Historical Overview - Brock University

Historical Overview - Brock University

A+ Guide to Hardware: Managing, Maintaining, and Troubleshooting, Sixth Edition Chapter 9 Connecting to and Setting up a Network Objectives Learn about the TCP/IP protocols and standards Windows uses for networking Learn how to connect a computer to a network Learn how to configure and secure a multifunction router on a local network A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

2 Historical Overview Elements providing an overview of networks The different sizes of networks The different technologies used by networks Some networking terms Network types commonly encountered Ethernet Wireless networks

Telephone networks Mostly outdated token ring and FDDI networks A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 3 Sizes of Networks A network links two or more computers PAN (personal area network) Consists of personal devices at close range LAN (local area network) Covers a small local area such as a home, or office

MAN (metropolitan area network) Covers a large campus or city WAN (wide area network) Covers a large geographical area; e.g., the Internet A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 4 Networking Technologies Factors driving network evolution: The type of data the network is intended to support The data capacity on the network How a network is to fit among other networks

Bandwidth (data throughput or line speed): Analog systems: measured in cycles/sec (hertz or Hz) Digital systems: measured in bps, Kbps, or Mbps As networks grow, the need for bandwidth grows A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 5 Additional Terms Used in Networking Node (host): one device on a network; e.g., server Network adapter: interfaces a PC with a network

Network interface card (NIC): fits in a PCI slot Adapter (MAC, physical, or hardware) address: 48-bit (6-byte) id number hard-coded on card Example: 00-0C-6E-4E-AB-A5 Network protocols: rules of communication Packets (datagrams or frames) Basic unit of data transmitted on a network A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 6 Figure 17-1 Ethernet network card showing its MAC address

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 7 Introducing Ethernet Ethernet types (categorized by speed): 10-Mbps Ethernet 100-Mbps or Fast Ethernet 1000-Mbps or Gigabit Ethernet

10-Gigabit Ethernet Types of cabling used: Two kinds of twisted-pair Unshielded twisted pair (UTP): four pairs of twisted wire Shielded twisted pair (STP): protected from EMI Coaxial cable: single copper wire with braided shield Fiber-optic: glass strands inside protective tubing A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 8 Table 17-2 Variations of Ethernet and Ethernet cabling

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 9 Figure 17-4 Fiber-optic cables contain a glass core for transmitting light A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 10 Introducing Ethernet (continued)

Topology: arrangement of nodes in a network Bus topology: connects all nodes with a line (no hub) Star topology Connects nodes to central hub (or switch) The hub broadcasts a data packet to every device Switch uses a table to route packet to receiving device Scale networks by adding switches Star bus topology: Multiple switches form a bus network Nodes connected to each switch form a star A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 11

Figure 17-6 Nodes on an Ethernet network can be connected to one another in a star or bus formation A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 12 Figure 17-10 A star bus network uses more than one switch A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013

13 Understanding TCP/IP and Windows Networking Client/server applications Two computers and two applications involved Communication occurs three levels Hardware, operating system, application Dependent on one computer addressing the other Figure 9-1 A web browser (client software) requests a web page from a web server (server software); the web server returns the requested data to the client A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 14

Introducing Ethernet (continued) Attenuation: the weakening of a transmitted signal Repeater: device used to amplify a signal in a LAN Amplifier repeater: simply amplifies incoming signal Signal-regenerating repeater Reads and copies the signal (without noise) Transmits an exact duplicate of the original Ethernet uses a signal-regenerating repeater A switch or hub can act as the repeater

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 15 Layers of Network Communication When two devices communicate, they must use the same protocols (language) Almost all networks today use a group or suite of protocols known as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) Data is broken up into segments and each segment is put into a packet A packet contains the data and information that

identifies the type of data, where it came from, and where it is going A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 16 Layers of Network Communication Level 1: Hardware level Root level of communication Wireless or network cables Phone lines or TV cable lines Includes the network adapter and MAC address MAC (media access control) address is a unique 48-bit hexadecimal number hard-coded on the card by the

manufacturer Also known as hardware address, physical address, adapter address, or Ethernet address Communication protocols used A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 17 TCP/IP vs OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Note: Bottom TCP/IP layer has been left off of this diagram A+ Guide to Managing and

Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 18 TCP/IP Stack A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 19 Figure 9-2 Network communication happens in layers A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

Cengage Learning 2013 20 TCP/IP The bottom TCP/IP layer is usually called the link layer or data link layer. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013 21 Layers of Network Communication Level 2: Operating system level

