Emergency Vehicle Accident Prevention

Emergency Vehicle Accident Prevention

Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention Introductions EVIP Instructor Incident vs. Accident The word accident implies that motor vehicle incidents are not preventable, it is quite the contrary. Almost all motor vehicle incidents are preventable and someone is almost always at fault. It is incumbent on all

emergency vehicle operators to learn to be safe drivers and practice safe driving habits while operating apparatus. VRFA 3 DOL Exemptions from CDL Rules: WSAFC EVIP Program VFIS Emergency Driving National Academy of Professional Driving

Program (NAPD) NOTE: DOL approves, WSP accredits the lesson plan The EVIP Standard 26,000 GVW is the requirement for CDL or Exceptions Most agencies use it for all emergency

vehicles Review of department specific policy is in the lesson EVIP Administrative Rules Letter on file with State Fire Marshal Program meets standard (based on the

lesson plan!) EVIP Administrative Rules (cont) Jurisdiction issues certificate (WSAFC will print one for you for $1) 9703AWEVAP97PO12 must be on certificate. Recert rules: 1-3.9

Agency approves instructors/ evaluators Like vehicles defined by agency. Trivia Points You Might Have Missed. 2-3.1Rodeo samples in book are suggested

2-3.2 Predetermined Road Course required! Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention Protect Yourself Your Fellow Firefighters

Your community By learning to drive Safely To drive Department vehicles in emergency mode, drivers must have EVIP certification, Washington State Drivers License, and be at least 18 years old. An EVIP road test form is required to be on file for each type of vehicle driven (engines, aid units, etc.). To drive in the non-emergency mode, all of the

above apply except EVIP training. Firefighters who are not EVIP certified may only drive code yellow in the training mode when accompanied by an EVIP-certified driver. Program Outline We use the WSAFC EVIP curriculum for initial training

and refresher training. All new employees or reserve employees shall have the entire EVIP program, which comprises classroom presentation, written test, rodeo, and road test. The Fire Chief or designee shall certify instructors to deliver the classroom presentation & rodeo. The Fire Chief or designee shall approve company officers to evaluate the road test. All responders shall be tested on all types of vehicles

they drive (i.e. engines, trucks, aid cars). EVIP is only required for vehicles over 26,000 GVW Lesson One Some Legal Aspects of Emergency Vehicle Operations Apparatus Incident Facts Over 1300 workers are killed in traffic related incidents each year

On average about 20 Firefighters are killed responding to/or returning from alarms In 1999, six firefighters were killed when they were ejected from a fire apparatus. EVIP = Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention We are in the business of responding to traffic incidents to help. We should be especially mindful of preventing traffic incidents. We have a great deal of

responsibility and liability as firefighters to drive and reach our destination safely. Why EVIP? Congress requires commercial drivers to obtain a CDL. Each state must devise a

way to ensure all commercial drivers meet the minimum standards. EVIP qualifies emergency vehicle drivers in lieu of a CDL In Washington State, the DOL has accepted the fire service EVIP course as an alternative for

firefighters to drive emergency vehicles. The three types types of regulations that emergency vehicle operators must follow: 1. Motor vehicle and traffic laws (RCWs) enacted by the state government. 2. Local ordinances. 3. Departmental policy.

Three principles of emergency vehicle operation: 1.Emergency vehicle operators are subject to all traffic regulations unless a specific exemption is made. 2.Exemptions are legal only in the emergency mode. 3.Even with an exemption, the operator can be found criminally or civilly liable if involved in a traffic incident.

State statutes concerning emergency vehicle operation. The law applies to me. The law applies to me While there are laws on the books which allow us to operate emergency vehicles and give us some

freedom of action the general public does not have, there are also in each section catch phrases which place the ultimate liability on our shoulders. So essentially, the traffic laws as written

apply to each and every one of us, emergency responder or not. In other words, The BIG PRINT gives it to you, the little print takes it away. The BIG PRINT gives it to you: While responding to an alarm, you may:

Park or stand your vehicle irrespective of all other laws to the contrary. Proceed past red lights and stop signs. Exceed the maximum speed limits. Disregard regulations governing the direction of movement of traffic or turning in specific directions regardless of posted signs or regulations to the contrary. However, the little print takes it away.

