It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity -- Charles Dickens The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793 Marie Antoinette & Louis
XVI Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution 1. People from allOccurs social classes are discontented. 2. People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the govt. 3. People are hopeful about the future, but they
are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for. 4. People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing bitterness between social classes. 5. The social classes closest to one another are the most hostile. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs
6. The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates. 7. The government does not respond to the needs of its society. 8. The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups. 9. The government is unable to get enough
support from any group to save itself. 10. The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly. Socio-Economic Data, 1789 80 The French Urban Poor
70 60 50 1787 1788 40 30 20 10 0 % of Income Spent on Bread Financial Problems
in France, 1789 a Urban Commoners Budget: Food 80% Rent 25%
Tithe 10% Taxes 35% Clothing 20% TOTAL 170% a Kings Budget:
Interest 50% Army 25% Versailles 25% Coronation 10% Loans 25% Admin. 25% TOTAL 160%
French Budget, 1774 Where is the tax money? Lettres de Cachet Y The French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal. Y A carte-blanche warrant. Y Cardinal Fleury issued 80,000 during the reign of Louis XV! Y Eliminated in 1790.
Ancien Regime Map, 1789 The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Clergy 1 1 1st Estate Aristocra cy 2nd
Estate 1 Commoners 3rd Estate Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety. The Number of Representatives Clergy in the Estates General: Vote 1st Estate
300 by Head! 300 Aristocracy 2nd Estate 648 Commoners 3rd Estate Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes 1st What is the Third Estate? Everything! 2nd What has it been
heretofore in the political order? Nothing! 3rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abb Sieys 1748-1836 Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was
1614! Y The Third Estate The commoners finally presented their Awakens credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as representatives of the nation. Y They proclaimed themselves the National
Assembly of France. The Tennis Court Oath by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789 Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution Storming the Bastille, July Y
14, 1789 A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. Y 18 died. Y 73 wounded. Y 7 guards killed. Y It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].
Crane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take 1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end. 2. Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries. 3. Revolutionaries gain power and seem united. 4. Once in power, revolutionaries begin to
quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve. 5. The moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes. Crane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take 6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.
7. A strong man emerges and assumes great power. 8. The extremists try to create a heaven-on- earth by introducing their whole program and by punishing all of their opponents. 9. A period of terror [extreme violence] occurs. 10. Moderate groups regain power. THE
REVOLUTION IS OVER! The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789) Y Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land. Night Session of August 4, 1789
Y Before the night was over: The feudal regime in France had been abolished. All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices. Equality & Meritocracy! National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791
Libert! Egalit! Fraternit! August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) BUT . . . . . Y
Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!] Y Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed. Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate.
Their Goal Safeguard the right of private property!! The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789 V Liberty! V Property! V Resistance to oppression!
V Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Posed New Dilemmas 1. Did women have equal rights with men? 2. What about free blacks in the colonies? 3. How could slavery be justified if all
men were born free? 4. Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789 A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread. We want the baker, the bakers wife and the bakers boy! How to Finance the New Govt.?
1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period. 2. Print Assignats V V Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.
Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security. Depreciation of the Assignat V Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land. V The state would retire the notes as the land was sold. V They began circulating as paper currency.
Government printed more INFLATION [they lost 99% of their value ultimately]. Therefore, future governments paid off their New Relations Between Church & V Government paid the salaries of the State French clergy and maintained the churches. V The church was reorganized:
Parish priests elected by the district assemblies. Bishops named by the department assemblies. The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. V It transformed Frances Roman Catholic Church
into a branch of the state!! Pope Pius VI [1775-1799] Louis XVI Accepts the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791 Y Y The Royal Family Attempts
June, 1791 to Flee Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinettes lover]. Y Headed toward the Luxembourg border. Y
The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border Olympe de Gouges V (1745-1793) Women played a vital role in the Revolution. V But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man
did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women. Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791) The First Coalition & The Brunswick
Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is Manifesto harmed, (August 3, 1792) Paris will be leveled!! FRANCE 1792 1792 -1797
1797 AUSTRIA PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONT This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly. French Expansion: 1791-1799 French Expansion:
1791-1799 The Second French Revolution The National Convention: Girondin Rule: 1792-1793 Jacobin Rule: 1793-1794 [Reign of Terror] Thermidorian Reaction: 1794-1795
The Directory 1795-1799 Attitudes & actions of monarchy & court Fear of CounterRevoluti on Religio
us divisio ns The Causes of Instability in France 1792 - 1795 Econo mic Crises War Politic
al divisio ns The Jacobins Jacobin Meeting House They held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monastery in Paris.
