Grant Strategy 2008 Synop Chapters

Grant Strategy 2008 Synop Chapters

1 Strategic Management Contemporary strategic analysis Grant, Robert M., 6e Edition, Blackwell Publishing, 482p., 2008 ISBN 978-1-4051-6309-5 Slides prepared by Daniel Degravel 2 Ch.01 The concept of strategy Ch.1 Concept of Strategy 3 Four characteristics of three successful strategic behaviors and outcomes Goals Understanding of competitive environment

Basic framework of strategy analysis Strategy Fit External environment Internal (the firm) Resources Implementation 4 Ch.1 Concept of Strategy (Ctd.) Definitions Box Strategy (14, 17) Strategic principles (25) Corporate strategy (19) Busines strategy (19) Tactic (14) Characteristics of strategic analysis: Analytical; Soft; No Algorithm; Frameworks; Start guide; Flexibility (27)

History of Business strategy Strategic fit (13) RBV (16) Vision (21) Mission (21) Business model (21) Strategic plan (21) 1950 1960 1970 Intended strategy (22) Realized strategy (22) Emergent strategy (23) Where? Long Range Planning (25) Corporate Planning (25) How? Bounded rationality (26)

1980 1990 2000 2008 Industry attractiveness CL-S Competitive advantage BL-Ss BL-S Ch.1 Concept of Strategy (Ctd.) 5 Deliberate strategy Realized strategy Environment Emergent strategy

Roles of strategy Decision support Target Coordinating device 6 Ch.02 Goals, values and performance 7 Ch.2 Goals, values and performance Definition Box Value (for customers and profit) (p35) Value-added (p35) Profit (p37-38) Accounting profit (p37) Economic profit (economic rent)(p38) EVA (p38) Free Cash Flow (p40)

Discounted Cash Flow DCF (p39) Real options (p42) ROIC, ROE, ROCE, ROA (p47) 8 Ch.2 Goals, values and performance To avoid ethical and societal issues, simplifying assumption: Goal = interest of owners through long term profit maximization Reasons: competition; market for corporate control; convergence of STOs interests and simplicity Accounting profit: Normal return to capital PROFIT Nature? Questions Linking profit to shareholders value Stock market value SMV = net value of firm Emphasis on Max [Firm value] rather than Max [STo value] because convenience and strategic view In practice, they mean the same for strategy Economic profit: surplus available after all inputs

have been paid for Linking profit to firm value Use of DCF method to value strategic options (p41) DCF Max [Profit] = Max [NPV of profits over life-time of firm] Therefore, use of DCF method where NPV of CF Max [Profit} translates to Max [Firm value] Difference DCF and Discounting profits is treatment of K consumed 9 Ch.2 Goals, values and performance (Ctd.) Real options In a world of uncertainty, flexibility is invaluable Option value arises from potential to amend the project during development or abandon it Phases and Gates approach and Scalability It can create STo value because increase in flexibility equates increase in value Comparison Flex cost vs. Value Flex value Creating option value means for complete strategy that large array of opportunities is possible

Strategies: -Platform investments -Strategic alliances -Joint ventures -Organizational capabilities Ch.2 Goals, values and performance 10 (Ctd.) Past Present Backward-looking performance ? Present DCF function of 3 variables -Return on K -Weighted average cost of K -Growth of operating profit Balanced Scorecard 1) Financial evaluation 2) Customer evaluation

3) Internal perspective (processes) 4) Innovation and learning Result of the past ROIC, ROCE, ROA, ROE Linking overall value maximization to strategic and operational targets to balance ST-LT Future Forward-looking performance Characteristics of desirable goals (consistent with long-term objectives; linked to strategy, meaningful to managers) 11 Ch.2 Goals, values and performance (Ctd.) Simplifying assumption Fundamental goal = LT profit

Paradox of profit Success seems to be inked with objectives other than profit Great entrepreneurs and B H A G Sony; Microsoft; Boeing; Ford CSR Debate Friedman vs. Handy; Goshal Property conception vs. Social entity conception But convergence in the LT -obsession and blinding -motivation of members Values and Principles Pursuit of profit constrained by values and principles -Values as external image management -Values as guide -Values as motivator 12 Ch.03 Industry analysis: the fundamentals

Ch.3 Industry analysis: the fundamentals 13 CL-S BL-S Which industry ? How to allocate resources between businesses? Which competitive advantage? How to compete in industry? Attractiveness of industries in terms of potential profit Customer needs and KSF Sources of Competitive advantage Profit Sources of profit? Program 1- Structure of industry features that impact competition and profitability 2- Explain differences in competition intensity and profitability 3- Forecast changes in competition and profitability

4- Influence industry structure 5- Identify KSF 14 Ch.3 Industry analysis: the fundamentals General Environment Industry P5F PEST (Ctd.) 15 Ch.3 Industry analysis: the fundamentals (Ctd.) Value = price that customer is willing to pay minus cost incurred by firm Value Producer surplus Cost

Structure of industry Price actually paid in transaction Profit Determined by: 1- Value of products to consumers 2- Intensity of competition 3- Relative bargaining power of industry players Consumer surplus Price that consumer is willing to pay Ch.3 Industry analysis: the fundamentals 16 NE BPS Capital EoSca Absolute cost advantage P Differentiation

Access to distribution channels Retailation Cost/total cost P Differentiation Competition between S Size and concentration S/C Switching cost Information Ability C to forward integrate Rivalry Concentration Diversity of rivals P Differentiation Excess capacity BTExit Cost conditions In most industries, major determinant BP ultimately boils down to refusal to deal with other party PS

C propensity to substitute Relative prices and performance of substitutes S (Ctd.) State is 6th force in model extension Government and legal barriers BPC Idem BPS BP ultimately boils down to refusal to deal with other party 17 Ch.3 Industry analysis: the fundamentals Description of industry Structure Complex value-chain and vertical integration Industry boundaries (Ctd.)

Industry vs. Market Geography Micro-level approach Substituability on D and S sides Forecasting profitability 1-Present effect of existing industry structure 2-Identification of trends 3-Impact of trends on structure and profitability Altering industry structure 1-Key structural features 2-Which features amenable to change? 18 Ch.3 Industry analysis: the fundamentals (Ctd.) Key Success Factors Question approach Direct modeling of profitability 1-What do customers want?

Disagreggation of ROCE 2-How to survive competition? No generic strategy guarantees success R&C and strategy and KSF 19 Ch.3 Industry analysis: the fundamentals Definition Box Consumer surplus (p67) Producer surplus (economic rent) (p67) Monopoly (p69) Perfect competition (p69) Oligopoly (p69) Contestable market (p74) Barrier to entry (BTE) (p74) Barrier to exit (BTExit) (p76) Industry (p85) Market (p85) KSF (p88) (Ctd.) 20

Ch.04 Further topics in industry and competitive analysis 21 Ch.4 Industry and competitive analysis: further Themes of chapter 1-What about complementary relationship between products? 2-Stability of industry Which direction? Industry 3-Impact of other players Game theory 4-Competitor analysis 5-Level of analysis Segmentation of industry Competition 22 Ch.4 Industry and competitive analysis: further (Ctd.) 1-What about complementary relationship between products?

Research shows that industry specificities account for minority of differences in profitability Razor razor blade effect Substitutes decrease value whereas Complements increase value, because customers value the whole system A missing force in P5F model? Firms own product Monopolization Shortage of supply Differentiation Complements situation Complement product Competition Commodization Excess capacity 23 Ch.4 Industry and competitive analysis: further 2-Stability of industry Which direction? Industry Competition Creative destruction (p.100) Competition is a dynamic process of rivalry that constantly

reformulates industry structure (Austrian school of Economics, J. Schumpeter) Therefore, structure can be seen as outcome of competitive behavior Speed of change is key Debate about reality of increase of creative destruction Schumpeterian industry (p.101) Hypercompetition (p.101) (Ctd.) 24 Ch.4 Industry and competitive analysis: further (Ctd.) 3-Impact of other players: Game theory Necessity to take into account interaction among players and fact that decision of player depends on actual and anticipated decisions of other players 1-Framing of strategic decisions 2-Predicts outcome of competitive situations and identifies optimal strategic choices Prisoner dilemma 1-Cooperation 2-Deterrence (p.102) 3-Commitment 4-Signaling (p.105) Nash equilibrium (p.103)

Bertrand model (p.121) Cournot model (p.121) Emphasis in strategy formulation is less in influencing behavior of rivals than transforming competitive games through building positions of unilateral competitive advantage, through exploiting uniqueness 25 Ch.4 Industry and competitive analysis: further 4-Competitor analysis Competitor intelligence (p.107) 1-Forecast 2-Predict 3-Influence Framework 1-Strategy 2-Objectives 3-Assumptions 4-Resources and capabilities Predict (Ctd.) 26 Ch.4 Industry and competitive analysis: further

(Ctd.) 5-Level of analysis: Segmentation of industry Segmentation (p.110) Stages of segmentation 1-Identify key segmentation variables and categories 2-Construct segmentation matrix 3-Analyze segment attarctiveness 4-Identify segments KSF 5-Select segment scope Barriers to mobility (p.113) Profit pool mapping (p.117) Four steps for analysis [] Strategic groups (p.117) Dimensions: product range; geography; distribution channels; quality; technology; VI; etc. 27 Ch.05 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities 28 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities

Themes of chapter 1-R&C and strategy 2-R&C: nature and attributes 3-Appraising R&C 4-R&C Management: a framework 5-Developing R&C 6-KM and KBV 29 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities 1-R&C and strategy Firm Goals; R&C; structure and systems (Ctd.) Monopoly rents (market power) (p.128) Ricardian rents (superior R&C) (p.128) Strategy RBV RBV (p.125) What? 1- Source of new products

2- Foundation for strategy Link with strategy Uniqueness of each firm is key. Profitability results from exploitation of differences and uniqueness of R&C portfolio Strategic use of R&C 1- Exploit strengths 2- Change existing situation by filling gap between actual and required R&C Why? 1- Instability of environment 2- Competitive advantage main source of profitability; industry factors explain little Honda 126 Canon 126 3M 127 Motorola 127 Olivetti 127 Remington 128 Kodak 128 Mariah Carey 129 Walt Disney 129, 130 Toyota 129 Microsoft 129

Johnson & Johnson 129 British Petroleum 129 30 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities (Ctd.) 2-R&C: Nature and attributes Resource = productive asset owned by the firm (p.130) Capability = what the firm can do (p.130-131) Three categories: 1-Tangible resources How to create additional value from them? a) Economizing on their use b) Employing assets more profitably 2-Intangible resources More valuable; largely invisible a) Reputational assets b) Technology c)

Intellectual property 3-Human resources Expertise, knowledge and efforts People are not owned Attitude, motivation, learning capacity and potential for collaboration Competency modelling 133 Emotional intelligence 134 Organizational culture 134 Disney 131 British Airways 131 Philip Morris 132 Harley-Davidson 132 Johnson & Johnson 132 Coca-Cola 132 Google 132 UPS 132 3M 132 Texas Instruments 133 Qualcomm 133 IBM 133 31 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities

