Flatworms, Roundworms, & Segmented Worms

Flatworms, Roundworms, & Segmented Worms

Flatworms, Roundworms, & Segmented Worms Phylum Platyhelminthes

Flatworms Flat and thin bodies Bilateral symmetry Most are parasitic Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms include planarians, flukes, and tapeworms 20,000 species of flatworms

Miscellaneous Information- Flatworms Movement- use of moving bodies of water or damp soil, or larger animals transporting them Nutrition- parasitic; the flatworm will take in food through same opening it eliminates waste Circulatory system- Gastrovascular cavity with one opening Digestion and excretion occur through same opening

Reproduction- flatworm splits in two forming a new flatworm Tapeworms Information Can get tapeworm infection by ingestion of food or water contaminated with tapeworm eggs or larvae

Can cause intestinal infections Symptoms- poor appetite, diarrhea, weakness, gastrointestinal discomfort Phylum Nematoda Roundworms

Ex. Pinworms and hookworms 90,000 species of nematodes Bilateral Symmetry Live in wet soil or water Eat dead leaves and other materials Some eat insects that

destroy plant roots Some destroy plant roots Flatworm Head Head holds attachment hooks for host attachment 2 eyespots to help detect light

Also contains brain called 2 simple brains called ganglia- simple bundles of nerves Phylum Nematoda Some roundworms can live in

humans and make them sick Roundworms have a complete digestive tract with 2 openings Nervous System of Roundworms Two nerve cords that transmit impulses in the

roundworm Miscellaneous Information- Roundworms Reproduction- sexually, eggs deposited in soil after fertilization Bilateral symmetry No formal respiration, circulation, skeletal systems

Phylum Nematoda Phylum Annelida Annelids are segmented worms Bodies are divided into many sections or segments Live in moist soil, freshwater, or saltwater 15,000+ species of annelids Examples: earthworms and leeches

Phylum Annelida Earthworms Have bristlelike Setae on each segment- helps in movement Tunnel through soil to eat small pieces of food Tunnels will loosen the soil and allow air to enter which helps plants to grow

Leeches and Us Used in medicinal treatment Abscesses, painful joints, glaucoma, myasthenia, and to heal venous diseases and thrombosis Phylum Annelida Miscellaneous Information- Segmented

Worms Nervous system- ganglia nerve centers in each segment that are connected by nerve cords to brain Closed circulatory system- like humans Gas exchange through skin- need for worm to live near water Digestion- complete internal digestive tract that runs length of body Gizzard- muscular sac and hard particles help grind soil and food

before they pass into intestine Nephridia- collect/remove waste from each segment Pg. 731 is a good reference for earthworm body Miscellaneous Information- Segmented Worms Reproduction- Hermaphrodites Produce both eggs and sperm

Phylum Annelida Leeches Eat small invertebrates Can attach to skin of vertebrates and feed on its blood Anesthetics in chemicals of bite to prevent pain Leech secretes chemical so blood does not clot Bilateral Symmetry and Body Plans

All bilaterally symmetrical animals developed from 3 embryonic cell layers: Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm 3 types- Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates, Coelomates

Acoelomates Develop from the 3 layers but have no body cavities Digestive tract extends throughout body May have been first group of animals to evolve Ex. Flatworms Acoelomates

Pseudocoelomates Develop from the 3 layers BUT also has a space that develops between the endoderm and mesoderm- called a pseudocoelom (difference between flatworm and roundworm) Pseudocoelomates

Coelomates Body cavities form from Coelom (fluid filled space that is completely surrounded by mesoderm where specialized organs and organ systems, serves to cushion and protect organs) Humans, insects, fishes Example: Earthworm

Greatest diversity among animals Coelomates Earthworm Compare and Contrast Flatworm and Earthworm digestive tracts One opening to flatworms digestive tract (pharynx)

Earthworms digestive tract has 2 openings (mouth and anus) 3 types of worms Segmented Worms Roundworms Flatworms

Phylum Annelida Phylum Nematoda Phylum Platyhelminthes Segmented/sectioned bodies, bilateral symmetry

Bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry, flat and thin bodies Moist soil, freshwater, or saltwater

Wet soil or water Parasitic- live inside a host or in water Complete digestive tract- 2 openings (mouth and anus) Complete digestive tract

with 2 openings (mouth and anus) Pseudocoelomate- develop from 3 layers, with space between endoderm and mesoderm called Pseudocoelom One digestive opening

(pharynx) Pinworms, hookworms planarians, flukes and tapeworms Coelomate- form from coelom (fluid filled space

surrounded by mesoderm) Earthworms, leeches Acoelomate- develop from 3 layers but have no body cavities

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