Manages communication between itself and another computer using TCP/IP Uses IP addressing Figure 9-4 Computers on the same LAN use MAC addresses to communicate, but computers on different LANs use IP addresses to communicate over the Internet. (This is only true if computers in the LAN are connected through a hub or switch.) A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 22 TCP/IP Layers showing hops From http://www.exa.unicen.edu.ar/catedras/comdat1/material/TP1-Ejercicio5-ingles.pdf

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 23 Layer of Network Communication Layer 2: Operating system level: (contd) IP address 32-bit or 128-bit number that is assigned to a network connection Used to find computers on networks and subnetworks, including the Internet A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

24 Layers of Network Communication Level 3: Application level Client communicates with other server applications Port number Uniquely identifies computer application Socket IP address followed by a colon and port number E-mail example: 136.60.30.5:25 Web server example: 136.60.30.5:80 A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

25 Figure 9-5 Each server running on a computer is addressed by a unique port number A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 26 TCP/IP Packet A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Cengage Learning 2013

27 Example of E-Mail Packet Typical e-mail packet Trailer contains ECC information to verify the data integrity. A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 28 How IP Addresses Get Assigned A MAC address is embedded on a network adapter

at a factory IP addresses are assigned manually or by software Static IP address: manually and permanently assigned to a computer or device Dynamic IP address: assigned by a server each time the device connects to the network A DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) server assigns addresses to a DHCP client that is requesting an address A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 29 How IP Addresses Get Assigned

An IP address has 32 or 128 bits Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) uses a 32-bit address to identify a network connection Currently a shortage of IPv4 IP addresses Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) was created partly due to the shortage of IPv4 addresses Uses a 128-bit IP address Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is responsible for keeping track of assigned IP addresses A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 30

How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used IP address: 32 bits long, made up of 4 groups, each 8 bits long Four decimal numbers separated by periods 72.56.105.12 Largest possible 8-bit number 11111111 (255 decimal) Largest possible decimal IP address 255.255.255.255 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111 binary Octet: each of the four decimal numbers 0 to 255, 4.3 billion potential IP addresses A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

Cengage Learning 2013 31 How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used IP address identifies network and host Classes are based on the number of possible IP addresses in each network within each class Table 9-1 Classes of IP addresses A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 32

How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used Class A addresses: First octet identifies the network and last three can be used to identify the host Class B addresses: First two octets identify the network and last two can be used to identify the host Class C addresses: First three octets identify the network and the last octet can be used to identify the host A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

33 How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used Class D addresses: octets 224 through 239 Multicasting Class E addresses: octets 240 through 254 Research Figure 9-7 The network portion and host portion for each class of IP addresses A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 34

How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used A few IP addresses are reserved for special use by TCP/IP and should not be assigned to a device Table 9-2 Reserved IP addresses A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 35 How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used Subnets using IPv4 Large networks can and should be divided into smaller networks called subnetworks or subnets To divide a network into subnets, you designate part

of the host portion of the IP address as a subnet Example: Class A network of 69.0.0.0 On network 69 you could have 16 million hosts You can divide this network into 256 subnets by using the second octet for the subnet address Possible network numbers would range from 69.0.x.y 69.255.x.y A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 36 How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used The subnet mask identifies which part of an IP address is the network id and which is the host id

Subnet masks help a device know if an IP address is part of its network or belongs to another Figure 9-8 A host can Always determine if an IP Address is on its network A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 37 How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used Subnet masks Group of ones followed by a group of zeros Classful subnet masks: all ones, all zeros in an octet

Classless subnet mask: mix of zeros and ones Table 9-3 Default subnet masks for classes of IP addresses A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 38 How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used A network is divided into a subnet when the subnet mask takes some of the host portion for the network ID Example: Dividing 69.0.0.0 into 256 subnets The subnet mask would be 255.255.0.0 instead of 255.0.0.0

Therefore, an address of 69.12.34.56 with a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 yields: Network id = 69.12.0.0 Host id = 34.56 A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 39 How IPv4 IP Addresses Are Used Public IP addresses: available to the Internet Private IP addresses: used on private network Use router with NAT (Network Address Translation) redirection for Internet access NAT: a TCP/IP protocol that substitutes the public IP address of the router for the private IP address of a

computer that needs to communicate on the Internet IEEE recommend the following be used: 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255 A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 40 How IPv6 IP Addresses Are Used IPv6 address has 128 bits written as 8 blocks of hexadecimal numbers separated by colons Example: 2001:0000:0B80:0000:0000:00D3:9C5A:00CC

