Warm-up: AP Lang Prompt: What do you know about arguments, persuasion, or the world of rhetoric? Regardless of the extent of your knowledge, answer the above questions. Prepare to share with the class. Day 2 Unit One: Rhetorical Strategies and Persuasion Ethos, Pathos, Logos; Aristotles influence; visual arguments
Argumentation What is an argument? An argument is to use evidence and reason to discover some new version of the truth. An argument can be any text (written, spoken, or visual) that expresses a point of view. Sometimes these can be blunt and aggressive designed to change beliefs and actions, or they can be more subtle with the purpose to convince yourself and others your view should be considered. Types of Arguments
Arguments that: Persuade Convince Inform Explore issues/beliefs Decide positions Call for meditation/prayer Arguments about: The Past (forensic) The Future (deliberative) The Present (ceremonial)
Fact Definition Evaluation/Causality Proposal Toulmins Analysis of Rhetoric Toulmins Analysis Basic Parts of an Argument Women You should should buy buy
our our toothslimming jeans! whitening product! Studies 9 out of show 10 women that teeth are feel50% more whiter confident after
using and look ourslimmer! product! Clai m Data Warra nt whiter People want to feel teethduh!
secure and slim. Further Examples Identify each part and determine the warrants. You should purchase Under Armour athletic wear because they keep the body cool and insulated when active. College students should have an iPad because course texts can all be purchased and stored in one, easy to organize place. Also provided is internet access and Microsoft Office programs. People should conserve energy and recycle to fight global warming.
Questions to Consider What exactly qualifies as data? How do you accurately support a claim? Clai m Data Warra
nt How do you know what a warrant is, especially if its not stated? Assessing a Claim What is the writers message? What is he/she trying to convey? Consider the types of arguments. Claim The claim is, in essence, the
thesis of a writers body of work. That thesis then has to be supported if there is to be any form of success. Assessing Data What is the writers support? What reasons are given? What evidence is presented? Consider the authenticity of data. Data
Is it legit, or is it a bunch of bologna? Examples: statistics, surveys, research, expert testimony, first hand experience, general consensus. In order for a claim to have weight, the data must be reliable, supportive, and work in favor. Assessing a Warrant Warra nt
What is being assumed here? What is it about the audience and/ or the situation that makes this possible? The warrant is the link between the claim and the data. The weakest part of any argument is the weakness of any warrant. Warrant (or assumptions) make or break an argument. Refuting Arguments A lot of what you see and read today is accepted
without question. TV ads, conversations, teacher lectures, newspaper articles, etc. Using Toulmins model, you can accomplish two things: Identify the basic elements of an argument being made. Test and critique your own arguments. Which will be a huge factor when writing argumentative papers. There are three more elements to Toulmins model to discuss Toulmins Model A statement
about how strong the claim is. Qualifi er Rebutt al An exception(s) to a claim. Data Clai
m Warra nt Backin g The need (if arisen) to support, or back, a warrant or assumption. You should buy our teeth-whitening product because it removes 50% of surface stains after just one use! Qualifier: If a company claims that stains on teeth are caused by drinking coffee, a qualified claim may state that the most
significant cause of stained teeth is coffee. It may not be the only cause, but it helps qualify a statement to be more accurate and therefore helps to appeal to the audience more to accomplish the goal. Rebuttal: There is almost always an exception. For this, there may be coffee that doesnt stain teeth. Therefore, the rebuttal (or exception) would be coffee is the major cause of stained teeth except for those coffee drinkers who drink special nonteeth staining coffee. Other staining from lack of proper brushing, smoking, or bacteria can occur. You should buy our teeth-whitening product because it removes 50% of surface stains after just one use! Backing: Sometimes the warrant is unimportant; other times it not broadly understood or accepted. In this
case, a speaker/writer may have to defend a warrant. For this example, a company could back the warrant by saying whiter teeth will give you more dates or help you look better in yearbook photos. Toulmin Argument: Practice College students should have an iPad because course texts can all be purchased and stored in one, easy to organize place. Also provided is internet access and Microsoft Office programs. People should conserve energy and recycle to fight global warming. 1. Develop appropriate qualifiers, rebuttals, and backings for each scenario above. To effectively accomplish this, you may want/need to develop a more
detailed example of the advertisement briefly outlined above. 2. Develop an argument of your own. Explicitly label the product, intended audience, and write the full advertisement. Then, further develop qualifiers, rebuttals, and backings that you could use to fight off audiences that many not be convinced. Tonights Homework Watch various television channels and analyze the commercials found in the breaks of each program. Select one commercial to identify the basic elements of arguments according to Toulmins method. Reflect on your thoughts towards the effectiveness and purpose of the chosen commercial. Develop rebuttals to the claims. Record, email a link (that can be accessed in class), or
bring a print copy or transcript of the commercial to our next class. End of Class Discussion What are the various types of arguments? What are the three parts to an argument? What are the three sub-components to an argument? Where is this taking us and how does this apply to written text? Warm-up: AP Lang Prompt: Consider an argument youve had with a parent or an authority.