(Ctd.) 2-R&C: Nature and attributes Capability = what the firm can do (p.130-131) Capability = firms capacity to deploy resources for a desired end result (p.135) (Helfat and Liberman, 2002) Capability = competence (p.135) Distinctive competence = capability that can provide a basis for competitive advantage (p.135) (Selznick, 1957) Core competence = something that an organization does particularly well relative to its competitors (p.135) (Hamel and Prahalad, 1990) (disproportionate contribution to ultimate customer value or efficiency; basis for entering new markets) Two bases for classification: 1-Functional analysis 2-Value-chain analysis 32 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities (Ctd.) 2-R&C: Nature and attributes Organizational routine = regular and predictable pattern of activity made up of a sequence of coordinated actions by individuals (p.137) (Nelson and Winter, 1982)

Routines are basis for capabilities Routines develop through learning by doing Trade-off between efficiency and flexibility Capabilities can be disaggregated into more specialist capabilities Sony 135 RCA 135 GE 135 Thomson 135 3M 137 Wal*Mart 137 Toyota, Ford and GM 137 McDonalds 137 Hospital 137 Toyota, Honda, Nissan 138-139 Telecom equipment manufacturer 138 -cross functional capabilities -broad functional capabilities -activity-related capabilities -specialized capabilities -single-task capabilities 33 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities 3-Appraising R&C What is the potential of R&C to to earn profits? Oil and gas exploration 139

British coal mines 140 Retail banking 140 Establishing competitive advantage 1-Scarcity 2-Relevance Potential earning of R&C Appropriating returns to competitive advantage Ownership of R&C not always clear-cut a) Degree of definition of property rights in R&C b) Embeddedness of individual skills and knowledge within routines c) Identifiability of employees contribution to profitability d) Mobility of employee e) Employee offers similar productivity to other firms (Ctd.) Sustaining competitive advantage 1-Durability

2-Transferability -geography -imperfect information -complementarity between R -integration 3-Replicability Asset mass efficiencies Time compression diseconomies Heinz, Kelloggs, Campbell, Hoover 140 IBM, Lenovo 141 Investment banking and M&A 141 Financial services, retailing 141 Federal Express 142 Nucor 141 PPR, Gucci 142 34 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities (Ctd.) 4-R&C Management R&CM: a framework A practical guide to manage R&C 1-Identifying key R&C KSF; R&C and value-chain Volkswagen 143

2-Appraising R&C 1-Assessing importance of R&C 2-Assessing relative strengths 3-Bring together Importance and Strengths Success= recognize what you can do well and base your strategy on these strengths Benchmarking 144 Volkswagen 143, 146-147 Cutlery producers of Shieffeld 144 Steel in US 144 Federal Express 144 BMW 144 McDonalds 144 General Electric 144 For benchmarking: Xerox, L.L. Bean, GM, Toyota, Bank of America, Royal Bank of Canada 145 3-Developing strategy implications 1-Strategy so that these R&C are deployed to the greatest effect 2-Managing key weaknesses (upgrade; outsource) 3-Superfluous strengths (Lower investment; turn them into

valuable R&C) Volkswagen 147 Toyota, Hyundai, Peugeot 148 Ford, Nike, Harley Davidson, Yamaha, Honda, BMW 148 Retail bank 148 Edward Jones 148 Georgetown University McDonough School Business 149 35 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities (Ctd.) 5-Developing capabilities Gap identification and filling orientation; little use because expensive and complexity lead to limited returns Relationship between R and C We know little Resource base is not main factor but ability to leverage resources Replicating C Internal replication Systematization of knowledge that underlies C and formulation of procedure

Developing new C High level of difficulty Sketchy understanding of how people, machine, technology and culture fit Concentrating R on goals; targeting on activities with high impact on customers Accumulating R, mining experience, learning, borrowing Complementing R; linking; blending Conserving R; recycling; co-opting through collaborative arrangements European soccer, basket-ball 149 GM, Honda, Pixar, Aardman Animations, Walt Disney, Lucent, Nortel Networks, Alcatel 149 Starbucks, McDonalds, Ikea, eBay, mandarin Oriental Hotels, Intel 150 Path dependence (result of history that constraints future; importance of initial conditions) Core rigidities 152 Dynamic capabilities = ability to integrate, build and reconfigure internal and external competences to address rapidly changing environments (Teece et al., 1997; Eisenhardt and Martin, 2000; Zollo and Winter, 2002) 152 Advantage to new comer? Approaches to C development 1-Acquiring C M&A. C exists already but risk 2-Accessing C strategic alliance 153 More targeted and cost effective 3-Creating C Routine; role of manager; learning-by-doing

Types of C; search; experimentation; problemsolving; pushing (dynamic resource fit 154) Culture; Integration 153 Tiger Woods, Dell, Electronic Arts 151 Wal*Mart, oil and gas majors Exxon, Royal Dutch Shell 151-152 TV manufacturing, PC, wireless telephony 152 Cisco, Microsoft 153 HP, Canon, Pixar, Disney, GM, Toyota, NUMMI, Matsushita 153-154 Lockheed, IBM, Egg, Xerox, HP, Microsoft, Apple, Sun Microsystems, Saturn 155 Hyundai 15 36 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities (Ctd.) 6-KM and KBV Know-how 160 Knowing about 160 Knowledge Management KM = processes and pracxtices through which organizations generate value from knowledge 159 Knowledge-Based View KBV = perspective considering the firm as a set of knowledge assets with the purpose of deploying these assets to create value (Kogut and Zander, 1992; Grant, 1996) 159 KM influences performance Extension of RBV K is important productive R (scarce, difficult transfer and relicate)

Valuable tool for creating, developing, maintaining, replicating C Types of knowledge: tacit vs explicit Types of processes: generation vs application 160 Sub-processes [8..] 161 37 Ch.5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities 6-KM and KBV Saatchi & Saatchi 159 Coca-cola 160 US Army 161 Consulting firms 162 Skandia, Dow Chemicals 162 Booz Allen and Hamilton, Accenture, AMS 162 Ford 163 McDonalds, Marriott Hotels, Andersen Consulting, Starbucks 164 McKinsey 165 (Ctd.) 38 Ch.06 Organization structure and management systems

39 Ch.6 Organization structure and management systems Themes of chapter 1-Evolution of structure 2-Organizational problem: Specialization with Coordination 3-Hierarchy 4-Application of organizational design principles 5-Alternative structural forms 6-Management systems for coordination and control Great strategy, loosy implementation? Formulation vs. Implementation? Spanish armada 170 Daimler-Benz and Chrysler 172 Benetton 170 Amway 170 40 Ch.6 Organization structure and management systems (Ctd.) 1-Evolution of structure

Ancient form Networks of self-employed, homebased workers Transaction costs 172 Market Administrative costs 172 Firm Staff-and-line Functional form 173 Divisional form 173 Holding form 173 Roman Catholic church, National armies 171 Dutch East India Co, Hudson bay Co, United Africa Co 171 English woolen industry 171 US railroad, Shell, DuPont, Sears Roebuck, Standard Oil, Mitsui, British South Africa Co 173 GM 173 Matrix form 174 Delayering of hierarchies 174 Shared services organization 174 Alliances, networks and outsourcing partnerships 174

Modern corporation Legal entities distinct from the owners 41 Ch.6 Organization structure and management systems (Ctd.) 2-Organizational problem: Specialization with Coordination Structure = ways in which labor is divided between distinct tasks and coordination is achieved among these tasks 175 Two fundamental opposing requirements Specialization 175 Division of labor 175 Specialization has a cost Specialization cost increases with degree of division, volatility and in stability of environment Specialization Cost Pin manufacturer, Ford 175 Soccer team, Wal*mart, Cirque du Soleil, Berlin Philarmonic Orchestra 176 Starbucks, heart by-pass operation, systems integration project 177

Coordination of tasks 175 Mechanisms: 1-Price; transfer price 176 2-Rules and directives 176 3-Mutual adjustment 176 4-Routines 176 Type of coordination mechanism depends on activity and degree of coordination required Cooperation = overcoming goal conflicts 177 Agency relationship 177 Mechanisms: 1-Control mechanisms through managerial supervision 2-Financial incentives 3-Shared values Enron, World Com 177 Wal*Mart, Four Season Hotels, Amway, Shell, Apple 178 42 Ch.6 Organization structure and management systems (Ctd.) 3-Hierarchy Hierarchy = system composed of interrelated sub-systems 179 Fundamental to all organizations; present in virtually all complex systems

Two key advantages Bureaucracy 180 Principles: -specialization -hierarchical structure -coordination and control -standardized employment rules and norms -separation ownership and management -separation job and people -rational-legal authority -formalization in writing of administrative acts, decisions and rules Mechanistic; Machine bureaucracy 182 Organic 182 Economizing on coordination (Fewer connections; communication through standard interfaces within a standardized architecture) Adaptability Evolve more rapidly Decomposability Loosely coupled 180 Human body, planets and cosmos, social systems, book 179 Five programmers designing software 179

Automobile, GE 180 Chin Dynasty China 180 Beverage can, blood test, army hair cut, McDonalds 182 BP, GE 183 Span of control Ratio managerial/operational Speed of decision-making Degree of control Stability of environment Critical issue: how to reorganize hierarchies to increase responsiveness to environment Accountability 183 Structural modulation 183 to achieve balance between centralization and decentralization 43 Ch.6 Organization structure and management systems 4-Application of organizational structure design principles Basic design is hierarchy Essence of hierarchy is to create specialized units coordinated and controlled by a superior unit Basis? -tasks -products -geography

-process Organizing on basis of coordination intensity Pepsico, Wal*Mart, Roman Catholic church 182 ANC 184 British Airways, General Electric, 3M, Sony, Siemens, Unilever 185 Principle of hierarchical decomposition 185 Three levels of interdependence: 1-Pooled interdependence 185 2-Sequential interdependence 185 3-Reciprocal interdependence 185 Other factors of influence: 1-Economies of scale 2-Economies of utilization 3-Learning Architectural learning 186 4-Standardization of control systems (Ctd.) 44

Ch.6 Organization structure and management systems 5-Alternative structural forms Functional F 186-187 Functional lines Divisional D 188 Key advantage: potential for decentralized decision-making Development of top management leadership Three levels: corporate, divisions, business units Matrix M 189 Complexity, large head office staff, slow decisionmaking, diffused authority, dulling entrepreneurial spirit Focus on one dimension DuPont, Apple, GM, ITT, BP 187-189 GE 189 Shell 189 Phillips, Nestle, Unilever, ABB 190 Adhocracy Ad 191 Flexible, spontaneous coordination and collaboration around problem solving and other non routine activities New product development, jazz band, consulting 191 Team-based and project-based

organization T 191 Construction, consulting, oil exploration, engineering services 191 Network N 191 Network of small independent firms Clothing industry Prato, Italy, Hollywood movie making, Microelectronics in Silicon Valley, Benetton, Toyota 191 AES 192 Characteristics in common: 1-Focus on coordination rather than control 2-Coordination by mutual adjustment 3-Individuals in multiple organizational roles (Ctd.) 45 Ch.6 Organization structure and management systems (Ctd.) 6-Management systems 5-Corporate culture Corporate culture 197 1-Information systems