Each block is 16 bits Leading 0s in a 4-character hex block can be eliminated. For example, the IP address above: 2001:0000:B80:0000:0000:D3:9C5A:CC If blocks contain all zeros, they can be written as double colons. From IP address above: 2001:0000:B80::D3:9C5A:CC Only one set of double colons is used A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 41 How IPv6 IP Addresses Are Used Terms used in the IPv6 standards:

Link (local link): a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) bound by routers Interface: nodes attachment to a link Can be logical or physical Logical attachment is used for tunneling (used by IPv6 to transport IPv6 packets over an IPv4 network) Interface ID: last 64 bits or 4 blocks of an IP address Neighbors: two or more nodes on the same link A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 42 How IPv6 IP Addresses Are Used

Three tunneling protocols for IPv6 packets to travel over an IPv4 network: ISATAP (Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol) Teredo addresses intended to be used by this protocol always begin with the same 32-bit prefix (called fixed bits) which is 2001 6TO4 older protocol being replaced by Teredo or ISATAP A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 43 How IPv6 IP Addresses Are Used

Three types of IPv6 addresses: Unicast address: packets are delivered to a single node on a network Multicast address: packets are delivered to all nodes on a network Anycast address: used by routers; identifies multiple destinations and packets are delivered to the closest destination A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 44 How IPv6 IP Addresses Are Used There are three types of unicast addresses:

Global unicast (global address): can be routed on the Internet Most begin with the prefix 2000::/3 The /3 indicates the first three bits are fixed and always 001 Link-local unicast (link-local or local address): can be used for communicating with nodes in same link Most begin with FE80::/64 Begins FE80 followed by enough zeros to make 64 bits Unique local address (ULA): identifies a specific site within a large organization Prefixes are FC00::/7 and FD00::/8 A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 45

Figure 9-10 Three types of IPv6 unicast addresses A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 46 View IP Address Settings Use the ipconfig command in a command prompt window to show the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses assigned to all network connections IPv6 addresses are followed by a % sign and a number The number is called the zone ID or scope ID and is used to identify the interface in a list of interfaces of a computer

Refer to Figure 9-11 on the next slide A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 47 Figure 9-11 The ipconfig command showing IPv4 and IPv6 addresses assigned to this computer A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 48 Character-based Names Identify

Computers and Networks Character-based names: substitute for IP addresses Host name (computer name): name of a computer Domain name: identifies a network Fully qualified domain name (FQDN): identifies computer and network to which it belongs For example www.webopedia.com. www is the host (a web server) webopedia is the second level domain and com is the top level domain Uses name resolution DNS server finds IP address when FDQN known Windows uses a hosts file to remember previous DNS queries. A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

49 TCP/IP Protocol Layers Figure 9-14 How software, protocols, and technology on a TCP/IP network relate to each other A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 50 TCP/IP Protocols Used By The OS TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Connection-oriented protocol Checks whether data is received and resends if it is not

When a TCP packet reaches destination, an acknowledgement (ack) is sent back to the source If source does not receive ack, it resends the data Used by Web browsers and e-mail UDP (User Datagram Protocol) Connectionless protocol (best-effort) Used for broadcasting and streaming video A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 51 TCP/IP Protocols Used By Applications HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) HTTPS (HTTP secure) protocol

Encrypts and decrypts data before sent and processed SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) Used to send e-mail message SMTP AUTH (SMTP Authentication) POP and IMAP Delivery of email message Telnet Remotely control a computer A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 52

TCP/IP Protocols Used By Applications LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) Used by clients when an application needs to query a database SMB (Server Message Block) Used by Windows to share files and printers FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Transfer files between two computers Can use browsers, Windows Explorer, or third party software to transfer files using FTP A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

53 TCP/IP Protocols Used By Applications SSH (Secure Shell) Used to pass login information to a remote computer and control that computer over a network SFTP (Secure FTP) Uses encryption to transfer files SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Used to monitor network traffic RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) Used by the Windows Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance utilities to connect to and control a remote computer

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 54 Connecting A Computer To A Network Connecting a computer to a network Quick and easy in most situations Topics covered Connecting to a network using Ethernet, wireless, and dial-up connections A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

55 Connect To a Wired Network Steps 1. Install network adapter 2. Connect network cable to Ethernet RJ-45 port and network port (wall jack, router, switch) Verify lights 3. Windows assumes dynamic IP addressing Automatically configures the network connection 4. Verify Internet connectivity A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