The RCW (Revised Code of Washington) reads that the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle, when responding to an emergency call or responding to but not returning from a fire alarm, may exercise the privileges set forth, but subject to the conditions herein stated . RCW 46.61.035 Look at the little print. While the emergency vehicle operator may proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, they may do so only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation.

And the emergency vehicle operator may exceed the maximum speed limits so long as he does not endanger life or property . RCW 46.61.035 Furthermore, The RCW continues, the exemptions . . . granted to an authorized emergency vehicle shall apply only when such vehicle is making use of visual signals meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.190 and emergency vehicles shall use audible signals when necessary to warn others of the emergency nature of the

situation. More little print: The provisions granted emergency vehicles shall not relieve the driver. . . from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons, nor shall such provisions protect the driver from the consequences of his reckless disregard for the safety of others. (RCW 46.61.035 (4))

You should now be able to see what is meant by BIG print and little print: The big print gives you some freedom of action, but the little print still holds you liable for careless actions!! A True Emergency Drivers of emergency vehicles will greatly

reduce the chances of being found guilty of negligence if they are reasonably certain that a situation represents a true emergency before exercising the exemptions granted in the state statutes. Is this a true emergency? ASK, Is there a high probability that this situation could cause death or serious injury to an individual?

Is there significant property imperiled? Could action on my part reduce the seriousness of the situation? Once you have made the decision to treat a situation as a true emergency, Remember that under all circumstances, according to the RCW (State laws), you must exercise due regard for the safety of others.

Besides state traffic laws which govern all drivers and have sections which apply to emergency vehicle drivers, We are also responsible for following other State regulations--most notably the State Labor and Industrys Safety Standards for Firefighters. Furthermore Besides RCWs and WACs we are also bound by:

Local ordinances Department policy Department Policy Review your department policy, if applicable, now. The Issue of Liability Courts apportion blame if you should be driving an emergency vehicle when involved in a wreck.

They look at the case and determine who and what contributed to the incident. They assign a percentage of blame to each party. For example: They may say that the other driver was 40% to blame; the fire

department 40% to blame; and the emergency vehicle operator 20% to blame. They look at the dollar award and assign the percentages accordingly. Fire Dept.

40% Other Driver 40% YOU 20% If the other driver is asking for $1,000,000 in damages for alleged harm due to an incident with

an emergency vehicle, the award would be as follows: Other driver, 40% = No award. Fire department, 40% = $400,000 Emergency vehicle driver (YOU, PERSONALLY), 20% = $200,000

If an emergency vehicle operator were driving in excess of the established rules adopted by their fire department, or without due regard for the safety of others, then that emergency vehicle operator could be held personally responsible. This would be especially true if the court-awarded compensation was in excess of the limits of the

departments insurance coverage. What problems might a person encounter after an incident? Possible individual financial responsibility.

Possible criminal penalties. Uncertainty of outcome. Months and/or years of mental strain on the individual and family. Grief, if you took a life or seriously injured someone.

Other Legal Stuff: A fire department has an obligation to ensure that its drivers are not only qualified under EVIP, but are also safe drivers. So, departments may review a candidates or employees driving record. The employee must give authorization for release of his/her driving record. However, many departments obtain blanket permission from employees to review driving records

whenever the employer chooses to do so. As if driving an emergency vehicle didnt entail enough personal liability. . . The state of Washington grants NO special driving privileges to firefighters driving their own private vehicles. No special privileges in private vehicles:

Volunteer or paid Responding to an alarm Reporting back to work on a recall Green light or license placard In fact, the green lights and placards some departments issue to their firefighters for their personal vehicles are for identification purposes only. They serve only to identify

a firefighter to members of the public and law enforcement officers at the scene of an emergency. They must be accompanied by an identification card carried in the vehicle and signed by the chief of the fire department. Record Keeping

Fire Departments are responsible for keeping records! What Records need to be kept? Individual training records Qualifications on various apparatus Test results Maintenance records Purchasing specifications During an investigation or court appearance you will be required to produce records.

