Graphs An Introduction What is a graph? A graph is a visual representation of a relationship between, but not restricted to, two variables. A graph generally takes the form of a one- or twodimensional figure. Although, there are threedimensional graphs available, they are usually considered too complex to understand easily. A graph commonly consists of two axes called the x-axis (horizontal) and y-axis (vertical). A graph can show Discrete or Continuous data types. Data types determines which graph to use. Discrete or Continuous Discrete: Data that can be separated by some interval, for example: Recording the shoe sizes of a class Bar graph Continuous: When data collected is continuous, for example: Recording temperature Line graph 20 Y axis 25 Y axis label
Scale or Increments This is a graph 10 All graphs (except Pie Chart) have common elements: Axis x and y (also z in 3D graphs) Axis labels A title Scales or Increments Can represent negative values 5 Origin does not always have to start at 0,0 15 X-axis -20 10 -10 -5 20 30 40
50 X-axis label Scale or Increments -10 25 and a horizontal line from the y-axis 20 Co-ordinates Y axis If we draw a vertical line from any point on the x-axis A (3,15) the point at which they meet gives us the co-ordinate 15 B (-4,10) 10
5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 -5 2 3 4 5 X-axis -10 C (-5,-15) -15 Back
Types of Graphs Four basic types of graph or chart Line Pie Bar Scatter See creating a line graph presentation Line Graphs A good method of showing the relationship between two variables Pulse - Beats per minute Exercise and Pulse Rate 200 150 Al a n - 28 yea r ol d former athlete 100 Ja net - 38 yea r ol d s ecreta ry 50 0 0
30 60 90 120 Time in minutes Back Bar Chart / Graph Used to compare values in a category or between categories. Fat / 100g total Fat content of cheeses The graph shown here makes a visual comparison of the fat content of types of cheese 40 35 30 25 20
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r p e h h c s e e c is Ch m ou e Ch n e l Ca s a G e C ag Da t e t e l
h o C C ub o D Cheeses am d E Bar Chart / Graph Can be useful to study trends over time Daily Temperature Fluctuation 00:00 Time (24 hr) 20:00 16:00 12:00 08:00 04:00 00:00 -4 -2 0
2 4 6 Temperature (o C) 8 10 12 See creating a bar graph presentation Bar Chart / Graph Multiple (or group) bar graphs compare relationships of closely related sets Back See creating a pie chart presentation Pie Charts A pie chart is used to show how a part of something relates to the whole. This kind of graph is particularly suited to showing percentages Red 7%
Brunette 39% Survey of female hair colour Multicoloured 7% Blonde 47% Back Drawing a scatter graph is similar to drawing a line A scatter graph shows graph in that co-ordinates how much correlation are used to plot the there is between two points. There variables that are
you usually suspect mayto bebe linked for more points plotted height andand the ininstance a scatter graph weightcan as shown here: points be in groups, therefore it is not possible It is sometimes useful to todraw draw a line all a line of through best fit to
the trend ofshow the points. Weight (kg) Scatter Graph Line of best fit Height (cm) Back Summary A good graph: Accurately shows the data Grabs the reader's attention Has a title and labels Is simple and uncluttered Clearly shows any trends or differences in the data Is visually accurate (i.e., if one data value is 25 and another 50, then 50 should appear to be twice the size of 25).
Hyperbolic Resonances Hamiltonian system is in resonance when where is a fixed point in the (x,y) plane. Homoclinic hyperbolic resonances occur when a system possessing a fixed point, corresponding to a normally hyperbolic circle of fixed points with a family...
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Researcher Development Framework. RDF: integrated with Training Programme, ePortfolio Skills & Training Needs Analysis. The Joint Skills Statement has now been replaced by one framework which is intended to be useful for the professional development of researchers at all levels.
In spite of all this she has an amazing personality and is rarely seen without a smile on her face. She loves her mother, sister, and grandmother and recently had her first glass of wine while celebrating her 21st birthday...
Components of Attitude. Attitudes . may include . up to 3 . different components. Cognitive Component. Beliefs. about the object of an . attitude. Affective Component. Emotional feelings . stimulated by an object of thought. Behavioral Component. Predispositions to act...
Contractually limiting a company's opportunity to realize a risk adjusted return -- typically include caps on realized profit, profit sharing, etc. Companies will reduce their investment in innovation and cost take out measures accordingly. Exactly the opposite behavior the Department...