Framework Programme Report for the 37th GFCM Commission
GENERAL FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN Workshop on marine environment and fisheries CFP & MSFD Brussels, 3rd - 4th April 2014 Status of exploited populations in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Miguel Bernal, Marta Coll, Alessandro Orio, Pilar Hernndez and Roberto Emma GFCM - Palazzo Blumenstihl, Via Vittoria Colonna 1, 00193, Rome, Italy www.gfcm.org [email protected] Intro: Framework for advice on the GFCM GFCM - SAC Data limited situations EcAP (UNEP-MAP) - MSFD Good Environmental Status Unimpacted state Deviation from unimpacted state Sub GEnS Unacceptable degree of impact Destroyed/ irrecoverable GFCM - SAC Reference points
Defined in GFCM Guidelines for management plans (2012) Include limit, precautionary and target reference points, referring both to Biomass and Fishing mortality Similar to reference points for other RFMOs Framework for providing advice based on reference points proposed in 2014 Link between reference points and management measures (e.g. HCR) suggested in 2013 guidelines for transitory measures pending management plans, and also in first GFCM management plan (small pelagics in Adriatic Sea) GFCM Advice based on ref. points Unique Adopted by the SAC 2014 Only Biomass RP Precautionary Target, limit and threshold Advice
Unique Only Exploitation RP Both Biomass and Exploitation RP Unique B, unique F Harmonization of advice based on indicators and reference points Ideal situation based on indicators for both fishing pressure and biomass More precautionary advice if only one indicator or reduced set of reference points. GFCM Knowledge on the status of stocks 121 stock assessments carried out since 2007 (standard assessment form adopted) A total of 83 stocks assessed from 18 out 0f 30 GSAs Around 40 stocks assessed per year in the last two years, around 1415 % of the declared catches in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Few stocks biomass reference points (5 pelagic stocks + one shrimp stock). Bmsy from production models, Bpa from empirical
analysis. All demersal stocks with F0.1 reference point (only one pelagic stock). Generic exploitation rate reference point (EPatterson = 0.4) used for pelagic stocks GFCM Knowledge on the status of stocks Assessment results WGs 2014 Demersals stocks WGSAD & WGSABS 29 stocks assessed (26 Mediterranean + 3 Black Sea) 21 stocks were in overfishing status 3 sustainable exploited 3 where considered as qualitative assessments. Assessment results WGs 2014 Demersals stocks 11 species for a total of 26 assessments 6 stocks assessed: Merluccius merluccius, Mullus barbatus, Parapenaeus
The small pelagic + BS WG.. 6 species for a total of 16 assessments Engraulis encrasicolus: 6 (1 sustainably exploited) Sardina pilchardus: 6 (1 sustainably exploited) Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus: 1 Engraulis encrasicolus maeoticus: 1 Sprattus sprattus: 1 Sarda sarda: 1 GFCM Knowledge on the status Status of stocks of stocks in 2011 GFCM Knowledge on the status Status of stocks of stocks in 2013 Data limited situations Several existing frameworks: Productivity susceptibility analysis Risk Framework analysis
Analysis of time series (Biomass, Biomass proxies, CPUE, catches) ICES DLS framework Alternative indicators: Average length in the catches, distribution area GFCM will have a dedicated Workshop for data limited stocks in 2014 EcAP (UNEP-MAP) - MSFD (EU) Environmental Status GFCM is involved in the Ecosystem Approach Process (EcAP) of UNEP-MAP; definition of descriptor 3 EcAP is similar to MSFD, but involves all Members of the Barcelona Convention (all Mediterranean riparian states) Unimpacted state Deviation from unimpacted state Unacceptable degree of impact Destroyed/ irrecoverable
GEnS The EcAP descriptors, indicators and targets are supposed to be adopted by mid 2015 Sub GEnS GFCM proposed a first draft of indicators for Ecological Objective 3 (similar to Descriptor 3) in February 2014 first for a UNEP-MAP workshop and then to the GFCM Scientific Advisory Committee (doc available in the SAC list of docs) MSFD refers to relevant regional organisms including regional seas conventions in several articles (e.g. 6, 7) in order to coordinate with GFCM proposal for E3 of EcAP (UNEP-MAP) Document GFCM:SAC16/20 14/Inf.25 Includes operational objectives, list of species First two operational objectives approved, last ones should be further analysed 3.1 Level of exploitation by commercial fisheries allows populations to be within biological safe limits