Narrate the experience, and then label the parts of the argument, develop qualifiers, rebuttals, and backings. Prepare to share. Personal Example: Upon graduating college and getting this job, I moved back in with my mother and stepdad for six days. An argument developed between in regards to me getting my own place. My claim: I needed my own place.
Data: My desire for independence and my financial stability. Warrant: I assumed it would be understood and agreed upon. Day 3 Sharing of Homework Procedure: Share with the class your chosen commercial. Either show the clip/display or read the transcript to the class. Identify the parts to the argument according to Toulmin. Consider the types of arguments discussed in our last class. A few students will be asked to share the advertisement to allow the class to identify the parts of the argument for practice.
Discussion of what we learned about the nature of television arguments. Todays work session on how to create an effective argument. Types of Arguments Arguments that: Persuade Convince Inform Explore issues/beliefs Decide positions Call for meditation/prayer
Arguments about: The Past (forensic) The Future (deliberative) The Present (ceremonial) Fact Definition Evaluation/Causality Proposal Questions to address: What is the purpose of the argument? Who is this argument intended for? What makes this argument effective?
Origins of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos About 2,500 years ago, philosopher Aristotle published On Rhetoric as a guide to being a successful speaker and writer. His ideas of ethos, pathos and logos were so instrumental and successful that they remain our pillars of effective persuasion and argumentation used today. To make our time in this course successful, we must spend the beginning days focusing on understanding, identifying, enhancing, and then using each of these pillars effectively. Ethos
Ethos is the rhetorical strategy to assess a speaker or writers credibility. Without credibility, there is no merit. There are many questions to consider to determine your credibility: Does the audience respect you? Does the audience believe you are of good character? Does the audience believe you are generally trustworthy? Does the audience believe you are an authority on this topic? Do you know what youre talking about?
Aristotle claimed we are more likely to believe people who have good character. Do I Have Ethos? Where do I rank in terms of ethos? Consider the following: Why? A substitute teacher filling in for me. A teacher who is appointed to the position of principal. A principal appointed to school superintendent. A business CEO Who is CEO over a cigarette company?
Who is speaking to middle school students about not smoking? Ethos, contd Trustworthiness is a huge factor. Is the speaker/writer honest? Ethical? Moral? Generous? The audience tends to trust a subject more if that person can identify or belong to a group with which these qualities are often associated. Examples: Discuss the merit and trustworthiness of the following. A pastor delivering a sermon versus someone passing out religious flyers. An article about bravery written by a firefighter versus a pet shop owner.