2-Strategic planning systems Vehicle to achieve coordination, consistency, commitment Varies Stages: a-Goals b-Assumptions or forecasts c-change of shape of business d-specific action steps e-financial projections MCI Communication, BP 193 Large oil majors 194 Starbucks, Shell, Nintendo, Google, Salomon Brothers, BBC, LAPD 197 4-Human Resources management systems Incentive and performance Types of incentives 3-Financial planning and Control systems Capital expenditure budget Operating budget 46 Ch.07

The nature and source of competitive advantage 47 Ch.7 Nature and source of competitive advantage Themes of chapter 1-Emergence of competitive advantage 2-Sustaining competitive advantage 3-Competitive advantage in different market settings 4-Types of competitive advantage: Cost and Differentiation 48 Ch.7 Nature and source of competitive advantage (Ctd.) 1-Emergence of competitive advantage Competitive advantage = when one firm possesses a competitive advantage over rivals when it earns (or has the potential to earn) a persistently higher rate of profit 205 Competitive advantage emerges when disequilibrium between competing firms, then when change occurs But firm may forgo current profit in favor of investments in MK share, technology, customer loyalty, HR, etc. 1-External sources of change

Customer demand Prices Technology Dell, Wal*Mart, Toyota 205 Toyota, GM 205 Tobacco industry, toy industry 206 2-Internal sources of change --- 49 Ch.7 Nature and source of competitive advantage (Ctd.) 1-Emergence of competitive advantage 1-External sources of change 2-Internal sources of change A-Magnitude of C-Effectiveness and change speed of B-Degree of impact adaptation of change on firm because of

resource heterogeneity D-Creativity and innovation capabilities How to create competitive advantage? Entrepreneurship 206 Time-based competition 207 Innovation 207 (technical and managerial with new business models) Wal*Mart, Kmart 206 Nokia 206 Monsanto 206 Coca-cola 206 Dell 207 Zara 207 Fast Company 207 Toys-R-Us, Home Depot, Norstrom, Sephora 208 Nucor 208 Southwest airlines 208 Nike 208 Apple 209 1-New game strategy 209: reconfiguring the value

chain to change the rules of the game 2-Unprecedented customer satisfaction through combining performance dimensions previously seen as conflicting 3-New industry or recreating existing industry (Blue ocean strategy 209) 4-Innovation in technology and in management McKinsey 209 Baden and Fuller 209 Toyota, Richardson 209 Apple, Cirque du Soleil 209 Procter & Gamble, GE, Toyota 209 50 Ch.7 Nature and source of competitive advantage (Ctd.) 2-Sustaining competitive advantage Once established, competitive advantage is subject to erosion by competition Speed of erosion depends on ability of rivals to challenge by imitation or by innovation Barriers to imitation exist Isolating mechanisms = barriers that limit the ex-post equilibration of rents among individual firms 209 (Rumelt, 1984) Over decades, inter-firm profit differentials tend to persist with little change in leaders and laggards Process of competitive imitation

1-Obscure superior performance Theory of limit pricing 211 1-identification 2-Incentive to imitate 3-Diagnosis features of rivals strategy that give rise to competitive advantage 4-Resource acquisition (transfer or acquisition) 2-Deterrence 212 : persuade rivals that it will be unprofitable (signaling, commitment, reputation) Preemption 212: occupying existing and potential strategic niches to reduce opportunities for rivals (patent, product proliferation, production capacity) Two imperfections: small market in regards to MES and existence of FMA 3-Diagnosis of competitive advantage Causal ambiguity 213 Uncertain imitability 213 features of rivals strategy that give rise to competitive advantage 4-Resource acquisition (transfer or acquisition) Transferability of resources across firms; extent of FMA (patent, scare resources) Internal creation takes time Xerox, Savin 210 Mars 211 Nutrasweet, Holland Sweetener

Co 212 Breakfast cereals 212 Monsanto 212 Xerox, IBM 212 Wal*mart, Kmart 212 GM, Toyota, Filofax, Financial services 213 Starbucks 214 51 Ch.7 Nature and source of competitive advantage (Ctd.) 3-Competitive advantage in different market settings For the competitive advantage to exit, there must be some imperfection of competition To understand these imperfections, we have to understand the types of resources and capabilities necessary to compete and the circumstances of their availability Efficient market 215 = Prices reflect all available information and adjust instantaneously to newly available information, no market trader can expect to earn more than any other. Difference in ex-post returns reflect either different levels of risk or purely random factors (luck). You cant beat the market; competitive advantage is absent 1-Trading markets

Information availability (short duration) Finance widely available Transaction costs information, easily transferable Behavioral trends (market psychology) at low cost Overshooting (contrarian strategy can bring competitive advantage) Two types of markets: Complex combination of 2-Production differentiated R&C Greater heterogeneity of R&C, markets the greater potential for competitive advantage When homogeneity of R&C, imitation is very likely Market deterrence Number and diversity of sources of change in industry Characteristics of industry: information complexity, opportunities for deterrence and preemption, resource acquisition

Securities, foreign exchange, grain futures, mutual funds 215 European airlines 216 Canon Xerox, Online discount brokers Merrill Lynch and Charles Schwab 217 Wireless telecommunication 217 Paramount, Columbia, Universal, Fox, Disney 217 Bicycle messenger, Securities underwriting business 217 52 Ch.7 Nature and source of competitive advantage (Ctd.) 4-Types of competitive advantage: Cost and Differentitation Get out-of the crowd Cost Total cost is lower, enabling firm to use the difference Cost leadership 218

Differentiation Product perceived as unique by customer with variation in his willingness-to-pay Differentiation 218 Industry wide In the whole market Cost Differentiation ? Focus COST Focus DIFF Focus On a specific segment of the market Ikea 219 Southwest 219 VW Bettle 219 Toyota, Dell, Canon 219 Oil refining 220 Car rental 220 Cars, motorcycles, consumer electronics, musical instruments 220 Honda, Toyota, Sony, Canon 220

53 Ch.08 Cost advantage 54 Ch.8 Cost advantage Themes of chapter 1-Strategy and cost advantage 2-Sources of cost advantage 3-Analysis of cost: value chain 55 Ch.8 Cost advantage (Ctd.) 1-Strategy and cost advantage First preoccupation was cost Large corporations Search for EoSca, EoSco, mass production and distribution Experience curve 225 Law of experience 225 Penetration pricing 225 Full cost pricing 225

Recently, change Innovation through outsourcing, Business Process Reengineering, Organization delayering Sears 223 Airlines, telecommunications, banking, electrical power generation 224 Automobile, steel, textiles, shipbuilding, manufacturing industries 225 British motorcycles 225 Skype, Vonage 226 Clothing, petrochemicals, semiconductors, Severstal, Nucor 227 Ch.8 Cost advantage 56 (Ctd.) 2-Sources of competitive advantage Cost drivers 227 Variations 1) 2) Position firm / rivals and diagnosis of sources of inefficiency Recommendations to improve cost efficiency

1-EoSca 228 MEPS 228 2-Economies of learning Technical input output relationship Indivisibilities Specialization Scale and concentration Limits to EoSca (3 factors) 3-Process technology and process design (Input/Output; BPR 231) 4-Product design 5-Capacity utilization Cyclical, structural 234 6-Input Cost Locational difference in input price Ownership of low cost source of supply Non union labor Bargaining power Organizational slack 235 Toyota 228 Daihatsu 229

Investment banking, consulting, design engineering 229 Packaged consumer goods 229 Sony 229 VW, Skoda, Seat, Rolls Royce, Ford, Jaguar, Mazda, Land Rover, Volvo 229 Passenger aircraft 230 Peugeot, Renault, BMW 230 Convair 230 IBM, Sharp, Samsung 230 Dell, Pilkington, Ford, GM, Toyota, Nucor, Dell, McDonalds, Wal*Mart, Harley Davidson 231 VW, Skoda, Seat, IBM 232 Motel 6 233 Airlines, theme parks, Boeing online brokerage, semi conductor, construction, hotels, railroad, automobile, gasoline retail, hospital 234 Austek, Aramco, airlines, Wal*Mart, Asda 234 Renault, Nissan 234 Wal*Mart 235 57 Ch.8 Cost advantage

(Ctd.) 3-Analysis of cost: value chain Value chain disaggregation of firms activities Identification of cost drivers 1- Disaggregation of firm into activities 2- Relative importance of activities to total cost 3- Compare costs by activity (benchmark) 4- Identify cost drivers 5- Identify linkages 6- Identify opportunities for reducing costs Auto plant 236 Xerox 236 Caterpillar 236 58 Ch.09 Differentiation advantage 59 Ch.9 Differentiation advantage Themes of chapter 1-Nature of Differentiation advantage

2-Analysis: Demand side 3-Analysis: Supply side 4-Analysis: Value chain 60 Ch.9 Differentiation advantage (Ctd.) 0-Introduction Differentiation = providing something unique that is valuable to consumers beyond simply offering a low price (Porter, 1985) 241 Commodity 241 Differentiation is not simply offering different features but it is about understanding every possible interaction between the firm and its customers and asking how these interactions can be enhanced or changed in order to deliver additional value to the customer 241 Requires looking at demand and supply sides What customers want, how they choose and what motivates them Cement, wheat, memory chips 241 Dell 241 Shell 241 61 Ch.9 Differentiation advantage (Ctd.)

1-Nature of Differentiation advantage Differentiation can exist in every aspect of the way in which a company relates to its customers Tangible Differentiation 243 Intangible Differentiation 243 Differentiation is concerned with HOW a firm competes and uniqueness (consistency, reliability, status, quality, innovation) Segmentation is concerned with WHERE a firm competes Differentiation is a strategic choice and is linked to the choice over the segment Differentiation offers more potential for competitive advantage than low cost strategy Socks, bricks, corkscrew, nail, spark plug, thermometer, airplane, automobile, vacation, wine, toy, shampoo, toilet paper, bottled water 242 Starbucks 242, Dell 242 Cosmetics, medical services, education 243 McDonalds, American Express, Federal Express, BMW, Sony 243 Ameritrade, E-Trade, TD Waterhouse 243 Toyota, McDonalds, Amazon, Starbucks 243 BMW, VW 244, Beer 244 Ford, Honda, Indesit, Matsushita 244 US integrated iron and steel, discount brokers, internet telephony 244 Colgate, Palmolive, Microsoft, Anheuser-Busch, Yum Brands, Kelloggs, Procter & Gamble, 3M, Wyeth 244 62 Ch.9 Differentiation advantage (Ctd.)