Summary Drive with Due Regard because you will be held responsible for your actions while operating an emergency vehicle!! Lesson Two Concepts of Defensive Driving: A Matter of Attitude Mental Motivation Defensive driving is largely a matter of

attitude Understanding how your mental state effects your driving is critical to becoming a safe driver Routine (driving in the same area every day) can cause us to become inattentive The Five Components of the Driving Process Scan

Identify Predict Decide Execute S.I.P.D.E Scan Focus of attention - What the driver looks at as the deal with an ever changing environment Search rate How frequently the driver

searches the environment Search pattern How efficiently does the driver search the environment Identify Identify - refers to the driver identifying potential hazards Predict Predict - refers to predicting the outcome

of potential hazards (can I stop in time, is the car behind me to close, do I have an area to move to on the right or left) Decide Deciding on a course of action Execute Execution refers to the basic maneuvers, braking, steering, and acceleration needed to safely maneuver the vehicle

Driver Failure Types of Driver Failure Carelessness

Incompetence Recklessness Inattentiveness Inability to judge distances Slow reaction of drivers A Defensive Driver Expects and makes allowances for the mistakes of others. Keeps alert, adjusts driving to meet all hazards of weather, road, and traffic conditions.

Avoids bad habits. Avoids following too closely. A fire department driver must maintain a safe driving attitude Regardless of the contributing factors which may tend to influence him/her. Drivers with poor attitudes usually make excuses for mistakes thats

cause property damage or injury. ATTITUDE! A good attitude is the most important requirement of being a good driver. The driver of an emergency vehicle has responsibilities to: Their own family.

The department and community. The other crew members on board. Driver Distractions Auditory - radio, phone ringing, someone talking. Any one of these can create a distraction and cause the driver to loose focus on the driving environment.

Physical the removal of one or both hands from the steering wheel to interact with the vehicle. Cognitive thoughts that cause the driver to be distracted from driving the vehicle. Visual blocked vision or visual distractions. S.I.P.D.E Defensive Driving Methods Predict the unpredictable Expect the unexpected Handle problems

SIPDE Scan, Identify, Predict, Decide, Execute Defensive driving can be defined as observing the presence and intentions of other traffic to avoid incidents. Defensive Driving Traits There are a number of attitudes and traits that describe a defensive driver Knowledge-Do you know the traffic laws? Alertness-Are you aware of your surroundings?

Foresight-Do you look ahead when driving? Judgment-Doing things at the right time? Skill-Do you know how to handle the vehicle you are driving? Lesson Three Important Physical Forces Vehicle Control While driving, an operator can only control a vehicles velocity (speed) and direction.

Several physical forces influence the amount of control the operator has: If the limits created by the physical force are not exceeded, the operator can fully control both the emergency vehicles velocity and direction. If they are exceeded, control will be lost. Define the following Velocity

Centrifugal Force Inertia Friction Velocity/Inertia Speed/Remaining in motion until influenced by outside forces Centrifugal Force Away from center This is the force that tends to push a body

in curvilinear motion away from the center of curvature or axis of rotation. This applies to the push that occurs when carrying to much speed into a corner. The driver is unable to keep the apparatus in the center of the corner. Friction Resistance to slipping

You can exceed the physical limits and lose control by Driving too fast for conditions. Braking inappropriately. Changing direction too abruptly. Tracking a curve at too high a speed. Weight Transfer Every time an emergency vehicle accelerates, decelerates, or changes

direction, the weight distribution of the vehicle shifts. This is referred to as weight transfer. Weight Transfer When Braking Imagine a fulcrum under the vehicles center of gravity. When braking, the downward force at

