalie Ellis, B.S. Pennsylvania Principals Association Conference 2016 About the Presenters
Ann C. Gaudino, Ed.D., Associate Professor of Educational Leadership Millersville University http:// www.excellenceineducationjournal.org/uploads/Ann_Gaudino_Combined_Biogr aphy2.pdf Millersville Graduate Students: Carlos Carmona, M.S., NCSP, School Psychologist, Cornwall-Lebanon Schools Natalie Ellis, B.S., Teacher, Solanco Schools Goals of this Session
Brief overview of key issues in teacher evaluation Discuss current and recommended practices in teacher evaluation. Introduce Guided Reflection as most effective way for principals to lead teacher professional development. Demonstrate the Guided Reflection Model. A Brief History of Teacher Evaluation Morris Cogan, Harvard University, 1950s, Cycle of Supervision Robert Goldhammer, University of Pittsburgh, 1960s, Clinical Model
Madeline Hunter, 1980, Lesson Model RAND Study, 1983 Glickman, later 1980s Danielson Model, 1996, 2007, 2013 Stronge Model, 2001, 2007 Marzano Model, 2013 At the same time 1957 Sputnik 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
1972 Watergate 1975 Vietnam War Ends 1970s Energy Crisis 1979 Gas Shortage 1983 RAND Study, A Nation as Risk 1990 Gulf War 2002 No Child Left Behind 2015 Every Child Succeeds Act Combined View
1950s Cogan 1957 Sputnik 1960s Goldhammer 1965 ESEA 1970s Vietnam War, Watergate, Energy Crisis, Gas Shortage 1980 Madeline Hunter 1983 RAND Study, A Nation at Risk (first punitive look at schools) 1990 Gulf War 1996 Danielson 2000 Stronge
2001 9/11 Attacks 2002 NCLB (first punitive action towards schools/personnel) 2013 Marzano 2015 ESSA 2016 Presidential Campaigns/Election Heres the Point I would argue that when America is not engaged in an urgent international level concern, the focus turns to improving schools.
The mandates are typically unfunded. Based on the historical pattern, this is likely to continue. Consider this In the three televised presidential debates between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, how many questions about education reform have been posed: By the moderators? By the audience?
To what extent did Clinton and Trump discuss education reform? Compared with previous election debates? The Need This leads to the question of how we, as administrators, can help teachers, principals, central office admins, school boards improve so that student achievement improves ANDdo so on a reduced budget, limited resources.
Purposes of Teacher Evaluation Improve teacher performance and determine teacher professional development To improve student performance and experience. Current State of Teacher Evaluation in 50%PA Observation and Practice.
Danielson Domains: Planning & Prep, Classroom Environment, Instruction; Professional Responsibilities. Distinguished practice: Focus to students as leaders of their own learning. Teaching Observation Formal/Informal Lesson Plans. 15% Building Level Data (SPP Profile)
15% Teacher Specific Data (PVAAS) 20% Elective Data/Student Learning Objectives (SLOs) Source: PAED (2015). Educator Effectiveness Manual.
Current State of Principal Evaluation in PA 50% Framework for Leadership Strategic/cultural leadership; Systems leadership; Leadership for learning; Professional & community leadership. Distinguished practice: Focus to individual student success, collaboration among constituents,
15% Building Level Data (SPP) 15% Correlation data based on teacher measures. 20%
Elective Data. Source: PAED (2015). Educator Effectiveness Manual. Current Practices..Think/Pair/Share How do you do teacher observations and the post observation conference? What is going well in your process? What would you like to improve in the process?
Teacher Views Whitaker According to Whitaker (2015), You must work toward teachers becoming more aware of their own responsibility to influence the student behaviors (p. 58). Whitaker (2015) states Be very clear with the faculty in a positive tone that you are not going to be critical of outside influences that you have no influence over (pg. 59). Instead of playing the frustrating blame game, teaching difficult educators to place energy on what
they can control will place the responsibility back to where it belongs; on the teacher. Whitaker cont. Whitaker (2015) states Effective praise is authentic, specific, immediate, clean, and private (p.42). By using genuine praise, it can motive a negative teacher or staff member to change their behavior. Most people enter their line of work for the satisfaction of being productive, making a difference, and feeling like they are part of a community. If a teacher has lost sight of that, praise can
remind them of the important work they are doing, and motivate them to work to the best of their ability. What is not helpful in the evaluation process of nonteaching staff: Read the evaluation write-up and sign practice Believe that non-teaching staff are competent or growing in their profession because they have a special certificate Think that the non-teaching fields are stagnant and static so theres
nothing new to explore Assume you cant start a conversation about a field in which you have little knowledge What is helpful in the evaluation process of non-teaching staff: Throughout the year ask the non-teaching staff questions to learn more about the profession and build rapport. Get feedback and impressions from other administrators who have observed the performance of the non-teaching staff in other school
settings. Use Guided Questions for Non-Teaching Staff Resource from http:// www.education.pa.gov /Documents/Teachers-Administrators/Educator%20Effectiveness/Non -Teaching%20Professionals/Guiding%20Questions%20For%20Certifie d%20School%20Psychologist.pdf Educator Effectiveness > Non-Teaching Professionals PDE has a webpage with rubrics for Non-Teaching staff