Ethos, contd Credibility can also occur thanks to similarities shared between the audience and the speaker or writer. Similarities to consider include: age, gender, race, culture, socio-economic status, citizenship, career, education, and personality. Examples: Determine the level of ethos of the following. Do you share any similarities with these subjects? A high school drop out writing about missed opportunities. A stay at home mother writing about creating a successful at-home business. A high school drop out writing about why students should go to college. Are these people credible and trustworthy? Why/not? Ethos, contd
Trustworthiness and credibility are important factors, but two factors not found in Aristotles time are authority and expertise. Authority refers to the relationship between the speaker/writer and the audience. This includes the following: Organizational authority (business CEO, manager, supervisor) Political authority (president or political leader) Religious authority (priest, pastor, nun) Educational authority (principal, teacher, professor)
Elder authority (anyone who is older than us as an individual) The greater ones authority, the higher the likelihood the audience is inclined to read or listen and to be persuaded. Ethos, contd. Reputation or expertise is the fourth and final component of ethos as developed by Aristotle. Expertise is what you (or a speaker/writer) knows about a topic. Reputation is what the audience knows about a topic. Reputation is determined by several factors:
Experience in the field outlined in the topic years of study. Proximity to the topic level of involvement, the person responsible, etc. Production in the field published, authored, created anything related. Achievements and recognition awards won, testimonials earned, records achieved. Demonstrated skill if youre discussing money management, are you in debt? How do these characteristics combine? Ethos cannot be assessed with a checkbox (Yes, you have ethos! or No, you dont. Sorry.) like you can with other things. Its more like beauty in the sense that theres a whole range of beauty and many ways to obtain
it, and its in the eye of the beholder (which in this respect is the audience). Ethos: Practice To practice the necessary skills of identifying and discussing elements of ethos (and pathos and logos to come), consider the following three examples of a speaker and audience. Study each scenario and use your notes to identify the various elements to each relationship that work to help establish proper ethos. A CEO speaking to her employees. A U.S. President giving the State of the Union address. A Teacher speaking to his students.
Ethos: Practice #1: A CEO speaking to her employees. As the CEO, she has organizational authority as the boss of all bosses in the company, and this is usually accompanied by a reputation built on years of success within the company. She has worked her way from a simple employee over her years devoted to this job. However, she may not be very similar to most of the employees (older than most; richer than most; perhaps more reserved and analytical). Nonetheless, her trustworthiness is solid based on past history of honest communication with employees. Ethos: Practice #2: The U.S. President giving the State of the Union
address. The President has more authority than most people on the planet based on his job title. His reputation and trustworthiness probably depend a fair bit on your political beliefs. If you are of the same political party, there will be a higher level of trustworthiness compared to the president being of a different affiliation as you identify. As for similarity to his audience, its a mixed bag: Hes American, and hes not too old nor too young. But, hes a politician and in a socioeconomic class which puts him apart from most citizens. The older he is, the more likely he will identify with a higher percentage of older Americans who could cite many parts of his past and reputation that has led him to this political throne. Consider President Obama and Senator McCain. Ethos: Practice #3: A Teacher speaking to his students.
He probably has a record of trustworthiness, as long as he truthfully announces when assignments are due, when exams are scheduled, and following through with promises. He has authority over the 16-year-olds, both by way of position and by age. He has taught in the school for many years (expertise), including many of his students older siblings or current friends (reputation). If older, hes not really similar to his students in terms of age, wealth, career, or choice of music; however, current younger teachers are more similar to students, especially if they return to teach in the area in which they grew up in. Consider teachers that you have each had or currently have. Ethos: Practice Reflection Respond to the following questions on your
ethos practice sheet: What did this activity show you about the nature of individuals determining ethos? Consider your last assignment where you had to select a commercial to analyze the parts of an argument. Determine the level of ethos those responsible for your commercial have. Tonights Homework Review over the notes you have taken in this course so far. Be sure to look over elements and definitions of argument according to Toulmin and Aristotle. Expect a quiz next class. Now is the time to clear up any confusion or
questions you have on this. Warm-up: AP Lang Prompt: Read the following quotation by famous American psychologist William James, and then consider the following questions. Quote: The emotions arent always immediately subject to reason, but they are always
immediately subject to action. Questions: What is James argument about the nature of emotions? Identify two situations to which James quotation Day 4 Todays Lesson AP Language Quiz #1 Notes and discussion of pathos and logos. Activities and exercises to practice ethos, pathos, logos. Introduction to OPTIC strategy of analyzing visual arguments.
Activity review of Toulmin and Aristotle practices. Closing and assigning of homework. AP Lang Quiz #1 Get out a sheet of paper and label according: AP Lang Quiz #1 (top line by left margin), your name on next line, date (MM/DD/YY format) and class period both on next line (third line). On this paper, answer the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What are Toulmins six considerations to every argument? Which are Aristotles four components to ethos?
Create a RLE of someone considered to have positive ethos. Create a RLE of someone who could have negative ethos. When finished, turn your paper over and remain quiet until instructed to move on to the next step. You may get out extra paper to prepare taking todays notes on pathos and logos. What is Pathos? Pathos is the quality of persuasion which appeals to the emotions of the audience; derived from Ancient Greek words for suffering and experience. Common words from the same root used frequently today: Pathology: describing the source of a patients disease or suffering. Empathy: the ability to share the emotions of another person. Sympathy: similar ability to share emotions, usually negative ones such as pain or sadness.
