# Gimme a Kiss! Introducing Confidence Intervals Using Hershey ...

Around the World in 80 Tosses Introducing Hypothesis Tests By Tossing a Beach Ball Lisa Brock, West Forsyth High School [email protected] Carol Sikes, South Forsyth High School [email protected] Credit We first learned of this activity at a workshop facilitated by Paul Meyers. He

isnt sure where it originated. Materials & Time Materials: Inflatable Globe Available from many sources, heres one with a variety of options: http:// www.beachballs.com/globe-beach-balls.asp?gclid=CP66jcDz4cUCFQcya QodBEUAHQ Marker Time: 10 minutes to collect data 30 40 minutes to walk through steps of the hypothesis test

Before Tossing the Globe Ask the class the question: How much of the Earths surface is covered with water? Use the first students response as the claim. (Later the null hypothesis.) Once a students claim has been established, ask the rest of the class if they agree. If not, do you think the claim is too low, too high, or just wrong? (This will establish the alternate hypothesis.) Data Collection Each student should put a dot in pen on the center of the thumb of

their dominant hand. Toss the globe to a random student and ask them to report whether or not their thumb dot is touching land or water. Have the students continue tossing the globe around the room to each other, indicating where the dot landed. Record a frequency table on the board for water versus land as the students randomly toss the globe to each other throughout the room. Collect at least 80 observations. (should result in np and n(1-p) both being > 10). Linking to a Hypothesis Test Use the activity data to walk students through a hypothesis test: Translate original claim and class response into appropriate

hypotheses Link probability calculation to sampling distribution of p-hat with n = # of tosses Check the conditions related to the shape, center, and spread of the sampling distribution Perform the probability calculation Discuss what the probability means Is this likely to have happened if the claim was correct? Link to the decision Some Things to Note We teach hypothesis tests before intervals immediately following sampling distributions this makes the

calculation of the p-value in this way very natural to the students. If your original claim is fairly reasonable, it is likely you will fail to reject the null. Data collection can vary greatly in this activity, so encourage students to toss the globe far enough to randomize the outcome and to look carefully at where the dot actually landed. HAVE FUN!! (The kids usually do )

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