Started as a debating society. Membership mostly middle class. The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class Small shopkeepers. Tradesmen. Artisans.
They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government! The Storming of the Tuilieres: August 9-10, 1792 This was triggered in part by the publication in Paris of the August 3 Brunswick Manifesto, which confirmed popular suspicions concerning the kings treason.
The September Massacres, 1792 (The dark side of the Revolution!) Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked from the front.
Buveurs de sang [drinkers of blood.] over 1000 killed! It discredited the Revolution among its The National Convention Its first act was1792) the formal (September, abolition of the monarchy on September 22, 1792.
The Year I of the French Republic. The Decree of Fraternity it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their When France sneezes, governments.
all of Europe catches TODAY: The Political Spectrum 1790s: The Plain Montagnar ds (The Mountain)
(swing Girondists Monarche votes) n n Jacobin s (Royal The Politics of the National Convention
(1792-1795)Girondist Montagnards Power base in Paris. Main support from the sans-culottes. Would adopt extreme measures to achieve their goals. Saw Paris as the center of the Revolution. More centralized [in Paris] approach to
government. s Power base in the provinces. Feared the influence of the sans-culottes. Feared the dominance of Paris in national politics. Supported more national
government The Purifying Pot of the Jacobin Louis XVI as a Pig c c For the Montagnards, the king was a traitor. The Girondins felt that the Revolution had gone far enough and didnt want
to execute the king [maybe exile Louis XVIs Head (January 21, 1793) c The trial of the king was hastened by the discovery in a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of
documents. They proved conclusively Louis knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention. c The National Convention voted c
The Death of Citizen Louis Capet Matter for reflection for the crowned jugglers. So impure blood doesnt soil our land! Marie Antoinette as a Serpent The Widow Capet
Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793 Attempts to Control the Growing 1. Revolutionary Tribunal in Paris try suspected counter-revolutionaries.
Crisis A. Representatives-on-Mission sent to the provinces & to the army. had wide powers to oversee conscription. B. Watch Committees [comit de surveillance] keep an eye on foreigners & suspects. C. Sanctioned the trial & execution of rebels and migrs, should they ever return to France.
Attempts to Control the Growing 2. The printing of more assignats to pay for the war. Crisis 3. Committee of Public Safety [CPS] to oversee and speed up the work of the government during this crisis. 4. Committee of General Security
[CGS] responsible for the pursuit of counter-revolutionaries, the treatment of suspects, & other Committee for Public Safety Revolutionary Tribunals. 300,000 arrested. 16,000 50,000 executed.
Maximillian Robespierre (1758 1794) Georges Jacques Danton (1759 1794) Jean-Paul Marat (1744 1793) The Death of Marat by Jacques Louis David,
1793 The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday, 1793 The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday Paul Jacques Aimee Baudry, 19c [A Romantic
View] The Levee en Masse: An Entire Nation at Arms! 500,000 Soldier An army based on merit, not birth! Legislation Passed by the National 1. Law of General Maximum September 5, 1793.
Limited prices Convention of grain & other essentials to 1/3 above the 1790 prices & wages to of 1790 figures. Prices would be strictly enforced. Hoarders rooted out and punished. Food supplies would be secured by the army! 2. Law of Suspects September 17, 1793. This law was so widely drawn that almost anyone not expressing enthusiastic support for the republic could be placed under arrest!
The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day! c c The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris
alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000! The Guillotine: An Enlightenment Tool?guillotine, Oh, thou charming You shorten kings and queens; By your influence divine,
We have re-conquered our rights. Come to aid of the Country And let your superb instrument Become forever permanent To destroy the impious sect. Sharpen your razor for Pitt and his agents Different Social Classes Executed 7 8 % %
28 % 25 % 31 % The Monster Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939! War of Resistance to the Revolution:
The Vendee Revolt, 1793 Vendee Revolt, 1793 Drowning the Traitors! Vendee Symbol: For God & the King! Why was there a Revolt
in the Vendee 1. The need for 300,000 French?troops for the war effort. 2. Rural peasantry still highly taxed. 3. Resentment of the Civil Constitution the Clergy. 4. Peasants had failed to benefit from the sale of church lands. TARGETS: Local government
officials National Guardsmen Jurying priests Political Propaganda The Contrast: French Liberty / British Slavery Religious Terror: De-Christianization
(1793-1794) The Catholic Church was linked The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counterrevolution. Religion was associated with the
Ancien Rgime and superstitious practices. Very popular among the sans- The De-Christianization Program 1. The adoption of a new Republican Calendar: abolished Sundays & religious holidays. months named after seasonal features. 7-day weeks replaced by 10-day decades.
