Forced Migration Case Study: Zimbabwe to South Africa

Forced Migration Case Study: Zimbabwe to South Africa

Higher Geography Hydrosphere Hydrographs [Date] Today I will: - Be able to construct and understand flood hydrographs Higher Geography Hydrosphere What is a hydrograph? A hydrograph is a graph showing the rate of flow (discharge) versus time past a specific point in a river. The rate of flow is typically expressed in cubic meters (m3). They are used to show how rivers respond to a flood. Hydrographs are used to help predict flooding events therefore influence implementation of flood prevention measures. Higher Geography

Hydrosphere Higher Geography Hydrosphere Higher Geography Hydrosphere Basin lag time Peak flow Rising limb lim Overland flow ion ess 2 c Re b

Discharge (m3/s) 3 mm 4 1 Through flow 3 2 0 Base flow 12 24 36 48 30 72 Hours from start of rain storm Discharge (m3/s)

3 The discharge of the river is measured in cumecs - this stands for cubic metres per second 2 1 0 12 24 36 48 30 Hours from start of rain storm 72 Rainfall expressed

in mm Discharge (m3/s) 3 2 mm 4 1 3 2 0 12 24 36 48 30 72 Hours from start of rain storm Discharge in m3/s, as a line graph

Discharge (m3/s) 3 2 mm 4 1 3 2 0 12 24 36 48 Hours from start of rain storm 30 72

Rising li Discharge (m3/s) mb 3 2 The rising limb is when the normal (base) flow of the river starts to rise when run-off, ground and soil water reaches the river. mm 4 1 3 2 0

12 24 36 48 30 72 Hours from start of rain storm Peak flow Rising limb Discharge (m3/s) 3 2 Peak flow is when the Maximum discharge in the river, the time when the river reaches its highest flow mm 4

1 3 2 0 12 24 36 48 30 72 Hours from start of rain storm Peak flow The recession limb shows that water is still reaching the river but in decreasing amounts nl b im mm

s io Rising limb s ce 2 Re Discharge (m3/s) 3 4 1 3 2 0 12 24 36 48

30 72 Hours from start of rain storm Basin lag time Peak flow lim Rising limb ion ess 2 c Re b Discharge (m3/s) 3 mm 4

1 3 2 0 12 24 36 48 30 72 Hours from start of rain storm The basin lag time is the time it takes for the water to find its way to the river Basin lag time Peak flow lim Rising limb

ion ess 2 c Re b Discharge (m3/s) 3 mm 4 1 3 2 0 Base flow 12

24 36 48 30 72 Hours from start of rain storm Base Flow is the normal discharge of the river Overland flow Basin lag time Peak flow Through flow Rising limb lim Overland flow b mm 4

Through flow 3 2 0 = ion ess 2 c Re Discharge (m3/s) 3 1 + Base flow 12

24 36 48 30 72 Hours from start of rain storm Storm Flow Higher Geography Hydrosphere Read the information on page 230 and 231 of the NWW Textbook. Copy the table below into your jotter and fill in the information gathered. Reasons for Differences in Flood Hydrographs LONG LAG TIME SHORT LAG TIME Higher Geography Hydrosphere Can you label 1 to 8 accurately? 7.

1. 6. 5. 4. 2. 3. 8. River discharge (cumecs) Rainfall (mm) Peak rainfall Falling limb Rising limb Lag time Peak discharge Time

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