Gerund and Infinitive Created by: Aquilina Yunita, S.Pd What is a Gerund? Gerunds are made by adding ing to the base form of a verb. Do + -ing = doing Swim + -ing = swimming fall + -ing = falling Gerund as NOUNS Sometimes gerunds work like nouns in a sentence. Examples 1. Smoking is dangerous. 2. Swimming is healthy. 3. I like shopping. 4. She hates running.
In sentences 1 and 2, the gerund is the subject of the sentence. In Sentences 3 and 4, the gerund is the object of the sentence. Gerunds after a PREPOSITION The gerund is the only form verbs take after a preposition (on, in, by, with, under, through, at, after, before, as, of, off, etc.). Water is needed for growing plants. We passed the exam by working hard. I am tired of working so many hours. When do you use Gerunds after verbs? There are no patterns for this rule. You must memorize which verbs are followed by gerunds and which are followed by infinitives (which we will get
to in a moment) Verbs that are followed by Gerunds acknowledge delay excuse recommend recall admit deny mind miss
recollect consider detest finish postpone regret appreciate dispute imagine practice
celebrate escape make quit understand Infinitives The infinitive of the verb is the basic form of the verb. There are two forms of infinitives swim, leave, eat, play = bare infinitive to swim, to leave, to eat, to play = full infinitive Infinitives after ADJECTIVES
We use the full infinitive after adjectives. Examples I am happy to see my friends. We were surprised to get first place. Compare It is healthy to swim. It is dangerous to smoke. Contrast: Swimming is healthy. Smoking is dangerous. VERBS that are followed by Infinitives afford hope offer pay
swear agree consent intend plan want appear decide invite prepare
warn arrange demand learn pretend wish ask deserve manage promise would like
cant wait expect mean refuse Claim cant afford fail need remind hesitate
Infinitives and Modals The modal verbs are: can, could, have to, must, might, should, ought to These verbs always take the bare infinitive Examples We mustnt be late for class. We had to write an essay this morning. Verbs followed by Gerunds and Infinitives (1) These verbs take infinitives and gerunds: begin, hate, try, need, like, love, prefer, start. Examples: 1. I hate exercising. 2.
I hate to exercise. 3. I love swimming. 4. I love to swim. The meaning of sentences 1,2 and 3,4 is the same. Verbs followed by Gerunds and Infinitives (2) These verbs are followed by gerunds and infinitives: remember, stop, forget. BUT the meaning changes if the verb is followed by an infinitive or a gerund.
Examples of Verbs followed by Gerunds and Infinitives with changes in meaning 1. Frank remembered mailing the letter. (Frank had a memory that he mailed the letter. He saw it in his mind) 2. Frank remembered to mail the letter. (First he remembered that he needed to mail the letter. Then he did it: he mailed the letter. He didnt forget to mail the letter) 3. Sonia stopped eating ice cream. (She doesnt eat ice cream anymore) 4.
Sonia stopped to eat ice cream. (She stopped another activity to eat ice cream) 5. Jane forgot to meet John. (Jane had planned to meet John, but she didnt meet him because she forgot about the plan) 6. Jane forgot meeting John. (Jane met John, but afterwards she didnt remember that.)
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