Cengage Learning 2013 56 Connect To a Wired Network Troubleshooting Verify Device Manager recognizes adapter without errors If error occurs, try updating NIC drivers If adapter has no errors, open Network and Sharing Center A red X indicates a problem Click X to start Windows Network Diagnostics After Windows has resolved the problem Should see a clear path from the computer to the

Internet A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 57 Figure 9-21 The Network and Sharing Center reports two healthy network connections A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 58 Connect To a Wired Network

Follow these steps to verify and change TCP/IP settings: Click Change adapter settings in the Network and Sharing Center In Network Connections window, right-click local area connection and select Properties from Shortcut menu Select TCP/IPv4 and click Properties Default setting is dynamic IP addressing To change to static select Use the following IP address Enter IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 59

Connect To a Wired Network Follow these steps to verify and change TCP/IP settings: (contd) If you have the IP addresses of DNS servers, check Use the following DNS server addresses and enter up to two IP addresses If using a laptop that moves from one network to another and one network uses static: Click Alternate Configuration and select User configured to enter static IP address information If General tab is configured for dynamic, computer will first try to use that but will apply static if dynamic is not available A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

60 Connect To a Wired Network Follow these steps to verify and change TCP/IP settings: (contd) Close all boxes and windows and try to access network resources If still dont connect, try to disable and enable the network connection Figure 9-24 To reset A network connection, Disable and enable the connection A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

Cengage Learning 2013 61 Connect To a Wireless Network Wireless networks types unsecured public hotspots or secured private hotspots Steps to connect to a wireless network using Windows 7: Install wireless adapter Embedded wireless: turn on wireless device A yellow star in the network icon on taskbar indicates hotspots are available Enter the security key or password and click OK

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 62 Connect To a Wireless Network Steps to connect to a wireless network using Windows 7: (contd) If network is unsecured, verify that Windows has configured the network as a Public network Test the connection For some hotspots, a home page appears and you must enter a code or agree to the terms of use A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

Cengage Learning 2013 63 Connect To a Wireless Network Wireless networks are created using access points Methods used by access points to secure wireless networks: A security key is required SSID is not broadcast SSID (Service Set Identifier) = name Only computers with registered MAC addresses are allowed to connect To find out the MAC address of a computer use the ipconfig /all command A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

Cengage Learning 2013 64 Connect a Computer To a Wireless WAN (Cellular) Network Needed to connect to a wireless wide area network (WWAN): Hardware and software Subscriber Identification Module (SIM) card: flash memory card that contains all information you need to connect to a cellular network: Password and other authentication information Encryption standards Services that your subscription includes

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 65 Figure 9-35 A SIM card contains proof that your device can use a cellular network A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 66 Connect To a Wireless WAN (Cellular) Network Options for hardware and software:

Use an embedded mobile broadband modem Tether your cell phone to your computer Use a USB broadband modem Figure 9-36 Tether your cell phone to your laptop using a USB cable A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 67 Connect To a Wireless WAN (Cellular) Network How to connect to a cellular network:

Using an embedded broadband modem: insert the SIM card provided by your mobile operator Also need to use software either provided by your OS or your mobile operator Using your cell phone: install software provided by mobile operator and tether your phone to your computer Use a USB broadband modem: Ensure SIM card is inserted in the device then insert the modem into a USB port Windows finds the device and software installed on the device automatically runs A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 68

Create A Dial-Up Connection Bare-bones installation steps Install internal or external dial-up modem Plug phone line into PC modem port and wall jack Open Network and Sharing Center window, click Set up a connection or network, select Set up a dial-up connection, click Next Enter ISP information, click Connect A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 69 Create A Dial-Up Connection To use the connection

Go to Network and Sharing Center Click Connect to a network Select dial-up connection, click Connect, click Dial You will hear modem dial up the ISP and make the connection A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 70 Create A Dial-Up Connection Troubleshooting tips:

Verify phone line and modem are working Check Dial-up Connection Properties box for errors Dial the number manually from a phone Try another phone number Listen for number being dialed Remove and reinstall dial-up connection A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 71

Setting Up A Multifunction Router For A SOHO Network In order to setup a SOHO (small office or home office) network you need to know: How to configure a multipurpose router Stands between the network and the Internet How to set up and secure a wireless access point Most SOHO routers are also a wireless access point A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 72 Functions Of A SOHO Router

Function 1: As a router, stands between the ISP network and the local network, routes traffic between Function 2: As a switch, manages several network ports that can be connected to wired computers or other network devices such as printers Function 3: As a DHCP server, all computers receive their IP address from this server Function 4: As a wireless access point, a wireless computer can connect to the Internet A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 73 Functions Of A SOHO Network