2-Demand side Which product characteristics have potential to create value for customers, customers willingness to pay and firms optimal positioning in terms of differentiation variables Understand customer: why does customer buy a product; what are his needs and requirements Analysis of multiple attributes Techniques Multidimensional scaling Conjoint analysis Hedonic price analysis Value curve analysis Value curve 247 Sociological and psychological factors Status and conformity; self-identity, social affiliation Demographic, socioeconomic, psychographic: what customers want and how they behave Observe and understand their lives and use of the product Japanese home appliance firm and the coffee percolator 245 PC, windsurfing 246 Marriott Courtyard 246 European automatic washing machines 247 PC 247 Book retailing 247 Coca-Cola 247 Harley Davidson 247 Japanese firms approach to marketing 248 63

Ch.9 Differentiation advantage (Ctd.) 3-Supply side Differentiation depends on firms ability to offer differentiation Drivers of uniqueness Product features and performance Complementary services Intensity of MK activities Technology embodied in design and manufacture Quality of inputs Procedures to conduct activities Skills and experience of employees Location Degree of vertical integration Typology: Product Differentiation and Ancillary services Differentiation 249 Support Software Product Hardware Product Integrity = consistency of firms differentiation 250 Simultaneous internal and external integrity; especially important for products whose differentiation based on customers social and psychological needs Service stations 249, financial services, European tour operators, Beck (beer), auto industry 250

Harley Davidson, MTV 251 Body Shop Capsule 251-252 64 Ch.9 Differentiation advantage (Ctd.) 3-Supply side Differentiation effective only if communication to customers Search good 252 Experience good 252 For experience good, situation is analogous to prisoners dilemma when quality cannot be detected: equilibrium with low quality and low price Ways of signaling Brand name Warranty Expensive packaging Sponsorship of sport and cultural events Advertising Combination of pricing and advertising Sunk costs and total investment Brands Signal of quality and consistency and acts as disincentives to provide poor quality Differentiation has a cost: Direct

Indirect Postpone differentiation at later stage, modular design, new manufacturing technologies Perfume, financial services 253 Mountaineering equipment, socks 254 Ecommerce, Coca-cola, Harley Davidson, Mercedes, Gucci, Virgin, American Express, Auto 254 Auto, motorcycle, domestic appliances, internet communications, Capital One, Adidas 255 65 Ch.9 Differentiation advantage (Ctd.) 4-Analysis: value chain Process: 1-Construct value chain 2-Identify drivers of uniqueness in each activity 3-Select most promising differentiation variables for the firm (linkages among activities; ease of differentiating) 4-Locate linkages between value chain of firm and that of customer Value chain analysis of consumer goods 258 Steel 255 Airline 256 Procter & Gamble 256 Metal container 257 Japanese producers of automobiles, consumer electronics, domestic appliances 258 Harley Davidson 258

Frozen TV dinner 258 Ch.10 Industry evolution and strategic change Ch.10 Industry evolution and strategic change Themes of chapter 1-Introduction 2-Industry life cycle 3-Structure, competition and success factors over life cycle 4-Organizational adaptation and change 5-Wrap-up Ch.10 Industry evolution and strategic change (Ctd.) 1-Introduction Change is the constant Greatest challenge is match between environmental change and firm adaptation Change is mix of result of external competitive forces and firms strategy Understand Predict Manage Change Change is disruptive, uncomfortable and costly

Inertia is strong Telecommunications and digital technology 262 Food processing, aircraft production and funeral services 262 Ch.10 Industry evolution and strategic change (Ctd.) 2-Industry life cycle Product life cycle 263 Industry life cycle 263 Introduction; Growth; Maturity; Decline Life cycle pattern varies with industry, and country General trend is compression Sometimes rejuvenation Knowledge creation and diffusion Demand Dominant designs Technical standards Product innovation Process innovation Sony 263 Steam ships, home computer 266 IBM, Leica, McDonalds, Boeing, Grocery delivery, retailing air travel American Express, Expedia, Travelocity 267 Capsule Automobile industry 268-269 US railroad, US automobile, PC, Digital audio players, Consumer electronics, communication, pharmaceuticals, ecommerce, online gambling, B2B online auctions, online travel services, residential construction, food processing,

clothing, motorcycle industry 269 TV receivers, retailing 270 Ch.10 Industry evolution and strategic change (Ctd.) 3-Structure, competition and success factors over life cycle Changes in demand and technology over cycle have implications on: Industry structure Competition Sources of competitive advantage (KSF) Table 10.1 p271 Synthesis of different variables over life cycle Product differentiation Organizational demographics Organizational ecology (Darwinian process of natural selection within firms of an industry) Different evolutionary paths depending on industry PC, credit card, securities broking, internet access 272 US automobile, TV receiver, US tire, US brewing, TV broadcasting, frozen food, plain paper copier, world petroleum, world steel 272 Location and international trade International migration of production Consumer electronics 273

Nature and intensity of competition Shift from non-price to price competition Narrowing margins Intensity of competition depends on capacity/demand balance and extent of international competition Food retail, airlines, motor vehicles, metals, insurance, household detergents, breakfast cereal, cosmetics, investment banking 273 KSF and industry evolution Product innovation and financial resources Product development and manufacturing, marketing and distribution Adaptation, administrative and strategic skills Ch.10 Industry evolution and strategic change (Ctd.) 4-Organizational adaptation and change Evolutionary theory Variation Selection Retention VSR Evolutionary theory Organizational ecology Industry level Inertia 273 Selection mechanism 273

Organizational routine Organizational routine 275 1-Capabilities and routine Competency trap 276 Change is painful and difficult Change upsets patterns of social interaction and requires coordinated action among several individuals 2-Social and political structures 3-Conformity Institutional isomorphism 276 4-Complementarities between strategy, structure and systems Punctuated equilibrium 276 5-Limited search and blinkered perceptions Bounded rationality 277 Satisficing 277 Exploitation vs. exploration 277 Ch.10 Industry evolution and strategic change (Ctd.)

4-Organizational adaptation and change Empirical evidence shows changes in industries with the disappearing of wellestablished firms Evolutionary change less threatening than radical technological change Different stages of life cycle requires different capabilities that established forms may struggle to develop New technology may enhance existing capabilities or destroy them Is technological impact at architectural or component level? Disruptive technology 278 De novo entrants 279 De alio entrants 279 Siemens, Exxon Mobil, Royal Dutch Shell, GM, GE 277 Apple, Commodore, Xerox, Dell, Lenovo, Acer, HP 278 McCaw communication, Cingular, Verizon 278 E-commerce grocery and banking, typesetter, Clayton Christensen, Sony 279 Nucor, Cisco Systems, Juniper Networks, Lucent Technologies, Alcatel, US automobile, US TV manufacturing, Akron tire, semiconductor, Intel, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories 279 Ch.10 Industry evolution and strategic change (Ctd.)

4-Organizational adaptation and change Managing change Recognition by managers of sources of inertia Creation of new organizational unit for capacity to pursue simultaneously multiple strategies Ability of new business model to access and deploy firms existing R&C Dual planning system Bottom-up process of decentralized change Manage conditions that foster process of change Strategic inflection point 280 Top-down process Orchestration from top Scenarios Scenario analysis 281 Scenario 281 Most important is less result than process and bringing together ideas and insights, surfacing deeply held beliefs Shaping future Non linear world Revolution instead of evolution British Airways, Continental, United 279 GE, Intel 280 Oil and gas majors, Rand Corp, Hudson Institute, Shell 281 Capsule Royal Dutch Shell Scenarios

282 Nokia, BP, Microsoft 283 Enron, Vivendi, (GEC) Marconi, ICI, Skandia 284 Ch.10 Industry evolution and strategic change (Ctd.) 5-WRAP-UP Change is the constant Adaptation firm and environmental change is central challenge for managers Change is result of competitive forces and firms strategy and impacts the industry structure, its competition and its KSF Different theories describe organizational change (Organizational ecology; Evolutionary theory) Change is generally painful and surrounded by barriers to change Patterns of industry state can be captured with the industry life cycle; different stages require different capabilities Prescriptive material exists for managers to successful in handling organizational change Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation

Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation Themes of chapter 1-Introduction 2-Competitive advantage in technology-intensive industries 3-Exploit innovation: how and when to enter 4-Competing for standards 5-Creating conditions for innovations 6- Wrap-up Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.) 1-Introduction In industries where innovation is key, fascinating environment Innovation is responsible for creation of new industries Innovation can change the course of the industry cycle Innovation can impact industry structure and competitive advantage How does the firm use technology and innovation to establish competitive advantage and earn AAR?

AT&T, NTT, BT 289 China Mobile, Vodafone, AT&T 289 AT&T, Alcatel, NEC, Siemens, GTE 289 Cisco Systems, Nokia, Qualcomm 289 Fixed-line telecommunication, cable operators, internet telecom providers 289 Pharmaceuticals, chemicals, telecomm, electronics 289 Food processing, fashion goods, domestic appliances, financial services 289 Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.) 2-Competitive advantage in technology-intensive industries Innovation process Invention 290 Innovation 290 Profitability Depends on value created by innovation and share of that value that innovator is able to appropriate, because value is distributed among different parties (customers, suppliers, innovator, innovator)

Innovation is not guarantee of fame and fortune Regime of appropriability 293 Morses telegraph 290 Chemicals and pharmaceuticals, automobile 291 Anti-tamper package 291 Xerography, Xerox, IBM, Kodak, Ricoh, Canon 291 Comer, Boeing 291 Mathematics of fuzzy logic 292 MP3 292 PC, IBM, Dell, Compaq, Acer, Toshiba 292 Intel, Seagate technology, Quantum Corp., Sharp, Microsoft 292 Nutrasweet (Searle), Monsanto, Pfizer, Pilkington, VoIP Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.) 2-Competitive advantage in technology-intensive industries Property rights Patent 292 Copyright 292 Trademark 292 Trade secret 292

Effectiveness of legal instruments depends on type of innovation Tacitness and complexity of technology Codifiable knowledge 294 Complexity 294 Netflix, Amazon 293 RCA, IBM, AT&T, Texas Instruments 294 Coca-cola, Intel, Sharp, New toys, Airbus 294 Lead time 294 Lead time 294 Complementary resources 295 Require R&C needed to finance, produce, and market innovation Division of value depends on relative power of providers of these resources Complementary resource 295 Specialized resource 295 Protection effectiveness Patent protection is limited Cross-licensing agreement 296; Freedom to design 297 Microsoft, Intel, Cisco Systems, DeHavilland, EMI, Clive Sinclair 294 Xerox, Searle, Monsanto, world automobile, Adobe 295 Linux, Intel 296 Semi-conductors and electronics 296

Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.) 3-Exploit innovation: when and where to enter? Fig.11.4 p298 Alternative actions 1-Licensing 2-Outsourcing functions 3-Strategic alliance 4-Joint Venture 5-Internal commercialization Choice Characteristics of innovation Clear property rights Firms R&C Difference large vs. small firms Most invention result of individual creativity Pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, Dolby Laboratories, Apple 297 Ericsson, Dolby Labs, Qualcomm, Microsoft, Flextronics, Ballard, DaimlerChrysler, Psion, Symbian, Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, Google 298 Capsule Dyson Vacuum and Benecol Margarine 299 Amway, Hoover, Maytag, Johnson & Johnson, Unilever 299 Biotechnologies, Electronics, Sony, GE, Siemens, Hitachi, IBM, video

game software, Electronic Arts, Sega 300 Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.) 3-Exploit innovation: when and where to enter? Timing Innovation: to lead or to follow? Both can lead to success or failure Factors impacting choice 1-Extent to which innovation can be protected by property rights or lead time advantages If efficient protection, advantage of early mover 2-Importance of complementary resources If great importance, great risk and cost for pioneering Pioneer must organize and orchestrate functions; follower benefits from fact that specialty firms emerge Clive Sinclair, GM 300 Unilever, IBM, Microsoft 301 Apple, IBM 302 Netscape, Microsoft 302 GE, EMI 302 3-Potential to establish standard Greater importance of technical standard, advantage early mover Once standard established, moving very difficult Optimal timing depends on R&C available

Firms have strategic windows (opportunities aligned with R&C) 301 Active waiting 302 Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.) 3-Exploit innovation: when and where to enter? Managing risks Sources of uncertainty 1-Technological uncertainty 302 (unpredictability of technical evolution) 2-Market uncertainty 302 (size and growth rates for new products) Useful actions 1-Cooperation with lead users 2-Limiting risk exposure 3-Flexibility and response to signals Xerox, Apple, Sony 302 Computer software, Nike, Communications, Space 303 Honda, Microsoft 303 Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.)

4-Competing for standards Standard 304 Format, interface or system that allows for interoperability Public (Open) vs. Private (Proprietary) Mandatory vs. De Facto Network externalities 306 Value of product depends on number of users Network externalities require products compatibility Sources of network externalities 1-Users linked to a network 2-Availability of complementary PS 3-Economizing on switching costs Network externalities produce 1-Positive feed-back 307 2-Tipping phenomenon 307 3-Winner-takes-all situation 307 Linux, Microsoft, Qualcomm, automobile safety, TV broadcasting, railroad gauge, wireless telecom, quadraphonic 305 Telephone, Glenlivet, Armani, wireless telephone, AT&T, Nextel, T-Mobile, railroads 306 Telephones, railroad systems, email messaging, software, social identification 306 Apple, Ford, Microsoft, typewriter 307 Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation

(Ctd.) 4-Competing for standards Winning standard wars In markets subjects to network externalities, control over standards is the basis of competitive advantage Market will converge around a simple technical standard Role of positive feed-back: technology that can establish early leadership will attract new adopters Actions: 1-Assemble allies 2-Preempt the market 3-Manage expectations 4-Create value and share with other parties, involve broad alliances 5-Achieve compatibility with existing products (evolutionary strategy, revolutionary strategy 308) 6-Control over an installed base of customers 7-Own intellectual property in the new technology 8-Innovate to extend and adapt the initial technological advance 9-FMA 10-Strengths in complements 11-Reputation and brand name Apple, IBM, Microsoft, Netscape, WordPerfect 307 Sony, Toshiba, Windows, Sega, Nintendo 308 Capsule VCRs and PCs 309-310 Intel, Microsoft, Adobe 310 Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.)

5-Creating conditions for innovation Creativity is key for innovation Creativity is resistant to planning Productivity of R&D depends on organizational conditions that foster innovation How does the firm create conditions conducive to innovation? Invention relies upon creativity Innovation relies upon cooperation, interaction and collaboration Conditions for creativity: Knowledge and imagination Typically an individual act that establishes a meaningful relationship between concepts or objects that had not previously be related; triggered by accidents Creativity associated with personality traits; creativity stimulated by human interaction; catalyst of interaction is play Experimentation needs to be managed Innovation can be accelerated through conflict, criticism and debate Creative abrasion 311 No cloning Whole brain teams 312 Balancing creative freedom and direction and integration; link with market needs Open innovation 312 Creation nets 312 Management systems and incentives Egalitarian culture, space, resources, spontaneous, experience freedom, fun, praise, recognition, education and professional growth Isaac Newton, James Watt, Amgen, Microsoft, Florentine, Venetian schools 311 Body Shop, Disney, HBO, steam engine, Xerox 312

Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.) 5-Creating conditions for innovation Cross-functional integration Linking creativity and technological expertise with capabilities in production, marketing, finance, distribution and customer support Reconcile requirements for innovation and operation Differentiation vs. Integration 313 Actions: 1-Cross-functional product development teams 2-Product champions 3-Buying innovation 4-Incubators US naval establishment 313 Automobile, electronics, construction equipment, 3M, Microsoft, Cisco Systems, Ford Consumer Connect, British Telecom Brightstar Capsule Innovation at 3M 315-316 Ch.11 Technology-based industries and the management of innovation (Ctd.) 6-WRAP-UP Central concepts: Invention and innovation How does invention/innovation create value and constitute a competitive advantage? What it does How is value shared?

How can the firm protect its innovation-based competitive advantage? Four means for protection How can the firm exploit innovation? Five alternative choices How does the firm choose among these alternative choices? When should the firm enter? Leading vs. Following Four factors impacting choice Two determinants of risk and three related actions How can the firm fight for the industry standards? How does it work? What to do? Eleven actions How can the firm create the conditions for innovation? What are the conditions? Actions regarding management and incentive systems, and structure Ch.12 Competitive advantage in mature industries Ch.12 Competitive advantages in mature industries Themes of chapter 1-Introduction

2-Competitive advantage in mature industries 3-Strategy implementation in mature industries 4-Strategies for declining industries 5- Wrap-up Ch.12 Competitive advantages in mature industries (Ctd.) 1-Introduction What are the characteristics of mature industries and the way to take advantage of a competitive advantage in these mature industries? McDonalds 320 Food, energy, construction, vehicles, financial services, restaurant 321 Massage parlor, steel 321 Heens & Mauritz, Ryanair, Starbucks, Nucor, Coca-cola, Exxon Mobil, GE 321 Ch.12 Competitive advantages in mature industries (Ctd.) 2-Competitive advantage in mature industries Maturity implies: 1-Reduction in number of opportunities 2-To establish competitive advantage, shift from differentiationbased factors to cost-based factors 3-Deterioration of profitability From franchise to business 322 Capsule Media sector and Warren Buffett 322

Increased buyer knowledge, product standardization, less product innovation Diffusion of process technology Cost advantage (superior process, advanced method) more difficult to obtain and sustain Attack of specific niches easier (industry infrastructure more developed, presence of powerful distributors) Ch.12 Competitive advantages in mature industries (Ctd.) 2-Competitive advantage in mature industries Drivers of Cost Advantage 1-Economies of scale Standardization 2-Low-cost inputs 3-Low overheads Actions Cost inefficiencies tend to be institutionalized in mature industries, drastic intervention Corporate restructuring 323 1-Asset and cost surgery 2-Selective product and market pruning 3-Piecemeal productivity moves (adjustments to current market positions)

Valero Energy Corp 323 Retailers, hotels, hospital groups, chemical firms 323 Wal*Mart, Exxon, EMAP, Media News Group 323 British firms (sharpbender) 324 Segment and customer selection Decrease in profitability. Then unattractive industries may offer attractive niche segments with strong growth, few competitors and potential for differentiation The more focus on mass market, more likely existence of niches Further disaggregation of markets CRM 324 Target attractive customers and transform less valuable customer to more valuable Value exchange 324 Wal*Mart, automobile, Las Vegas casinos, banks, supermarkets, credit card firms, hotels, Capital One 324 Ch.12 Competitive advantages in mature industries (Ctd.) 2-Competitive advantage in mature industries Quest for differentiation Commoditization narrows scope for differentiation and reduces customers WTP a premium for differentiation

Standardization does not eliminate opportunities for differentiation Differentiation of complementary services Innovation Low technical change But mature industries are as innovative as emerging industries in terms of patents Innovation in other areas Third phase of innovation Strategic innovation 326 Redefining markets -embracing new customer groups -adding PS that perform new but related functions Experience economy 327 Tires, domestic appliances, airlines 325 Consumer goods, cola, cigarettes 325 Toys-R-Us, JC Penney, Circuit City 325 J. Sainsbury, Mothercare, Kingfisher 325 Royal Ahold 325 Target, Lowes, TJX, Bed, Bath and Beyond 325 Zara-Inditex 325 Heens & Mauritz, Ikea 325 Reconciliation of multiple performance goals -maturity is state of mind -the firm matters, not the industry -strategic innovation is basis for competitive advantage

-selection in choosing markets (limitation by R&C) -Entrepreneurial organization with freedom and learning Honda, Toyota, Courtaulds, Benetton 327 Steel, textile, food processing, insurance, hotels, tires 325 Brassieres, fishing rods, Harley Davidson, Sony, Jehovahs witnesses in Russia, Amway Christian Fellowship in America 327 Arco, Barnes and Noble, Hard Rock Caf, Planet Hollywood 327 Ch.12 Competitive advantages in mature industries (Ctd.) 2-Competitive advantage in mature industries Rejuvenation and Managerial and Organizational Cognition MOC Railroad firms 328 Change is hard Propensity for managers to be trapped within industry conventional thinking about KSF and business practices Industry-wide systems of beliefs Industry recipes 327 Edward Jones 328 Cognitive maps 327 Why do some firms adapt better than others? Ability of managers to change their learning in the form of changing their mental models is critical Contrarian thinking

Strategic revolution -reorganizing strategic management process -breaking top management monopoly over strategy formulation -bringing in younger people from further down the organization -involving those on the periphery of organization Rent-A-Car, Hertz, Avis 328 Ch.12 Competitive advantages in mature industries (Ctd.) 3-Strategy implementation in mature industries: structure, systems, style Reconcile operational efficiency and innovation and customer responsiveness Efficiency through bureaucracy Machine bureaucracy 329 Standardized routines, division labor, management control, highly detailed rules and procedures Beyond bureaucracy Bureaucracy not popular anymore -environmental turbulence -emphasis on innovation -new process technology -alienation and conflict -role of business managers in strategic decision processes

-shrinking corporate staff -emphasis on customer requirement and greater flexibility -teamwork -profit incentive to motivate and control However, still primary emphasis on cost efficiency Tension with turbulent environment (static efficiency requirements different from dynamic efficiency ones) Government departments, McDonalds, DaimlerChrysler, ExxonMobil, HSBC 329 GM, Chrysler, Sunbeam 330 GE, Nissan and Renault, Marks & Spencer, BP, Citigroup 331 Ch.12 Competitive advantages in mature industries (Ctd.) 4-Strategies for declining industries Declining industry because: -technological substitution -changes in consumers preferences -demographic shifts -foreign competition Declining industry characterized by: -excess capacity