Indicator Proposed GES Description Proposed Similar Targets indicato rs from other policies 3.1.1 Total catch State -CFP Regularly -Long-Term -MSFD monitored High Yields -IndiSeas by GFCM -Catch < MSY Total catch of commercial species does not exceed the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the by-catch is reduced. Description: Should ideally include landings by commercial fleet, recreational fishing, by catch and IUU estimates. Due to difficulties to calculate MSY, this should be a limit
Pressure -Reduction of IUU catch Minimizati on of discarding and by- Suggestion s for developme nt 3.1 Level of exploitation by commercial fisheries allows populations to be within biological safe limits 3.1.2 Fishing mortalit y Fishing mortality in the stock does Pressure -CFP not exceed the level that allows -MSFD -FMSY MSY (F FMSY). -F0.1 a proxy of FMSY (more Description: FMSY is consider as a precautiona limit. Only available if the stock ry)
has been assessed. Fishing mortality (F) reflects all deaths in the stock that are due to fishing per year (not only what is actually landed). It is common practice to refer F as a scalar value but it would be more appropriate to refer to it as a vector. Regularly monitored by GFCM 3.1 Level of exploitation by commercial fisheries allows populations to be within biological safe limits 3.1.3 Biomass indices Stable or increasing biomass indices (relative or absolute), with absolute value at or above biomass that produces MSY. Description: Biomass indices can be calculated when scientific surveys (trawling, acoustics, etc.) are available. Different targets can be used, such as acceptable stock size, safe biological limits, historical level of Catch per unit of effort (CPUE), Trend of CPUE increasing per year, Historical level of standardized index of
abundance form scientific surveys. In the Mediterranean Sea, regional data is not available for many species. State -CFP -Positive -MSFD trend -IndiSeas -Biomass at MSY (Bmsy) (when MSY available) Regional data is not available for many species 3.1 Level of exploitation by commercial fisheries allows populations to be within biological safe limits 3.1.4 Ratio between catch and biomass index (catch/bi
omass ratio) The catch/biomass ratio allows to Pressure recover the stock or to maintain it - Negative at a level where it can produce the trend MSY Description: The Catch/Biomass ratio should entail a low risk of collapse of the species, and a high probability of recovery of the stock. If the species is at risk, it should entail a low time frame of recovery. This indicator is linked with sustainable fishing. -CFP Regularly -MSFD monitored -IndiSeas by GFCM (but regional data for biomass not available for many species) 3.1 Level of exploitation by commercial fisheries allows populations to be within biological safe limits 3.1.5. Spatial distribu
tion of the populat ion The spatial distribution of the State population is maintained or - Positive -CFP-EC Regularly increases. trend -MSFD monitored by GFCM Description: It is important to know the spatial distribution of species: Species with wider distributions are less vulnerable to fishing. However, regional data is not always available. This indicator is linked with sustainable fishing and conservation of biodiversity. 3.2 The reproductive capacity of stocks is maintained 3.2.1. Length distributi on of the populatio n in the catch The mean size of organisms in the State
catch (Lt) is larger than the mean - Lt > Lm size at first maturity (Lm) 3.2.2 Spawnin g Stock Biomass (SSB) The Spawning Stock Biomass is at a level at which reproduction capacity is not impaired -CFP -MSFD Regularly monitored by GFCM -CFP -MSFD Regularly monitored by GFCM (only for fully assessed species) Description:. It can also be used to compare it with the minimum conservation size. Length
distribution will be available only for those target species with monitoring programs dedicated to collect length distribution data. Description: Only available if the stock has been assessed. BMSY are generally not available in the Med. When both 3.1.3 and 3.2.3 indicators are available (only for few species) the most precautionary will be adopted. State -B > Bthr (2xBlim) 3.3. The impact of fishing activities in the ecosystem is low 3.3.1. Mean Trophic Level of the catch (and communit y) The Mean Trophic Level does not decrease with time 3.3.2.