A (front) is increased, placing more weight on the front tires. A Weight Transfer When Accelerating Downward force at B

B (rear) is increased. More weight and traction at rear tires (unless they are spinning). Effects of Changing Direction On Weight Transfer Were all familiar with the way a

vehicle leans outside in a curve. This is a manifestation of centrifugal force. Centrifugal Force and Weight Transfer Centrifugal force places more of the weight of the vehicle on the side toward the outside of a curve (on a right hand

turn, the weight is greater on the left side wheels). Weight Transfer + Centrifugal Force + Braking In a right hand curve, with most of the weight on the left side tires, what happens if you then apply the brakes?

In a right hand curve with the brakes applied, The vehicles weight transfers again, from center to front. Thus most of the vehicles weight is on the left front tire. What can happen if these forces overwhelm the vehicle and driver?

The left front tire can tear off the rim. The left front tire will act like a pivot and the vehicle will spin out of control around that tire. Weight transfer is also complicated by the location of the vehicles center of gravity. With a high center of gravity, the weight transfer is more pronounced. The possibility of rolling over is

increased. To improve the center of gravity, load equipment as low as possible. Weight transfer is complicated by live loads. Live loads (loads that shift quickly with changes in direction, such as pumpers and tenders with unbaffled water tanks) can push a vehicle from the intended track as weight shifts.

Another important physical force: Friction Friction = the resistance to slipping. It occurs when two surfaces rub together. Friction occurs throughout a vehicle: Between tires and road surface

Between drivers hands and wheel 11 12 1 10 2

9 3 8 4 7 6

5 Engine parts rubbing together. Gears meshing. Brake shoes or pads rubbing on drum or disc. Friction is necessary for vehicle control. The most important areas of friction are:

Between the tires and the road Between the brakes and the wheels. Tires must roll in order for a driver to control a vehicles direction. Friction in the Brakes Brake shoes pressing on the drums (or

pads clamping the disc) create friction and slow the wheel. Friction at the brake surfaces generates heat. Brake Fade Brake fade is caused by overheating. Sustained hard braking heats up the brakes. The brake pedal becomes harder to

apply. Then the brakes can fail entirely. Preventing brake fade - Disc Brakes Disc surface cooling In disc brakes, the pad makes contact with only 15%

of the disc surface, so about 85% of the disc surface is cooling at any time. Disc brakes permit more effective cooling than drum brakes. The biggest cause of brake fade in disc brakes is worn pads. 85%

15% Pad contacting disc Preventing brake fade - Disc Brakes Worn pads allow heat to transfer to the hydraulic fluid

Disc pads that are 50% worn have a 300% greater chance of causing fade. Preventing brake fade - Drum Brakes Drum surface in Almost 90% of the total drum surface is in contact with the brake shoe at one time. Only 10% of the

surface can be cooling off at any one time. Drum brakes cool much less effectively than disc brakes. contact with brake shoe 90% Only 10%

of drum surface is cooling Emergency Braking Get the vehicle to stop in the shortest possible distance without locking the wheels or losing control. Use different techniques depending on the type of brakes.

Emergency braking Hydraulic Brakes Apply hard pressure to the brake pedal without locking the wheels. When pavement is dry - quick firm jabs on the pedal When roadway is slippery - short, steady pressure; release and repeat If wheels lock, RELEASE BRAKE PEDAL

(Tires must roll in order for a driver to control a vehicles direction.) Emergency Braking - Air Brakes Apply a steady pressure. Do not fan air brakes - except on slippery pavement. Fanning brakes wastes air pressure and contributes to brake fade due to

excessive heat buildup. Emergency Braking - ABS Brakes Apply a steady, even pressure. Velocity and Friction While accelerating Spinning the wheels reduces friction; acceleration is slowed.