Function 5: As a firewall, blocks unwanted traffic from the Internet and provides Network Address Translation (NAT) so that computers can use private or local link IP addresses Can also restrict Internet access for computers Function 6: As an FTP server, can connect an external hard drive and FTP firmware on router can be used to share files with network users A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 74 Install and Configure the Router on the

Network Always follow direction of the manufacturer but the following are general steps: 1. On one of the computers on the network, launch the router setup program on the CD that came with it The setup program will instruct you to make physical connections necessary 2. You will be given opportunity to change the SSID and password (recommended that you do) May be asked whether to allow automatic updating 3. Test the connection by using the browser to access the Internet A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

75 Install and Configure the Router on the Network Use a browser and firmware on the router to configure the router: 1. Open browser and enter IP address of router Enter admin as the username and use the password entered during setup 2. Use menus on the main setup page of the router firmware to change routers configuration Every router is different so poke around until you find the setting you need to configure When finished, click Save Settings and close browser

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 76 Install and Configure the Router on the Network Configuration changes to possibly make to routers configuration:

Change Router password Change SSID and configure the DHCP server View assignments make by ISP Assign static IP addresses Configure the firewall to disable all ports Improve QoS for an application A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 77 Install and Configure the Router on the Network Port Filtering: used to open or close certain ports Applications are assigned these ports so you are

filtering or controlling what applications can or cannot get through a firewall Port Forwarding: when firewall receives a request for communication from the Internet to a specific computer and port, the request will be allowed and forwarded to that computer Port Triggering: opens a port when a PC on the network initiates communication through another port A demilitarized zone (DMZ): a computer or network that is not protected by a firewall A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 78

Install and Configure the Router on the Network Tips when using port forwarding or port triggering: Must lease a static IP address from your ISP For port forwarding to work, the computer on your network must have a static IP address If the computer using port triggering stops sending data, the router might close the triggered port before communication is complete Using port forwarding, your computer and network are more vulnerable You are allowing external users directly into your private network A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

79 Set Up A Wireless Network Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) standards have evolved over the years Technical name is IEEE 802.11 standards Table 9-6 Older and current Wi-Fi standards A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 80 Set Up A Wireless Network 802.11n: latest Wi-Fi standard Uses multiple input/multiple output (MIMO), which

means a device can use two or more antennas to improve performance Most wireless devices today are 802.11 b/g/n compatible Place your router or wireless access point in the center of where you want your hotspot Higher position works better than a lower position Also place in a physically secure place A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 81 Set Up A Wireless Network 802.11n network configuration options to consider:

The radio frequency (RF) the network will use Choices are 5 GHz and 2.4 GHz The older wireless devices that will use the network If network consists of older 802.11b/g devices, network must support 2.4 GHz frequency RF interference The channel the network will use The channel width for the network (40 or 20 MHz) Radio power level the device will use A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013

82 Set Up A Wireless Network Securing a wireless network: Method 1: Requiring a security key and using data encryption Three main protocols for encryption WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) no longer considered secure because key used for encryption is static WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) also called TKIP and is stronger than WEP because encryptions keys are constantly changing WPA2 (also called 802.11i standard) latest and best encryption standard A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

Cengage Learning 2013 83 Set Up A Wireless Network Securing a wireless network: (contd) Method 2: Disable SSID broadcasting Not considered a strong security method because software can be used to discover an SSID that is not broadcasted Method 3: Filter MAC addresses Considered a weak security measure and does not use encryption Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS): generates the SSID and key using a random string of hard-to-guess

letters and numbers A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 84 Summary Network communication happens at three levels Hardware, operating system, and application At the hardware level, a network adapter has a MAC address that uniquely identifies it on a network Using TCP/IP, the OS identifies a network connection by an IP address At the application level, a port address identifies an application

An IPv4 address has 32 bits and an IPv6 address has 128 bits A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 85 Summary TCP/IP application protocols include: FTP, HTTP, and Telnet TCP/IP protocols at the operating system level include TCP and UDP A PC support technician must know how to configure TCP/IP settings and make a wired or wireless connection to an existing network The best method to secure a wireless network is to

use encryption A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 86 Summary A multifunction router for a SOHO network might serve several functions including a router, a switch, a DHCP server, a wireless access point, a firewall using NAT, and an FTP server Change the routers SSID and password as soon as you install it To secure a wireless access point, enable MAC address filtering, disable SSID broadcasting, and

enable encryption (WPA2, WPA, or WEP) A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Cengage Learning 2013 87

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