the yearly calendar was dated from the creation of the Republic [Sept. 22, 1792] The Convention symbolically divorced the state from the Church!! A Republican Calendar The New Republican New Name Meaning Calendar Time Period
Vendemaire Vintage September 22 October 21 Brumaire Fog October 22 November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 December
20 Nivose Snow December 21 January 19 Pluviose Rain January 20 February 18 Ventose
Wind February 19 March 20 Germinal Budding March 21 April 19 Floreal Flowers
April 20 May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 July 18 Thermidor
Heat July 19 August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 September 21 A New Republican I 1792 1793 Calendar
Year II 1793 1794 III 1794 1795 IV 1795 1796 V 1796 1797
VI 1797 1798 VII 1798 1799 VIII 1799 1800 IX 1800 1801
X 1801 1802 XI 1802 1803 XII 1803 1804 XIII
1804 1805 XIV 1805 The Gregorian System returned in 1806. The De-Christianization Program 2. The public exercise of religion was banned.
3. The Paris Commune supported the: destruction of religious & royal statues. ban on clerical dress. encouragement of the clergy to give up their vocations. 4. The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was turned into the Temple of The Temple of Reason Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this
temple, The Festival of Supreme Being A new secular Backlash to the De-Christianization Program It alienated most of the population
(especially in the rural areas). Robespierre never supported it. he persuaded the Convention to reaffirm the principle of religious toleration. Decree on the Liberty of Cults was passed December 6, 1793. BUT, it had little practical effect!
The Radicals Arms: No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution! The Terror Intensified: March to July, Jacques Danton &
Hbert & the the 1794 Indulgents Hrbetists Executed in March, 1794 Executed in April, 1794 Law of 22 Prairial [June 10, 1794]. Trials were now limited to deciding only on liberty OR death, with defendants having no rights.
Were you an enemy of the people? (the law was so broadly written that almost anyone could fall within its definition!) 1,500 executed between June & July. French Victory at Fleurus June 26, 1794. France defeated Austria. This opened the way to
The Thermidorean Reaction, 1794 P July 26 Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies. he alienated members of the CPS & CGS. many felt threatened by his implications.
P July 27 the Convention arrests Robespierre. The Arrest of Robespierre The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793
Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794. The Cultural RevolutionBrought About by theupon Convention It was premised Enlightenment
principles of rationality. The metric system of weights and measures Was defined by the French Academy of Sciences in 1791 and enforced in 1793. It replaced weights and measures that had their origins in the Middle Ages. The abolition of slavery within France in 1791 and throughout the
French colonies in 1794. The Convention legalized divorce and Read More About the Revolution
T cell development. Pluripotent. hematopoietic. stem . cells. Pro-thymocytes - double negative T . cells - are comingfromthe bone marrow to thethymus, wheretheybegin to rearrangeTCRbgenes, express on theirsurface
What clues can we look for to know what zone someone is in? The first thing we want students to know is how to identify feelings in themselves and others. We start by looking for face and body clues and...
Medical Terminology Unit 2 -Surgical Suffixes, Hematology, and Diagnostic Imaging Suffix for "Cutting" Tomos = Cutting (Greek) Tom = word root for cut -tome = cutting instrument -tomy = to cut into (incise) Tom/e = cut -y is a noun...
The effect of your clothing choices might be much more powerful than you think. Fair or not, people judge us by the way we look and that includes the way we dress. For example, women dressed in a masculine fashion...
Hospitality/Tourism . Consumer products . Financial services . Food & beverage . Healthcare . Manufacturing (advanced and jewelry) Retail. WTCE is a comprehensive resource addressing the training and workforce development needs of the public, non-profit and private sectors .
The Potential Source Materials for Recurring Slope Lineae on Mars: Subsurface Hydrous Chlorides and Oxychlorine Salts (HyCOS Authors Alian Wang1, ZongchengLing2, Y. C. Yan1, Alfred S. McEwen3, Michael T. Mellon4, Michael D. Smith5, Bradley L. Jolliff1, James Head6
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!