While braking Best braking point is just short of locking the wheels. Locked Wheel One reason locked wheels have less friction than rolling wheels is because little

beads of rubber come off the locked, skidding tires and act as ball bearings for the vehicle to slide on. Beads of rubber Road Surface

Friction and Changing Direction Friction between the tires and road surface is necessary to control the vehicles direction. Tires must be rolling to change the vehicles direction. If the brakes lock the front wheels, turning the steering wheel will have no impact on the direction the vehicle travels.

Momentum and Inertia Momentum is the product of a vehicles mass (weight) and its velocity (speed). Inertia is the force that makes a moving vehicle tend to stay in motion in the same direction. As momentum increases (with a heavier vehicle or faster speed or both), it is harder to overcome the effects of inertia. Momentum and inertia affect

vehicle control. With increased momentum, that is, as speed increases or a bigger vehicle is involved, Stopping distance increases. Brakes must work harder; friction and heat increase. Inertia will be harder to overcome. Therefore, changing direction is more difficult. The track the vehicle will follow must be wider.

Centrifugal Force and Inertia We want to go around the curve. EV wants to go this way. Centrifugal force and inertia combine to cause the vehicle to tend to go straight. The greater the vehicles mass and velocity (momentum) and the tighter the curve, the greater this effect. Lesson Four Driving Conditions and Contingencies

What is a Driving Contingency? A chance, collision, or possibility conditional on something uncertain Examples: Traffic suddenly and abruptly stopping Ice on the roadway Out of control vehicle A longer reaction time will help you avoid a collision when a driving

contingency occurs What is a safe following distance? The Three Second Rule: keep a separation of at least three seconds between the emergency vehicle and the vehicle being followed. Start count when the vehicle in front of you passes a marker on or

beside the road. One thousand-one. 7 Fixed Object One thousand-two. 7 One thousandthree. 7

When should following distance be increased? If the vehicle ahead is unusual. If your vehicle is large or heavy. If road surface is loose or slippery. If your vision is obscured. If you are tired. If road surface is snowy or icy. And especially in adverse weather conditions

Marginal weather conditions (6 seconds) Poor weather conditions (9 seconds) Speed

Feet per second Good weather conditions (3 seconds) 25 MPH 37 111 ft

222 ft 333 ft 35 MPH 52 166 ft 312 ft

498 ft 45 MPH 66 198 ft 396 ft

594 ft 55 MPH 81 243 ft 486 ft 729 ft

65 MPH 96 288 ft 576 ft 864 ft

75 MPH 111 333 ft 666 ft 999 ft Following Distance and Adverse

Weather Conditions Following distance should be increased proportionately to the severity of the prevailing weather conditions. Wet or rainy weather increases the hazard.

Approximately six times more people are killed on wet roads than on snowy and icy roads combined. 600% 500% 400%

300% 200% 100% 0% Deaths on Snowy and Icy Roads Deaths on Wet Roads Winter Driving

Prepare in advance: Engine tuned Heater/defroster in good working order Battery charged

Snow tires and/or chains available Brakes adjusted Accessible emergency weather equipment Chains, shovel, sand Clean all windows, inside and out Tips for driving on snow and ice: Stay aware of temperature.

Wet ice and freezing rain are the most treacherous of driving conditions. Wet ice and freezing rain are the most treacherous of driving conditions. Wet ice and freezing rain occur when the

temperature hovers around the freezing point (28 degrees F to 40 degrees F). Remember: road bridges freeze before the road approaches. Prepare for Contingency Situations Primary causes of contingency situations:

Vehicle malfunctions or failures A sudden change or deterioration in the roadway The appearance of an obstacle in the roadway Driver error Precautions to Help Prevent Contingencies Reduce the chance of a vehicle

malfunction or failure by: Completing a thorough vehicle inspection Having any problems found repaired promptly Monitoring to detect new problems Precautions to Prevent Contingencies Be aware of any changes in road conditions (weather,

damage, construction, etc.). Remain alert. Scan well ahead of your vehicle. Look for clues: construction signs, skid marks. Know the area.