Antipathy: equates with strong, negative emotions toward another. Pathetic: something likely to arouse compassion or contempt. Question: What do each of these words have in common aside from simple emotion? Each focus on the concept of sharing. Pathos Using pathos connects to audiences by allowing them to feel their pain to build a bridge of trustworthiness. Using pathos ties readers into the topic so that they can identify with the shared experience, thus forming a connection that allows for persuasion, argument, or other action. Also, using emotional appeals helps make logical
claims stronger or more memorable. Photos and advertisements achieve this almost Pathos, contd. However, pathos without a rooted foundation is disaster. Making an audience angry is useless; instead, make them angry and direct that anger to the topic of your writing. Just as having high ethos can make an audience more likely to be persuaded, the same regard can be applied to pathos. With the proper use of pathos, audiences will: Be more likely to understand a perspective (via the shared emotion or experience). Be more likely accept claims being made. Be more likely to act on a call-to-action being made.
Pathos in Use Knowing what emotion is and how to identify it is relatively simple. Knowing when and how to use it effectively is key. #1 Word Choice Some words are emotionally neutral while others are emotionally charged. When analyzing speeches and nonfiction, make note of a writers diction (word choice) that adds power, punch, and convey emotion. The use of vivid, sensory words allows audiences to feel emotions associated to those words. (the touch of grandpas flannel shirt) Discuss: Consider the difference in words used to label a suicide bomber on opposing sides of a political war. What emotion does the label terrorist evoke? What emotion does the label martyr evoke? Pathos in Use, contd.
#2 Analogies and Metaphors Analogies, metaphors, and other figures of speech not only add interest, but often makes an emotional connection by tapping into emotions already felt by an audience. Example: If you speak about gang violence, you might plainly state that We have a problem in our city On the other hand, you might say We have a cancer in our city The latter analogy draws on your audiences preexisting feelings about cancer, and makes them want to eradicate the cause! Practice: What other analogies/metaphors could you use? Pathos in Use, contd. #3 Storytelling/Anecdotes Stories are often the quickest path to the greatest emotional connection with an audience. Carefully crafted stories allow one to evoke any of a wide range of emotions which explains why stories
are often the most memorable components of a speech. #4 Humor Humor is closely related to storytelling, because you usually arrive at humor through stories. Nonetheless, humor merits special mention. Humor in a presentation evokes emotions such as joy and surprise, and often triggers secondary emotions such as calmness and friendship. If an audience is laughing, they are having fun. If they are having fun, they are happy to be listening to you and they are attentive. As an added boost, humor makes your audience like you (at least for a moment), and that boosts your ethos too. Pathos in Use, contd. #5 Use of Visuals Saying smoking damages lung tissues is almost ineffective compared to showing an image of
blackened lungs due to smoking. Visuals quickly evoke vast amounts of emotions and are concise arguments that appeal to a large variety of audiences. In a digital and visual 21st century, visuals are utilized to extremes. Logos Logos is the Greek root word from which the English logic is derived. Therefore, logos refers to logical reasoning of a speech or writing. To be able to understand and evaluate ones logos, one must understand the two flavors of logical reasoning: 1) Deductive Reasoning
2) Inductive Reasoning Flavors of Logos #1-- Deductive Reasoning: Claim + claim = a true conclusion. The key is that in a deductive argument, if your claims are true, then your conclusion must be true. For example, consider the following deductive argument: Audiences hate all boring things. (claim) Bullet-point slides are boring. (claim) Therefore, audiences hate bullet-point slides. (conclusion) So, if audiences hate boring things (yes!) and if bullet-point slides are boring (yes!), then audiences must hate bulletpoint slides. Claims will also be referred to as premises from time to time.