-lack technological change -declining number rivals but some entry -high average age of resources -aggressive price competition -company failures and instability Declining industry a blood-bath? Two factors determine: 1-Balance capacity and output 2-Nature of demand for PS Balance capacity/output: If smooth adjustment, stability If not, destructive competition -predictability of decline -BTE (assets, cost of plant closure, managerial commitment) -strategies of surviving firms Demand for PS: General pattern of decline may hide existence of pockets of demand comparatively resilient and price inelastic Typewriter, railroad. Mens suits, babyware in Italy, cutlery in Sheffield, electronic vacuum tubes, cigars, leather tanning, baby food, rayon and meat processing 331, Bakery, gold mining, long-haul bus transportation, traditional photography, steel, European gasoline retailing 332

GTE Sylvania, GE, fountain pen Mont Blanc, Cross, quality cigars 333 Strategies: Divest or harvest imply industry not profitable -leadership -niche -harvest -divest Assess industry profit potential and competitive position of firm Four questions Matrix for strategy p.334 Ch.12 Competitive advantages in mature industries (Ctd.) 5- Wrap-up Declining industries are characterized by classic features Classically, competitive advantage built on cost advantage or differentiation were implemented through hierarchical organizations But conditions of cost efficiency have changed because of dynamism of environment New sources of competitive advantage: innovation and differentiation Flexibility, exploited new technologies, employee commitment and cost efficiency (beyond bureaucracy) Even in mature industries, potential for profit exists -cost advantage -market selection -differentiation -innovation Even in declining industries, potential for profit exists

Understand first the factors explaining decline and strength of competition -leadership -niche -divest -harvest Ch.13 Vertical Integration and the scope of the firm Ch.13 Vertical integration and scope of firm Themes of chapter 1-Introduction and goals 2-Scope of firm and transaction costs 3-Costs and benefits of VI 4-Designing vertical relationships Ch.13 Vertical integration and scope of firm (Ctd.) 1-Introduction and goals Vertical Scope WHERE? Key concepts: -EoSco

-Transaction costs -Costs of corporate complexity CL-S Geographical Scope Product Scope HOW? BL-S SAB Miller, Gap, Swiss Re, GE, Samsung, Bertelsmann 340 Clydes, Popeyes Chicken and Biscuits, McDonalds 340 Walt Disney, Nike 340 Ch.13 Vertical integration and scope of firm (Ctd.) 2-Scope of firm and transaction costs Firm exists because they are most efficient in organizing production that markets contracts between independent workers Market mechanism = individuals make independent decisions that are guided and coordinated by market prices 341 Administrative mechanism = decisions over production, supply, and purchase of inputs are made by managers and imposed through hierarchies 341 Invisible Hand (Adam Smith)

Visible Hand (Alfred Chandler) Market Relative costs 342 (Coase, R) Transaction costs 342 (Williamson, O) Firms Administrative costs 342 Technology Management techniques Turbulence of environment and instability Growth in size and scope Downsizing; refocusing Ch.13 Vertical integration and scope of firm (Ctd.) 3-Costs and benefits of VI Vertical integration VI = firms ownership of vertically related activities 344 Backward VI 344 Forward VI 344

Full VI 345 Partial VI 345 Which factors determine whether VI enhances performance Media industry 343 Content and distribution 345 Liberty media, Viacom, Comcast 345 AOL Time Warner 346 Compagnie Generale des Eaux and Vivendi Universal 346 Oil and gas majors 346 Ch.13 Vertical integration and scope of firm (Ctd.) 3-Costs and benefits of VI Technical economies from physical integration of processes Sources of transaction costs in vertical exchanges Existence of technical economies Necessity to invest in integrated facilities Market becomes series of bilateral monopolies Supplier-buyer relationship based on relative bargaining power and not on price equilibrium Mechanism based upon bargaining power is costly because mutual dependency is likely

to increase opportunism and misrepresentation Existence of transaction-specific investment (once made, little value without the existence of the partners investment). Each partner is tied to the other and opportunity to hold up the other Steel and cans 346-347 Crown Holdings, Ball Corp. 347 Jewelry 347 Flour-milling 347 Pulp and paper production 346 Oil refining and petrochemical production 346 Automobile 348 Aerospace 348 Semi-conductor 348 VI allows avoids transaction costs by bringing partners into a single administrative structure Writing contract impossible because uncertainty about future makes contracts incomplete Ch.13 Vertical integration and scope of firm (Ctd.)

3-Costs and benefits of VI Differences in optimal scales between different stages of production Managing vertically related businesses that are strategically very different Strategic dissimilarities are incentive to de-integrate Incentive problem High-powered incentive 349 Low-powered incentive 349 Shared-service organization 350 Pros and Cons of VI Which factors are key? Different firms can be successful with different levels of VI in same industry Different R&C and strategies Development of distinctive capabilities Assumption that independence between vertical activities Competitive effects of VI

Extension of monopolistic position (no more possible extension; negative perception from buyers) Flexibility a-responsiveness to uncertain demand b-response to new product development c-system-wide flexibility Compounding risk Ch.13 Vertical integration and scope of firm (Ctd.) 3-Costs and benefits of VI Federal Express 348 Ford 348 Anchor Brewing, Adnams 348 Anheuser Busch, SAB-Miller 349 Xerox, Kodak, Philips, IBM, Accenture 349 GM 349 Wal*mart 349 FedEx, Zara, Gucci, Wal*Mart, Gap, Carrefour 349 Marriott Hotels 349 Whitbread, Scottish & Newcastle 349 Shell 350

Zara 353 Hennes & Mauritz 353 Gap 353 Armani 353 Donna Karan 353 Standard Oil, Disney, ABC 350 Construction industry 350 Apple, Microsoft, Dell 350 American Apparel 350 Zara 350-352 GM 353 Ch.13 Vertical integration and scope of firm (Ctd.) Formalization - 4-Designing VI + Allocation of risk Incentive structure - Commitment

Characteristics of vertical relationship Implication 354 + Long-term contract Vendor partnerships Franchising Spot contract 355 Long-term contract 355 Relational contract 355 Franchise 355 Recent trends Diversity of hybrid vertical relationships Long term collaboration Exploiting international cost differences Mutual dependence and vulnerability Reduction of transaction costs through internet Refocusing Outsourcing and greater potential for erosion of core competences System integrator and risk of hollow organization Virtual corporation 357 Architectural capabilities 358

Component capabilities 358 Ch.13 Vertical integration and scope of firm (Ctd.) 4-Designing VI IT outsourcing 355 McDonalds, Century 21, Hilton hotels, sevenEleven 357 Starbucks 356 IBM, EDS, Capital One 356 Oil exploration, construction, passenger rail service, local refuse collection, Toyota, Maks and Spencer 356 Silicon valley, Japanese supplier network 357 Industrial district of Northern Italy (textiles, packaging, motorcycles) 357 Commonwealth Bank of Australia, EDS Australia, pharmaceutical firms 357 Hon Hai Precision Industry Co 357 Aero engine manufacturers 358 Ch.14 Global strategies and the Multinational Corporation Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation Themes of chapter

1-Introduction and goals 2-Implication of international competition for industry analysis 3-Competitive advantage in international context 4-Framework: international location of production 5-Framework: Foreign entry strategies 6-Multinational strategies: Globalization vs. National differentiation 7-Strategy and organization within the multinational corporation Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation (Ctd.) 1-Introduction and goals Globalization is reshaping competitive environment New competitors New business opportunities Flows of international transactions Reasons for Globalization Quest for new opportunities abroad Quest for exploit business opportunities (cost and global efficiency) Forms of Globalization Trade Direct Investment LOreal, UBS, HSBC, McKinsey, Saatchi & Saatchi, Daewoo, Marks & Spencer 362

Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation (Ctd.) 2-Implication of international competition for industry analysis Trade 363 Direct Investment 363 Patterns of Globalization + Int. Trade - Trading industries 363 Global industries 364 Sheltered industries 363 Multi-domestic industries 364 -

Foreign Direct Investment + Dry cleaning, hairdressing, auto repair, funeral services, handicrafts, homebuilding, fresh milk, bread, four-poster beds, garden sheds) 363 Commercial aircrafts, shipbuilding, defense equipment 364; diamond, caviar 364 Banking, consulting, hotel, frozen dinner, recorded music 364 Automobiles, consumer electronics, semi-conductors, pharmaceuticals, beer 364 Marriott, Starbucks, Goldman Sachs 364 Implications for competition: More competition Lower industry profitability Excess capacity Intense price competition Massive losses Barriers to entry have fallen so more new entrants Increase of rivalry because lower seller concentration, increasing diversity of rivals, and excess capacity, increase of BPC GM, Chrysler, Ford 365 US auto, European motor scooter, paper,

telecommunications, oil, airlines, aluminum 365 Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation (Ctd.) 3-Competitive advantage in international context Fundamental model Industry environment KSF Firm Resources and Capabilities Competitive advantage Theory of comparative advantage 367 Relative efficiencies of producing different products which translate into comparative advantages (US and Bangladesh) Emphasis on natural resource endowments, labor supply and capital Role of knowledge and resources to commercialize knowledge National environment Porters National Diamond of competition Factor conditions Congruence between strategy and the pattern of the countrys comparative advantage

Relationship between organizational capabilities and national culture and social structure Demand conditions Related and supporting industries Strategies, structure and rivalry Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation (Ctd.) 3-Competitive advantage in international context US Steel, Mittal Steel 366 IBM, Apple, Dell, HP, Lenovo, Acer 366 Deutsche Bank, Bank of Tokyo, UBS, HSBC 366 Hollywood in film production 368 Semi conductors, computers, software, chemicals, synthetic dyes, textiles, textile machinery 368 Swiss watches, Japanese cameras, world automobile, Japanese auto, cameras, consumer electronic products, office machinery 369 Audio equipment: Dussun and Skyworth, Bose, Bang & Olufsen, Sony, Matsushita 369 Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation

(Ctd.) 4-Framework: international location of production WHERE? Important reason for globalization is access to R&C available in other countries Production and distribution can be separated To determine geographical location: 1-National resource availability 2-Firm-specific competitive advantages 3-Tradability Location and value-chain Local advantages different according to stage of value chain Motorola 370 Oil, Nike, Reebok 370 Semi conductor, computer, Wal*Mart, Toyota, Goldman Sachs, hairdressing, medicine 371 Textile, apparel, consumer electronics, Nike 371 Analysis at each stage of value chain Off-shoring 371 Model to determine location of activity X 373 -Activity X considered independently -Activity X considered in connection with other activities