Precautions for Contingencies Be prepared for the appearance of an obstacle in the roadway. Maintain a safe speed. Search for obvious clues. School zone signs, heavy pedestrian traffic Watch for subtle clues. Toys, bikes on lawns (even w/no children visible) Vapor from exhaust or parked cars

Back-up lights on parked cars Precautions for Contingencies Attempt to head off driver error. Begin shift well rested and w/out personal stress. Remain alert. Avoid unnecessary risks. Dont panic. Handling contingencies-Evasive Steering Maneuvers

Drivers hands should be on the steering wheel at the 9 oclock and 3 oclock positions. This allows the largest possible turn without moving the hands. Turn the steering wheel in the direction of escape route. Counter steer as soon as vehicle is clear of obstacle. Avoid hard braking--hard braking can lock the wheels, and locked wheels wont steer. 11

12 1 10 2 9 3

4 8 5 7 6 Hand Position Handling contingencies-Handling Skids

Do not apply brakes. Maintain speed or slowly reduce speed (do not accelerate). Counter steer - steer in the direction to which the rear end of the vehicle is skidding. A common panic reaction is to turn the wheel violently to correct a skid. This tends to produce back and forth skidding (fishtailing). Once the wheel has been turned to counter

steer, it may be necessary to immediately counter steer in the opposite direction. Handling Skids The vehicle is going straight. The back end of the vehicle skids around to the left. (The vehicle is still moving forward at an angle.) Youd steer LEFT, in the direction you want the vehicle to go relative to the way its facing.

The vehicle is back on course. The back end fishtails to the right. To control fishtailing in the opposite direction, youd countersteer RIGHT to help get you back on course. Steering control is reestablished. Handling Contingencies

Evasive acceleration A maneuver that is often forgotten. Some incidents can be best avoided by increasing your speed and getting out of the way. Handling Contingencies Emergency Braking Stopping distance quadruples as speed doubles

A vehicle traveling 20 MPH will have a stopping distance of 20, a vehicle traveling 40 MPH will have a stopping distance of 80 Speed Feet per second Perception Reaction Distance

20 MPH 29 30 MPH 44 66 ft 40 MPH

59 88 ft 50 MPH 73 110 ft 55 MPH

81 121 ft 60 MPH 88 132 ft

65 MPH 95 143 ft 70 MPH 103 154 ft

75 MPH 110 165 ft 44 ft Handling contingencies-Unavoidable Collisions Choose the object you will collide with.

Choose the course least likely to cause injury or death. Avoid head-on collisions--these are the most damaging to life and property. Steer to cause your vehicle to sideswipe or hit the other object at an angle. Handling contingencies-Unavoidable Collisions Avoid hitting large, immobile objects (ex:

concrete bridge abutments, buildings, large trees, utility poles). Handling contingencies-Unavoidable Collisions Choose impact- absorbing objects (ex: parked cars, low bushes and

shrubs). Each of the following slides illustrates a potential accident situation. The actions that can be taken include: Emergency braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration No action

What would be the appropriate response for this situation? The actions that can be taken include: Emergency braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration No action 7 11 E11

E Gravel shoulder What would be the appropriate response for this situation? The actions that can be taken include: Emergency braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration No action

E11 25 mph What would be the appropriate response for this situation? The actions that can be taken include: Emergency braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration

No action E27 hat would be the appropriate sponse for this situation? The actions that can be taken include: Emergency braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration

No action 45 MPH E27 55 MPH What would be the appropriate response for this situation? The actions that can be taken include:

Emergency braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration No action E34 If you must pull off the road- Due to adverse weather, a contingency situation, or an emergency response, park so as to protect the scene. This enables you to