Flavors of Logos, contd. Deductive Example #2 Students hate boring work. (claim) Worksheets are boring. (claim) Therefore, students are bored with worksheets. (conclusion) So, if students hate being bored in school (yes!) and if worksheets are boring (yes!), then students must hate worksheets. Practice: Create a deductive example of your own. Use claims not shown in these two examples, and prepare to share. Flavors of Logos, contd. #2-- Inductive Reasoning: Claim + claim = a conclusion (not guaranteed to be true)
Deductive vs. Inductive reasoning = the conclusion is not guaranteed to be true in inductive reasoning. It can only be stated with some degree of confidence. For example, consider the following inductive argument: All People Magazine articles you have read in the past were insightful. (claim) This is a People Magazine article. (claim) Therefore, this article is insightful. (conclusion) Given these claims, it is reasonable to expect that this article will be insightful, but it cannot be stated with certainty and it must be inferred. Practice: Create an induductive example of your own. Use claims not shown in todays examples, and prepare to share. Wrapping Up Logos
Dont be overwhelmed by the scenario. Its not as complicated as it appears. Practice and focus will make this easier, as will remembering the following three principles of logos: 1. Logos is Understandable: Whatever arguments are employed by a writer, they have to be easily understood by the audience if they can be persuasive. 2. Logos is Logical: Arguments must stand up under the deductive and inductive reasoning that audiences will be using. Look to see if premises have holes in them, and create competing arguments to challenge the reasoning.
3. Logos is Real: Premises which are based on concrete and specific facts and examples tend to be accepted quicker than premises which are abstract and general. The more easily premises are accepted, the more easily the conclusions will be as well. Toulmin + Aristotle = MASTERY I am a substitute teacher filling in your Calculus class. I am 65 years old and have been substituting at RHS for almost a decade. Students are in the room awaiting my arrival, and as soon as I enter the class shares the same reaction. Girls: Develop two contrasting biographies in which I am
considered to have high ethos and low ethos. Boys: Construct an argument that could be presented to me (the substitute) in attempt to change todays lesson plans. Create a deductive and an inductive example. When finished, rummage through available magazines in the back of the room and select one to take back with you to your desk. Check to make sure there are numerous ads in your magazine. Closing Activity Select one advertisement from your magazine to complete an analysis. Use the OPTIC strategy to begin studying visuals as arguments. O is for overviewwrite down a few notes on what the visual appears to be about. P is for partszero in on the parts of the visual. Write down any
elements or details that seem important. T is for titlehighlight the words of the title of the visual (if one is available). I is for interrelationshipsuse the title as the theory and the parts of the visual as clues to detect and specify the interrelationships in the graphic. C is for conclusiondraw a conclusion about the visual as a whole. What does the visual mean? Summarize the message of the visual in one or two sentences. Tonights Homework Using your notes on ethos, pathos, and logos, complete the following with your selected magazine: Select at least five advertisements found in your magazine. Analyze each ad using the OPTIC strategy. List successful appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos as outlined by
Aristotle found in each ad in regards to the audience you identified. Take into consideration text, images, color, and wording when analyzing. Use Toulmins structure of argumentation to assess the intended audience and purpose for the advertisement, and then determine the ads success. Format: List the page number of your ad or remove it from the magazine to turn in with your written work. The depth of your work is most important and should take up one full page of notebook paper per advertisement. Thats minimal standards. Warm-up: AP Lang
Just do it (Nike) Think different (Apple) Yes we can! (Obama campaign) Prompt: Read the following slogans and sales pitches. To Country first (McCain campaign) what specific emotions (pathos) does each phrase Have it your way appeal? What is the (Burger King) argument of each? Also evaluate the logos of each. Its everywhere you
Respond with depth in want to be (Visa) sentence form and prepare to share. By any means necessary (Malcolm X Day 5 Sharing of Homework Procedure: Select one of your advertisements to share with the class. Bring your advertisement up to project with the class. Evaluate each projected advertisement and assess the following: What type of argument is this ad? (Refer to your early
notes). What is the intended audience of the ad? Use the OPTIC strategy to analyze the visual. What data supports the claim? Why is this argument warranted? Is the advertisement effective? To what appeals of ethos, pathos, and logos are found? Todays Lesson Sharing of homework. Assigning and introduction to Everythings An Argument Portfolio Project. Begin viewing Al Gores An Inconvenient Truth documentary. Introductory unit review of Toulmin and Aristotelian techniques of argumentation and rhetoric.
Review of terms before beginning documentary. Closing and assigning of homework. Everythings An Argument Portfolio You will collect a visual images to build a portfolio to demonstrate your understanding of analyzing and discussing arguments according to Toulmin, Aristotle, and the OPTIC strategy. Review the project handout and project any questions that you have on the assignment. Due date: Your tangible portfolio should be some folder or small binder that can organize your papers to submit to me that I can keep to grade.
