# General River and Reservoir Modeling Environment

Lecture 4 Spillways and Outlet Works Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #1 Spillways and Outlet Works Provide the capability to release an adequate rate of water from the reservoir to satisfy dam safety and water control regulation of the project. Outlet Works consist of a combination of structures

designed to control the release of water from the reservoir as required for project purposes or operation. Spillways allow release of water downstream that cannot be stored or released for any of the objectives of the reservoir Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #2 Spillways Gated (controlled) or Ungated (uncontrolled)

Ungated are safer (no mechanical fixures that can fail; does not depend on operator; not likely to be obstructed by debris). need a longer length for the same maximum discharge rate; Gated spillways provide greater control of outflow rate; initial cost is usually 25% to 30% less. Surface Spillways or Orifice/tunnel Spillways Surface discharge via weir equation (function of H^1.5)

Tunnel or Orifice discharge via orifice equation (function of H^0.5) so need greater head. (common in deep canyons) Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #3 Types of Surface Spillways Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838

Slide #4 Types of Surface Spillways Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #5 Types of Surface Spillways Sept 4, 2008

CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #6 Orifice Spillways

Generally are construced for large flows Have submerged inlets Usually controlled with u.s. guard gates and an internal gate Could have uncontrolled u.s. gate 2 inlets should be required for each tunnel Trash racks required Aeration d.s. from inlet must be provided Require detail hydraulic analysis and often model studies Sept 4, 2008

CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #7 Tunnel Spillways at Glenn Canyon Dam Cavitation damage below aeration slot in 83 flood Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838

Slide #8 Drop Inlet (morning glory) spillway 3 flow regimes 1. Crest control weir equ; open channel flow d.s. Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #9 Drop Inlet (morning glory) spillway

2. Tube or orifce control (medium heads) Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #10 Drop Inlet (morning glory) spillway 3. Full pipe flow (high

heads); jet flow in orifice Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #11 Drop Inlet (morning glory) spillway Sept 4, 2008

CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #12 Energy Dissipation Commonly, a large spillway flow with even a moderate head develops high velocities, i.e., large kinetic energy. Such flow is destructive to the d.s. channel; the energy must be dissipated. Typical energy dissipation techniques include: Stilling Basins (hydraulic jump basins) When the approaching flow is super critical, blocks or sills are added to force the flow into the subcritical

regime. Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #13 Submerged Bucket Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838

Slide #14 FREEBOARD Freeboard for wave action is based on wind speed and fetch (distance from windward side of reservoir to the dam) Source: USBR Design of Small Dams Sept 4, 2008 CVEN 4838/5838 Slide #15

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