Specialists Dental Hygienist; Elementary School Counselor; Home and School Visitor; Instructional Technology Specialist; Secondary School Counselor; School Nurse; School Psychologist Supervisors Curriculum and Instruction; Pupil Services; Special Education; Vocational Education Licensed Professionals Physical Therapist/Occupational Therapist; Social Worker; Behavior Specialist
PDE has webpage with GUIDING QUESTIONS to support dialogue between specialist/supervisor/licensed professional and the supervising administrator! Sample Guided Questions for School Psychologist Resources in Guiding Conversations with Nonteaching Professionals School Psychologist observation rubric:
http://www.education.pa.gov/Documents/Teachers-Administrators/Educator%20Effectivenes s/Non-Teaching%20Professionals/School%20Psychologist%20Rubric.pdf Also, here is an excellent resource for principals to get ideas of questions to engender discussions with school psychologists in relation to the rubric: http://www.education.pa.gov/Documents/Teachers-Administrators/Educator%20Effectivenes s/Non-Teaching%20Professionals/Guiding%20Questions%20For%20Certified%20School%20Ps ychologist.pdf Here is the link to the PA rubrics for non-teaching professionals and guiding questions to support dialogue between specialist and supervising administrator:
http://www.education.pa.gov/Teachers%20-%20Administrators/Educator%20Effectiveness/Pa Research based practice Self-Reflection Self-reflection has been proven to be more effective to improve teaching than other forms of development such as in-services, conference, classes, workshop, and continuing education. (AASPA 2002; Cogan, 1973; Costa & Garmston, 2002; Danielson, 1996, 2001, 2007; Gaudino, 2008; Glatthorn, 1990;
Glickman, 2002; Goldhammer, 1969; NPBTS, 2008; Stronge, 2002). Reflection can be enhanced through conversation with a supervisor or peers who provide additional suggestions from their perspectives Sources: AASPA 2002; Cogan, 1973; Costa & Garmston, 2002; Danielson, 1996, 2001, 2007; Gaudino, 2008; Glatthorn, 1990; Glickman, 2002; Goldhammer, 1969; NPBTS, 2008; Stronge, 2002. Self Reflection cont. Like most skills, the skills of self-reflection and
implementing change in ones professional practice are skills that can be improved with guidance and effort. (Costa & Garmston, 2002). Recommended practice in teacher evaluation empowers the teacher and calls for collaborative effort between teachers and between the teacher and administrator to help each teacher improve his or her professional practice.
(AASPA, 2002; Blas & Kirby, 2001; Brandt, 1996; Costa & Garmston, 1993; Danielson, 1996, 2001, 2007; Danielson & McGreal, 2000l; Dyer, 2001; NAESP, 2001; Ribas, 2005; Stronge, 2002; Stronge & Tucker, 2003; Sweeney, 2001; Whitaker, 2000; Wolf, 1996) This new paradigm emphasizes a trusting environment in which growth and empowerment of the individual are the keys tosuccess (Costa & Garmston, 1993, p. 5). Such an environment also promotes positive feelings which contribute to a positive sense of self and enable teachers to function
at their highest level (Blas & Kirby, 2001, p.6). Benefits to the Teacher and School Through conferencing with and coaching each teacher individually, the principal has the possibility of not only promoting the growth of the individual teacher, but of the school as a whole. Senge (1990), Organizations learn only through individuals who learn (p. 139). Costa and Garmston (2002): Holonomy combines holistic and autonomous professional practice. Holonomy exists when
individuals have the knowledge and skills to act both autonomously and in concert with a group for the benefit of both themselves and the group. Administrator Dual Role Administrators can perform roles both as coach and evaluator under three conditions: a trusting relationship has been established between the administrator and teacher, the teacher knows for certain which of the two functions is being performed---coaching or evaluation, and the administrators
behaviors are scrupulously consistent with each of the functions (Costa & Garmston, 2002) Developing the Trusting Relationship Developing trusting relationships is essential for coaching to work well. Inquiring, speculating, constructing meaning, self-evaluating, and selfprescribing can only occur when the coach helps create a low-stress environment where the teacher
feels comfortable to create, experiment, reason, and problem solve (Costa & Garmston, 2002, p. 36). Cognitive Coaching Coaching is a conveyance, like a stagecoach. Changing these inner thought processes is prerequisite to improving overt behaviors that, in turn, enhance student learning. Skillful cognitive coaches apply specific strategies to enhance another persons perceptions, decisions, and intellectual functions. (Costa & Garmston, 2002)
Drawbacks: Time, learning curve, cost, travel, availability (Gaudino, 2011) Guided Reflection Model A skeleton outline for the administrator to use in guiding reflective conversations. Based on cognitive behavioral psychology. Maintains the principle of conveyance. Keeps teacher in the drivers seat.
Principal acts as a guide (road signs). Maximizes teacher self-discovery and development of reflective and implementation skills to improve professional practice and student learning. Guided Reflection Model cont. Works with student teachers through central office administrators. Works with other professions. Demonstration of the
Guided Reflection Model Areas for Future GrowthNext Steps Incorporate training in guided reflection with pre-service student teachers through central office admins. Allow 20% Elective Data to be qualitative or quantitative based on teacher self-reflection.
Aligning processes in the personnel spectrum: Recruitment, hiring, evaluation, PD. CContact AAnn C. Gaudino, Ed.D. Associate Professor of Educational Leadership Millersville University [email protected] Cell 412-389-6725
Join Us! Doctorate in Educational Leadership (Ed.D.) http://www.millersville.edu/graduate/programs/ doctorate/doctorate-of-education-in-educationalleadership.php
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