Example Logos Scenario Scenario: A speaker is trying to convince an audience to try a new weight-loss diet. He (the speaker) claims that the new diet reduces hunger. (claim A) That reducing hunger will reduce caloric intake. (claim B) That reducing caloric intake will cause weight loss. (claim C) The audience concludes that the new diet will cause weight loss. (This is a sound, deductive conclusion which must be true if claims A, B and C are true.) Using rebuttals suggested by Toulmin, what could the audience be thinking? Every diet I have tried in the past has failed miserably. (claim D) This new diet is like those failed diets. (claim E)
Therefore, this new diet will fail miserably. (This is a reasonable inductive conclusion drawn from premises D and E.) Example Logos Scenario Because the audiences conclusion is based on strong, emotional experiences (i.e. a failed diet is emotional), it has high pathos and probably trumps the conclusion. Since the audience has to resolve these conflicting conclusions, they will look to the arguments for flaws. Although the deductive conclusion is sound, they will doubt the claims: Im always hungry when I am on a diet! (counters claim A) But if my caloric intake drops, I wont have enough energy to exercise, and Ill gain weight! (counters claim C)
How can this scenario be successful? Develop backings to support warrants. You can boost your argument by providing supporting facts, diet research, or even your personal success story with the new diet. You also must show why this new diet is unlike all those past failed diets. If successful, you would significantly cast doubt on premise E, and their entire inductive argument. Ethos, Pathos, Logos: An Activity Use your detailed notes and your outline page to list and analyze the multiple, various elements of rhetoric used by Al Gore in his Academy Award winning documentary
An Inconvenient Truth. Be sure to label appropriately and be prepared to discuss. Use the organizational guide to ensure you hit all areas. Closing/Tonights Homework Reactions to An Inconvenient Truth. Questions? Tonights homework: Research reviews of An Inconvenient Truth from a variety of sources. You may use internet movie databases (i.e., Rotten Tomates) to gather critiques. Also be sure to include reviews from reputable critics (i.e., from New York Times, Chicago Tribune, Robert Ebert, and other well-known publications). Write a reflection on the common similarities you find from
reviewers. To accomplish this, read at least 10 different critiques from a variety of sources. Bring to class quotes from critics/reviews you find most compelling. You can handwrite this on your reflection, but be sure to include the reviews author and source. Warm-up: AP Lang Study the movie poster for Al Gores An Inconvenient Truth. What argument(s) is being made with this picture? What appeals are made to make this argument? How does this relate to the evidence presented in his documentary?
Day 6 Todays Lesson Sharing of warm-up and last nights homework. Continue viewing of An Inconvenient Truth. Continue to complete your outline on rhetorical strategies. Discussion of An Inconvenient Truth. Activity: Aristotle and the Power of X. Discussion of humor and ridicule as rhetoric. Humor and Ridicule Two very powerful, engaging, and often successful tactics to connect to audiences. The message behind ridicule is blatant,
sometimes unrelenting, and rarely vague. Techniques involving ridicule often come from opinions from sources that are not afraid of sharing arguments. If the purpose is to win over an audience of opposing beliefs, ridicule is a quick way to alienate. If targeted to an audience in agreement of belief, ridicule can empower and persuade. Tonights Homework Spend some time looking for arguments that use ridicule and humor to make their point. Check your favorite Web sites, watch for bumper stickers, posters, or advertisements; listen to popular song lyrics and search newspapers for cartoons.
Bring three various examples to our next class and be ready to explain how the humor makes an emotional appeal and whether its effective in regards to the audience you identify. Use the OPTIC strategy and other class techniques Warm-up: AP Lang Prompt: Study the following images. Use the OPTIC strategy to assess the intent of the image. Then, determine the source, the audience, and the success of the image.