Proportio n of large fish in the catch (and the communit y) The proportion of large fish is maintained or increases with time State -Positive trend -MSFD -CBD -IndiSeas -OSPAR State -Positive trend -MSFD Currently -IndiSeas not monitored but likely feasible in the future (especially using catch
data) Description: Being used with the CBD and other programs. Time series of catch per species or biomass (tones) and trophic level of the species are needed. The trophic level per species can be obtained from FishBase, SeaLifeBase, or regional datasets and models. Description: The large fish indicator (LFI) reflects the size structure of the fish assemblage.For the Mediterranean Sea we need to define Large Fish. This indicator can be calculated from the catch and from Currently not monitored but likely feasible in the future (especially using catch data) 3.3. The impact of fishing activities in the ecosystem is low 3.3.3.
The proportion of predatory fish in State -MSFD Currently Proportio n of predator y fish in the catch (and in the communi ty) the population is maintained or increases with time 3.3.4. Proportio n of all exploited species with declining biomass in the The proportion of species with State -IndiSeas Currently declining biomass in the population -Negative not is reduced with time trend
monitored but likely Description: this indicator is based feasible in on data from 3.1.3 (Biomass the future if indices) and will be only calculated survey data when time series of survey available biomass of retained species is Description: This indicator complements 3.3.3 and uses time series of total catch and catch of predatory species. This indicator can be calculated from biomass surveys if data is available. The definition of predatory fish should be specifically defined for the Mediterranean region. -Positive trend -IndiSeas not monitored but likely feasible in the future (especially using catch data)
GFCM proposal for E3 of EcAP (UNEP-MAP) roup of species proposed (from GFCM Data Collection Reference Framework) Group I: Species that drive the fishery and for which assessment is regularly carried out. Group II: Species that are important in terms of landing and/or economic values at regional and subregional level and for which assessment is not regularly carried out. Group III: Species under international or national management plans; species under recovery and/or action plans for conservation. This Group 3 also contains a list of non-indigenous species with the greatest potential impact. Vulnerable species: List of endangered or threatened species included in the Appendix II-III of the SPA/BD Protocol of the Barcelona Convention (Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean). Operationa Indicator l objective Species included GES general objective Biodiversity components Costeffective
3.1.1 Total catch -Priority species (I-II-III) -Vulnerable species - exploited Regularly populations monitored - communities by GFCM - ecosystem 3.1.2 Fishing mortality -Priority species (I) -Sustainable fishing Conservation of biodiversity -Sustainable fishing 3.1.3 Biomass indices -Priority species (I-II-III)
-Vulnerable species 3.1.4 Ratio between catch and biomass index (catch/biomass ratio) -Priority species (I-II-III) -Vulnerable species -Sustainable fishing - exploited populations - communities - ecosystem 3.1.5. Spatial distribution of the -Priority species (I-II) -Sustainable fishing - exploited populations
Potential overlap with Common Indicators ial fisheries allows populations to be within biological safe limits GFCM proposal for E3 of EcAP (UNEP-MAP) - exploited populations Regularly monitored by GFCM (only for fully assessed species) -Sustainable - exploited Regional fishing populations data is not - communities available for Conservation - ecosystem many of species biodiversity
Common indicator 4 (population abundance) Regularly monitored by GFCM (but regional data for biomass not available for many species) Regional Common data is not indicator 3 stem is low 3.2. The reproductive capacity of stocks is maintained Operatio Indicator nal objective Species included GES general Biodiversit Cost-effective objective y component s
Potential overlap with Common Indicators - exploited Regularly monitored Common populations by GFCM indicator 5 (population communities demographi c characterist ics) - exploited Regularly monitored populations by GFCM (only for fully assessed species) 3.2.1. Length distribution of the population in the catch -Priority species (I-II) -Sustainable fishing
3.2.2 Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) -Priority species (I-II) -Sustainable fishing 3.3.1. Mean Trophic Level of the catch (and community) -Priority species (I-II-III) -Vulnerable species -Sustainable fishing -Conservation of biodiversity 3.3.2. Proportion -Priority species -Sustainable - exploited populations
communities - ecosystem - exploited Currently not monitored but likely feasible in the future (especially using catch data) Currently not MedSuit project Joint project with the Italian Ministry of Environment related to the status of commercially exploited population in the Mediterranean, the MSDF and the EcAP Analyse differences between assessment on the status of stocks from GFCM, MSFD, EcAP Propose harmonization on areas with shared stocks between EU and non-EU countries A regional workshop is expected to be launched in 2014 (TBD) which should, inter alia, launch a regional case study (possibly in the Adriatic Sea) GENERAL FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN Thank you for your attention ! Workshop on marine environment and fisheries CFP & MSFD Brussels, 3rd - 4th April 2014
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