Accel Partners, Chips, software, IT, eTelecare 372 Auto in Mexico 373 Zara, Dell 373 Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation (Ctd.) 5-Framework: Foreign entry strategies Range of options exists to enter a foreign market; correspond to alternatives to exploiting innovations Trade Direct Investment Five issues for choice mode entry 1-Competitive advantage based on firmspecific or country-specific resources 2-Tradable product and barriers to trade 3-Does firm possess full range of R&C to establish a competitive advantage abroad 4-Can firm directly appropriate returns 5-What transaction costs (fundamental criterion to decide mode of entry) Representation of modes of entry 374 Criterion: degree of commitment Toyota, Hyundai 374 Fuji-Xerox, Caterpillar-Mitsubishi 375 Chemicals, pharmaceuticals, software, computer, Cadbury-Schweppes, Hershey

375 Starbucks, McDonalds 375 Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation (Ctd.) 5-Framework: Foreign entry strategies International alliances and Joint ventures Goals Multinational firm wants to access the market knowledge and distribution resources of the local firm, whereas the local firm wants to access the technology, brand and product development of the international company Sometimes, local regulation obliging to have a partner Success of international alliances or JV is mixed Disagreement, contributions and returns are source of friction Key factors for success: 1-strategic intent of partners 2-appropriability of contribution 3-receptivity of company (assimilation of knowledge and experience) Gazprom, ENI, CNPC, Eon, PDVSA, MOL, Petrocanada, Sonatrach 376 GM 376 Western banks in China for credit card

market 376 Computers, semi conductors, telecommunication equipment, pharmaceuticals, aerospace, energy 377 Sony-Ericsson 377 Renault-Nissan 377 HP-Canon 377 BT AT&T 377 GM FIAT 377 Swissair 377 Xerox Fuji 377 Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation (Ctd.) 6-Multinational strategies: Globalization vs. National differentiation Firms that operate on an International basis may gain competitive advantage over nationally focused firms Two assumptions: 1- Globalization of customer preferences 2-Scale economies Benefits 1- Scale and replication (product development is the most important). Economies in replication of knowledge-based assets, including competences. Creation is expensive but replication is cheap

2-Exploiting efficiencies of national resources (labor, raw material) 3-Serving global customers 4-Learning Accessing, creating and transferring knowledge from multiple sources 5-Competing strategically Using resources of MNC to compete Cross-subsidization 379 Predatory pricing 379 Corona, Adidas, McDonalds 378 Pharmaceuticals, Consumer electronics, Investment banking 378 Disney 378 Semi conductor 379 Investment banking, audit, advertising 379 Romans vs. Gauls and Goths 379 Kodak and Fuji 379 Daimler Benz Chrysler, Mitsubishi, Ford, GM 380 Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation (Ctd.) 6-Multinational strategies: Globalization vs. National differentiation Need for national differentiation Global customer: myth? Factors encouraging national differentiation:

1- Laws and regulations 2-Distribution channels 3-Presence of lead countries 4-National cultures Culture 381 Reconciliation of needs: Global and Differentiated Reconciling is challenge Global Localization Auto 380 Domestic appliances Electrolux, Whirlpool 380 Banking US Bancorp, Bank of China, National Bank of Kuwait, Anglo Irish Bank 380 Financial services, pharmaceuticals and health services, alcoholic beverages, telecommunications 380 Procter & Gamble 380 Consumer electronics Japan 380 Computer hardware and software US 380 Financial services US 380 Auto technology and design Europe 380 Mobile communications South Korea 380 Wal*Mart, Disney, Marks & Spencer 380 Funeral services, hairdressing 382 National culture differences (Hofstede 382) Telecommunication equipment, military hardware 383 McDonalds goes Glocal 383-384 Honda, McDonalds 383 Capital One, MBNA, UBS 384

Ch.14 Global strategies and the Mutinational Corporation (Ctd.) 7-Strategy and organization within the multinational corporation Inertia Existence of organizational inertia MNC captive of its own history; change is slow, difficult and costly Structure constraints ability to build new strategic capabilities Three eras 1-European Multinationals 2-US Multinationals 3-Japanese Multinationals Characteristics and traits at foundation still influence them Transnational corporation Shift from national subsidiaries divisions to worldwide product divisions New approach for reconciliation: -global strategies with global product platforms -greater decentralization -centralization of R&D; creativity and innovation nurturing -new internal management (Transnational organization 387-388 [], Center of excellence 389) Unilever, Shell, ICI, Philips 385

GM, Fordd, IBM, Cocal cola, Caterpillar, Gillette, Procter & Gamble 386 Honda, Toyota, Matsushita, NEC, YKK 386 Shell, Philips, Ford, P&G, Nomura, Hitachi, NEC 386 HP 386 P&G, Philips, Unilever, Siemens, Toyota, Matsushita, Citigroup, IBM, Philips, Nexans, HSBC, Tetra Pak 388 Ch.15 Diversification strategy Ch.15 Diversification strategy Themes of chapter 1-Introduction and goals 2-Trends 3-Motives 4-Competitive advantage 5-Diversification and performance Ch.15 Diversification strategy (Ctd.) 1-Introduction and goals Value

Diversification can be the best or the worst for a firms strategy Diversification helps to survive hard times because of the diversity of industries in a firms portfolio Specialization (Concentration) restricts operations to a single industry and condemns the firm to the fortunes of this industry How Two questions: 1-How attractive is the industry to be entered? Superior profit potential 2-Can the firm establish a competitive advantage within the new industry? Ability of firms to create competitive advantage in new industry Attractiveness Assets frame (AA) is OK for decision Under which conditions does operating a multi business assist a firm in gaining a competitive advantage in each? Synergy 395 Shell, McDonalds, Caterpillar 394 RJR Nabisco, Reynolds American, ITT, Hanson, Gulf & Western, Cendant, Tyco 394 Microsoft, Nokia, PepsiCo, Cocal cola 394 Ch.15 Diversification strategy

(Ctd.) 2-Trends Diversification 1950-1980 Multiple, unrelated acquisitions and constitution of conglomerates 395 No need for industry-specific knowledge; financial techniques for financial and strategic management are enough ITT, Textron, AlliedSignal 395 Hanson, SlaterWalker, BTR 395 Refocusing 1980-2006 Divestment of Non core businesses Leveraged buyouts Emphasis on shareholders value, and from growth to profitability Turbulent environment increased stress, inefficiency and delay; external factor markets (especially capital market) has become increasingly efficient Kohlberg, Kravis Roberts KKR, RJR Nabisco 396 Tata, Reliance (India), Charoen Pokhand (Thailand), Astra Strategic management more selective about conditions for diversification: ability to (Indonesia), Sime share R&C more efficiently than alternative institutional arrangements and still Darby (Malaysia),

outweigh the additional cost of exploiting them Grupo Alfa, Grupo Carso (Mexico) 397 In developing countries, large conglomerates dominate their national economies Diversification and evolution of management thinking Fig 15.1 p398 Ch.15 Diversification strategy (Ctd.) 3-Motives Growth Quest for growth and profitability possible together Managers have incentives to pursue growth rather than profitability Risk reduction Spreading risk so long cash flows of businesses are imperfectly correlated Does it create value for shareholders? Investor holds a diversified portfolio. Transaction cost to diversify through acquisition is higher than through portfolio diversification (banks, adviser costs; acquisition premium) Capital Asset Pricing Model CAPM 399 Systematic and unsystematic risks Studies show generally no shareholder benefit of diversification that simply combines independent businesses But may benefits employees (transferability between businesses) May benefits lenders (coinsurance effect 400)

Profitability Three tests: 1-Attractiveness test 2-Cost-of-entry test 3-Better-off test 3M, Canon 399 Tobacco, oil 399 Philip Morris, 7-Up, Miller, Clark, Kraft, General Foods, Exxon 399 Exxon Mobil, BP 400 Pharmaceuticals, management consulting, investment banking 401 Procter & Gamble, Gillette, Wal*Mart 401 Allianz, Dresdner Bank 401 Ch.15 Diversification strategy (Ctd.)

4-Competitive advantage Economies of Scope EoSco Economies of scope 402, Note 412 Increasing output across several products Economies of Scale EoSca 402 Increasing output for a single product Shared service organization 402 Tangible resources Intangible resources Organizational capabilities General management capabilities 403 Economies from internalizing transactions EoSco in R&C by selling or licensing use of R&C to another firm Relative efficiency determines if diversification more interesting vs. external market contracts: comparison of transaction costs and administrative costs. Depends on characteristics of R&C Cable TV, telephone 402 British Gas 402 Boeing, United technologies 402 General Electric 402 Starbucks LVMH 402 Sharp 403 3M 403 Starbucks, PepsiCo

403 Dreyers, Walt Disney 403 Airport and railroad station operators 403 Walt Disney 404 3M, Apple, Virgin 404 Ch.15 Diversification strategy (Ctd.) 4-Competitive advantage Diversified firm as an internal market EoSco alone are not enough; they must be backed by transaction costs However, transaction costs can offer diversification efficiency gains even if there is no EoSco 1-Internal capital market Cash using and generating business portfolio Better access to information But politicized process of resource allocation Makron associates, GE, Bershire Hathaway, Hutchison Wampoa, Bouygues, Lagardere, Westfarmers, ITC, Carso 405

2-Internal labor market Transferring employees inside Attraction of high caliber employees Canon, GE, Unilever, nestle 405 Ch.15 Diversification strategy (Ctd.) 5-Diversification and performance Performance and diversification No consistent and systematic relationship Curvilinear relationship between diversification and profitability because beyond a certain point, deteriorating profitability ITT, Hanson, oil and tobacco firms, Daimler-Benz 406 Timing is key Association vs. causation Depends on the mode of diversification Related and unrelated diversification Related diversification more profitable than unrelated But other explanations or rival explanation [] 407

3M, GE, LVMH 407 Meaning of relatedness No unambiguous criteria to determine, but depends on the firm undertaking the diversification (operational and strategic relatedness) Berkshire Hathaway, Virgin, Allegis Corp, General Mills 408 Exxon, Vivendi, AT&T, NCR, HP, IBM, 3M, Canon, Samsung, Dupont 409 Determinants of strategic relatedness: 1-Resource allocation 2-Strategy formulation 3-Performance management and control Dominant logic 408 Managers cognition of the rationale that links their businesses Diversification and market power (Appendix 411) Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation

Themes of chapter 1-Introduction and goals 2-Structure of multibusiness company 3-Role of corporate management 4-Managing corporate portfolio 5- managing individual businesses 6-Managing internal linkage 7-Leading change Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation 1-Introduction and goals How should a firm be structured and managed to exploit these sources of value? Critical issue to be addressed in Ch.16. Generally a Divisional form exists (called Multidivisional) and coordinated by corporate HQ Roles of corporate HQ and links between the businesses and the corporate center (Ctd.) Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation (Ctd.) 2-Structure of multibusiness company Common repartition of roles Corporate strategy: corporate management Business strategy: divisional management Theory of M-Form (Multi-divisional) Four key advantages:

1-Adaptation to bounded rationality, allows decision-making to be dispersed 2-Allocation of decision-making: level according to frequency of decision types 3-Coordination costs: Minimizes because eases information and decision-making burden to top management 4-Goal conflict: avoids such conflicts between divisions Contribution to resolution of two critical problems: 1-Allocation of resources Politicization in purely hierarchical systems; internal capital market; standardized approval and appraisal 2-Agency problem Corporate management is interface between owners and divisional managers and can enforce adherence to profit goals; agent of owners to monitor performance Staffing advantage Resource allocation advantage Problems of M-Form (Multidivisional) 1-Constraints on decentralization Fiefdoms and divisional high power 2-Standardization of divisional management Powerful forces to standardize which could be obstacle for each division to perform well Viacom, Alcoa, SAB Miller 416 GE, Emerson Electric, BP 418

Occidental Petroleum, Hughes Corp., Enron, Tyco, Vivendi Universal 418 Exxon 419 Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation (Ctd.) 3-Role of corporate management Administrative and leadership Implementing corporate strategy Participating into business level strategies formulation Coordination of divisions Cohesion, identity and direction Three main activities 1-Management of corporate portfolio 2-Guidance and control over businesses 3-Management of linkages between businesses Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation (Ctd.) 4-Managing corporate portfolio Innovations: 1-Portfolio planning models 420 (two-dimension) 2-SBU 420 3-PIMS database 420 GE/McKinsey Matrix -allocation of resources -formulation of SBU strategy

-analysis of portfolio balance -performance target setting Detail of the two dimensions BCG Matrix Very simple Detail of the two dimensions Easy and fast; allows sifting huge amount of information; versatile; useful point of departure But weaknesses Attractiveness of industry Corporate strategy: composition and balance of portfolio 1-Extension 2-Deletion 3-Change in balance (resource allocation) A A Matrix Business X Competitive advantage Time Warner 422 BMW, Disney 423 Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation (Ctd.)