Day 7 Todays Lesson Review of humor and ridicule by sharing of homework. Introduction of first course paper. Transition from visual text to written text as rhetoric. Course student-teacher conferences. During this time, you will have the remainder of class to read your independent novel. Argumentative Paper #1 Due: Assess An Inconvenient Truth as a success or failure of argumentation. Use your rhetorical notes, rhetorical strategies, class discussions, and
independent research to write a paper where you qualify either one of these beliefs. Locate at least one reputable outside source to support your opinion. Format: Two pages minimum, double-spaced, MLA format, parenthetical citations and bibliography, printed copies of internet sources, Times New Roman 12pt font. From Visual Images to Textual Arguments A transition. Introductory Activity Write a letter to your parents where you try to convince them to agree with you that one of their
rules should be changed. On the back, write a letter to a friend in which you discuss the argument you selected above. Discuss your opinions on the rule, why you feel that it should be changed, and that you addressed these desires with your parents. Be sure to write as if this were currently happening meaning, imagine what you would say and how you would say it to both audiences. Follow-up to Activity Sharing of student letters. DICTION Exercise: Analyze the words you choice to convey your arguments in both letters. What do you notice about your choice of words?
How do your word choices change from one letter to the other? SYNTAX Exercise: Analyze the construction of your sentences in both letters. Are they similar or different? Long or sort? Complex or simple? Diction and Syntax in Rhetoric Chosen words (diction) and the structure of sentences (syntax) are two elements of style employed by writers when writing to argue. To add depth to your analyzing of ethos, pathos, and logos look at a writers diction and syntax to evidence to your claims. The rest of todays work session will involve
reviewing familiar vocabulary to use to analyze written arguments, as well as acquiring new vocabulary. Terminology Review The following terms you should know AlliterationAssonance Hyperbole Metaphor PersonificationSimile And other examples of Figurative Language is Rhetoric? Yes. Even though this course will focus on nonfiction (essays,
speeches, memoirs) the use of figurative language can help establish and deepen a writers use of pathos, for example. Also, in order to increase logos, writers may employ various strategies of figurative language, such as metaphors and similes, to compare their arguments to positive, successful examples. Furthermore, the use of humor and ridicule will find excessive use of figurative language to dilute strong claims. Even on your AP exam you may be asked about figurative language strategies or even choose to focus on an essayists use of personification in an essay to explain successful rhetoric. Discussion Question: How does figurative language contribute to
rhetoric and persuasion? New Vocabulary Acquisition 1. Anadiplosis: "Kinetic energy is also known as the energy of motion. A vehicle's energy of motion doubles when its weight doubles. When a vehicle's weight doubles, it needs about twice the distance to stop. 2. Anaphora: "I needed a drink, I needed a lot of life insurance, I needed a vacation, I needed a home in the country. What I had was a coat, a hat and a gun. 3. Antistrophe:
"...and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth. Lincoln in Gettysburg Address 4. Antithesis "We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools. -- MLK 5. Aporia: "I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts/I am no orator, as Brutus is; But, as you know me all, a plain, blunt man/That love my friend. Antony
New Vocabulary Acquisition 6. Apostrophe: ""Hello darkness, my old friend/I've come to talk with you again 7. Catachresis: The moon was full. The moon was so bloated it was about to tip over. Imagine awakening to find the moon flat on its face on the bathroom floor, like the late Elvis Presley, poisoned by banana splits. 8. Euphemism:
Pre-owned for used or second-hand; enhanced interrogation for torture; misspoke for lie; wind for belch or fart; convenience fee for surcharge; courtesy reminder for bill; unlawful combatant for prisoner of war 9. Irony: A superhero who is underestimated because his cover is clothes of filth. 10.Metonymy: "Detroit is still hard at work on an SUV that runs on rain forest trees and panda blood. Conan OBrien
New Vocabulary Acquisition 11.Oxymoron: Phrases such as jumbo shrimp, steel magnolia, ill health, small crowd, etc. "How is it possible to have a civil war?" 12.Paradox: The swiftest traveler is he who goes afoot. War is peace. Freedom is slavery. Ignorance is strength. Orwell in 1984
13.Syllepsis: "When I address Fred I never have to raise either my voice or my hopes. "You took my hand and breath away. 14.Synecdoche: Asking for a Kleenex when you would like a paper tissue. 15.Understatement:
"I have to have this operation. It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain. from The Catcher in the Rye Vocabulary In Use Study these newly-acquired 15 terms of rhetoric. Re-familiarize yourself with past figurative language terms. Expect example passages and texts to identify these rhetorical terms in order to practice looking at text with a different eye. Closing/Tonights Homework Warm-up: AP Lang
Prompt: Analyze one of the two quotes to the right. What is the meaning of it and what is your reaction? Then, look over the list of texts on your desk. Circle texts that you have read. Asterisk texts that you have heard of and/or want to read. Books won't stay banned. They won't burn. Ideas won't go to jail. In the long run of history, the censor and the inquisitor have
always lost. The only weapon against bad ideas is better ideas. ~Alfred Whitney Griswold, New York Times, 24 February 1959 Censorship reflects society's lack of confidence in itself. It is a hallmark of an authoritarian regime. ~Potter Stewart Day 8 Challenged HS Books at RHS
The following have either been taught as class novels, suggested reads to students, or are available in the bookroom. The Chocolate War (#4) Adventures of Huck Finn (#5) Of Mice and Men (#6) Harry Potter series (#7) The Catcher in the Rye (#13) The Color Purple (#18) Fallen Angels (#24) The Bluest Eye (#39) To Kill a Mockingbird
(#41) Brave New World (#52) Lord of the Flies (#70) Native Son (#71) Bless Me, Ultima (#75) Adventures of Tom Sawyer (#84) Todays Lesson Review of vocabulary acquired last class period. Study these terms. You will have an unannounced identification quiz in an upcoming class period. Rhetoric in action: Reading and studying Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.
Combining Toulmin, Aristotle, and vocabulary with written text. Introduction to American Literature Time Period Colonial and Revolutionary Literature Vocabulary Review Activity For the following quotes below, identify rhetorical strategies used by the author. Focus on the terms from last class, but feel free to also incorporate your understanding of other rhetorical elements. 1. "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine. Anaphora 2. The suits on Wall Street walked away with most of our savings. Metynomy 3. In response to his missing finger, he says, What? Its just a
flesh wound. Understatement 4. Justin Timberlakes response to exposing Janet Jacksons chest during the Super Bowl Performance, That? A wardrobe malfunction. Euphemism 5. Love is an ideal thing. Marriage is the real thing. Antithesis American Literary Period: Colonialism SOAPStone Speaker: the individual or collective voice of the text Occasion: the event or catalyst causing the writing of the text to occur Audience: the group of readers to whom the piece is directed Purpose: the reason behind the text
Subject: the general topic and/or main idea Tone: the attitude of the author This strategy will dominate our first steps when reading texts. It is a successful basis to deepen analytical and rhetorical evaluation. American Literary Period: Revolutionist Closing/Tonights Homework Review your vocabulary terms for an upcoming quiz. Locate a poem, essay, or short story excerpt that relates to the literary time periods discussed today. Simply Googling a text will not suffice. Locate credible sources that discuss the Colonial and
Revolutionary literature to then locate prominent writers and texts. GALILEO, Google Scholar are good starting places. Read both selections and complete a SOAPStone review. Bring your chosen texts and your reviews to our next class. Warm-up: AP Lang Prompt: Read the quote by Andrew Cohen in regards to the idea of colonialism. How do you interpret his quote, and what rhetorical strategie(s) are at play?
Quote: To campaign against colonialism is like barking up a tree that has already been cut down. Day 9 Todays Lesson Quiz on vocabulary terminology. Sharing of homework. Literary circles activity with texts. Review of Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God and linking to Colonial Literature. Reading of Thomas Jeffersons Declaration of
Independence Literary Circles: Time Periods Separate your printed texts from your written homework. I will come around to collect your responses. Be sure your name is on your sheets and on your texts as well. I will collect those at the end of class. Label your texts as Colonial or Revolutionary at the top of the first page. As a group, read through the selected texts. Choose two from each time period to complete a SOAPStone explication as a group. Be prepared to present your explication and further analysis of the text with the class.
Warm-up: AP Lang Prompt: Day 10 Todays Lesson Wrapping up introductory unit and transition into courses first full unit. Synthesis Supersize Me A Unit Review View the first 5:00 minutes of Morgan Spurlocks documentary. Consider the following questions: What is Spurlocks predominant claim?
What data does he use to keep audiences watching past the introduction? What warrants or assumptions can be developed that influence this documentary? Discuss the various visual texts seen in the introduction. Consider their ethos, pathos, and logos. What non-visual appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos are found? Review a transcript of the documentarys first 5:00 to complete a more in-depth analysis.