4-Managing corporate portfolio Restructuring pentagon (Mc Kinsey) Whether the market value of firm is greater with a particular business or without it? Systematic framework to increase market value of multi-business companies through a five-step sequence: 1-Current market value 2-Company value as is 3-Potential value with internal improvements 5-Optimal restructured value 4-Potential value with external improvements Oil majors 425 Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation (Ctd.) 5-Managing individual businesses Standalone influence = corporate parent influence on

businesses through a range of means [] 425 Two primary means: 1-Input control (decisions) 2-Output (performance target) Unavoidable trade-off between the two GE, Exxon, Samsung, Unilever 426 Microsoft, Boeing, Textron 426 Capsule Exxon 427-428 Strategic planning system Distinction CL-S and BL-S more complex BL-S formulated jointly by corporate and divisional managers Need to create a strategy-making process that reconciles the decentralized decision making to fostering flexibility and responsiveness and sense of ownership at divisional level with ability of corporate level to bring knowledge, vision and responsibility Strategic planning systems do not make strategy Weak strategy execution (Milestone 426) Balance scorecard Strategy maps Office of management strategy Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation (Ctd.) 5-Managing individual businesses Performance and budgeting systems

Performance targets (financial, strategic, operational) Incentives Corporate culture Linking personal incentives to company performance goals not so easy (weaknesses) Strategic planning 430 Strategic control 430 Using PIMS database Developed by GE and SRI 5,000 SBU used to estimate impact of strategy and market structure on business-level profitability 1-Setting performance target 2-Formulate business strategy 3-Allocate resources between businesses ITT, PepsiCo, BP 429 BP, BOC, Cadburry Schweppes, Lex Group, STC, United Biscuits 430 Hanson, BTR, GE, Ferranti, Tarmac 431 Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation (Ctd.) 6-Managing internal linkages Common corporate services Strategic planning Financial control Little incentive to HQ to satisfy needs of divisions, but tendency Cash and risk management

to grow under their own momentum Audit Taxation Government relations AB 433 Shareholder relations Koor Industries, Berkshire Hathaway 433 Research Tomkins, Tyco, Textron 433 Engineering Carlyle, KKR, Blackstone, Texas Pacific, Alchemy, HRM Candover 434 Legal services LVMH, Sharp 433 Management development IBM, Procter & Gamble, American Express, Alcoa 433 Administrative service subject to EoSca or learning Berkshire Hathaway, HP, Pfzizer, Corning, Dow, Virgin, GE, paper companies, financial services 435 Corporate Management Unit Support of core Management team for key support activities Shared Services Organization Common services

Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation (Ctd.) 6-Managing internal linkages Management of linkages between businesses: four types 1-Portfolio management Autonomous businesses linked only by efficient internal capital market Holding 433 2-Restructuring Acquiring poorly managed businesses, appoint new management, dispose underperforming businesses, restructure liabilities, cut costs Proximity of businesses Opportunities for creating value from sharing 3-Transferring skills Sharing skills, personnel, and best practices 4- Sharing activities EoSco Coordinating role of corporate management Vehicles for cross business cooperation: corporate identity, mission that integrates

business level strategies, incentive for cooperation, inter-business task-forces Need for coordination Value added corporate parenting 435 Cross-divisional task forces 435 Dominant logic 435 is key (how do top management understands the commonalities between businesses Exploiting links implies costs Ch.16 Managing the multibusiness corporation (Ctd.) 7-Leading change Management of multi-business corporation Shift to value creation, to decentralization, informal coordination, more informal role for HQ (service center, guide for future, knowledge hub) Change is about involving lower levels of organization Management of contradictions and dilemmas 1-Efficiency but innovation and entrepreneurial spirit 2-Exploit existing and develop new 3-Autonomy and integration Multiple roles simultaneously Decentralized flexibility and initiative AND centralized purpose and integration

Flexible integration necessary Strategic inflexion point 438 General Electric Capsule 436-437 1-Delayering 2-Changing strategic planning system 3-Role of HQ 4-Role of coordination of corporate Beyond strategic and operational relatedness, toward a cultural glue Differentiation and Integration Three central management processes: 1-Entrepreneurial process 439 2-Integration process 439 3-Renewal process 439 At three levels of firm: corporate, middle, SBU Intel, Microsoft, Siemens, Samsung, IBM, McDonalds, De Beers, LVMH 438 ITT, Allegis 440 Ch.17 Current trends in strategic management Ch.17 Current trends in strategic management Themes of chapter

1-Introduction 2-External environment 3-Strategic thinking 4-Redesigning organization 5-Leadership Ch.17 Current trends in strategic management (Ctd.) 1-Introduction What happened? Volatility and unpredictability of environments Ability to be flexible and responsive Many events and calamit ies Friday 13 Specific strategy responses from firms are required

New thinking about nature of strategies, responsibilities of firms and role of management Ch.17 Current trends in strategic management (Ctd.) 2-External environment 1 Revolution Mechanization of production UK st End 18th 2nd Revolution Modern corporation Utilities US End 19th Kazaa, Skype VoIP, Sony, Microsoft 446 Telecom operators, internet provider, cable TV, Nokia, RIM, Nintendo, Apple 446 GE, Exxon, Home Depot 446

Wal*Mart, News, Walt Disney, Marks & Spencer, IBM 447 Blackstone Group, KKR, HCA, Equity Office Properties, Philips, Aligent, Freescale semiconductor, Enron, Worldcom, Parmalat, Royal Ahold, Vivendi 447 Gap, Texas Pacific Group 448 Economic and social fit of strategy; social legitimacy 416 Corporate scandals Executive compensation Environmental concerns 3rd Revolution Knowledge and new economy Digital and media Worldwide End 20th Economics of replication, network effects and complementarities between types of knowledge create increasing returns Digitally driven knowledge; internet Casino of technology Intensification of competition Societal pressures Mergers Reversion to private status (often because buy

out by private equity firm) Decline of public corporation Ch.17 Current trends in strategic management (Ctd.) 3-Strategic thinking What happened? Gains from cost cutting and restructuring have been picked Quest for shareholder value had negative consequences (short-termism) Back-to-basics Refocus on fundamental sources of profitability Accessing more complex and difficult-to-reach sources of competitive advantage Skepticism about New economy and new business models Profitability from deploying R&C to exploit external opportunities Unique and customizes strategy that exploit idiosyncratic advantages Strategic fit Complementarity among different management practices of a firm Retreat from generalization and rules in favor of particularism

Management choices tend to converge to a limited number of configurations Lafarge, Holcim, Cemex, Heidelberg, Alcoa, Rusal, Alcan, Norsk Hydro, Pechiney 448 Ch.17 Current trends in strategic management (Ctd.) 3-Strategic thinking Cisco 451 Yahoo, Intel, GE, BP Disney 452 Consumer electronics, packaging, investment banking, Scottish island, North Sea oilfield, petrochemical plant, consumer goods 452 Accessing more complex and difficult-to-reach sources of competitive advantage Only sustainable competitive advantage is ability to create new sources of competitive advantage Dynamic capabilities 449 Quest for a new model of corporation From mechanistic equilibrium To Change, uncertainty, evolutionary model Longevity and financial conservatism and sensitivity to external environment

and cohesion Learning organization 450 Complexity theory Complex systems 450 Unpredictability; self-organization; Inertia and chaos Fitness landscape 451 Challenge for managers is to design organizational systems that allow self-organization the best chance of highest performance Recommendations Simple rules, conditions for incremental and radical change, accelerate evolution through flexible organizational structure, adaptive tension to position at edge of chaos Boundary rules 451, How-to rules, Priority rules, patching 452 Real options Valuation of real option values Initially individual investment projects Analysis relies heavily upon cash flow More volatility and unpredictability mean greater importance of option values Industry attractiveness depends on option value Attractive resource is

one that offers opportunities for development Ch.17 Current trends in strategic management (Ctd.) 4-Redesigning organization Higher performance with broader repertoire of capabilities Managing dilemmas: how to reconcile these conflicts Capability-based structure Outstanding capabilities and then coordination Beyond unitary structure Exploration vs. Exploration 455 Parallel learning structures 455 Communities of practice 455 Organizing for adaptability Simple structure to allow individuals to self-organize Ambidextrous organization 457 Identity 457 Modularity Networks Team, Project, Process-based structures Flexible

We know little about dynamics of team interaction 3M, GE, Royal Dutch Shell 455 HP, World bank 456 Construction firms, consulting firms, Oticon A/S, Volvo 456 GE, IBM, Microsoft 457 Italian clothing, Italian motorcycle, Aprilia, Italjet, Ducati, Cisco Systems 458 Auto, Fashion clothing, Aerospace, Machine tools, Telecom equipment 458 Ch.17 Current trends in strategic management 5-Leadership Change-masters Highly visible, individualistic, hard-driven management styles Strategic decision makers, direction of firm More creation and maintenance of organizational environment rather than decision making per se Clarify and communicate identity Role of values and purpose: CEO leader of culture, climate, identity and processes for clarifying vision, aligning Emotional intelligence 459 Self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, social skills Social intelligence 460 Level 5 leadership [6] Chrysler, BP, Disney, News Corp. 458 BP 459 Philip Morris, Nucor, Kimberly-Clark 460 AES, Sun Microsystems, Kao Corp, Yahoo, Oticon 461 (Ctd.)

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