Get the emergency vehicle off the road. Limit access to the scene to police officers and firefighters. Provide visible early warning to surrounding traffic. Park so as to protect the scene Use warning devices -- choose the most effective for the situation. Most effective: Triangular reflectors, flares,

fuses, reflectorized traffic cones, etc. Use caution when employing flares: make certain no flammable liquids are present. Okay: Overhead beacon, four-way flashers, cab lights. Poor: Headlights, parking lights. Night Driving Use caution: it is harder for

both you and others to see at night. Night Driving - High Potential for Fatal Incidents 70% 60% 50% Percentage of total accidents

Percentage of fatalities 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Day

Night Night Driving Fatalities Nearly 1/2 (47%) of all fatalities occur at night, but less than one third of all collisions occur at night. Thus, a much higher proportion of night time collisions result in fatalities. Night Driving and Drunk Drivers Be on guard against

drunk drivers. Indicators include: Time of day: especially 23:00-03:00 Weaving across lanes Delayed start at a stop sign or traffic light Erratic speed Night Driving and Use of High

Beams Use headlights and high beams appropriately. It is recommended headlights be on at all times. (Headlights are required to be on and operating as part of the emergency lights while responding in a code red response.) Dim high beams within 500 feet of approaching vehicles. Dim high beams within 300 feet of overtaking or following other vehicles.

Lesson Five Operating Apparatus: Vehicle Control Tasks To Review Lights and sirens are used to inform traffic and pedestrians of an emergency vehicles presence and thus, to aid in clearing a path for the emergency vehicle. To Review

Due regard must always be exercised, even during the most serious of emergencies. State law requires the emergency vehicle to use emergency lights whenever any of the exemptions are exercised. Use of signaling equipment does not guarantee an operator safety, nor does it free him/her from the possibility of civil or criminal liability if an incident occurs. Sirens - Limitations on

Effectiveness Usually siren sound travels forward from the vehicle in a cone shape. The higher the sound frequency, the narrower the cone and the greater the distance the siren can be heard (ex: electronic sirens). The lower the frequency, the wider the cone of sound (ex: mechanical or growler type sirens). Sirens - Limitations on

Effectiveness Siren sounds do not travel well around buildings or corners. A study has shown that existing sirens are effective only to vehicles traveling in the same direction ahead of the emergency vehicle and to pedestrians. Even at fairly close range, the siren may not be heard by motorists with windows up, air conditioning on, or radio on.

Keys to Successful Urban Driving Keep alert watch for: Children Alleys Exhaust from parked cars

Crosswalks Keys to Successful Urban Driving Be cautious of other motorists actions, they may: Signal turns or lane changes without doing so. Turn or change lanes without signaling.

Try to beat a light, going through as it changes. NOTE: In spite of the way motorists signal, look at the direction they are looking, the way the vehicle is pointing, if they are slowing accordingly, and if their actions agree with their signaled intentions.

Urban Driving in the Emergency Mode Speeds in excess of limit are rarely justified. Reasonable speed allows more time to react. Use lights and siren effectively. Keys to Successful Rural Driving Control your speed

Know your response area Be aware of upcoming turns Watch for vehicles pulling on to roads from side streets and driveways Emergency vehicles in a rural setting can roll over easily due to a high center of gravity and shifting loads. Store equipment low if possible and WATCH YOUR SPEED!!! Motorists Reactions to Lights and Sirens

Generally, they will try to pull to their right and slow down or stop. Some motorists, however, will do senseless, unexpected things. Handling Confused Motorists

Discontinue the use of the siren, give them a chance to think. Tap horn or flash lights to try to establish eye contact. Once eye contact has been established, give hand or verbal signal indicating what action motorist should take. Handling Unaware Motorists Beware of startling unsuspecting motorists.

Vary siren pitch and duration. Use headlights, horn, or spotlight to get attention. Be patient, keep signaling. Never pass on the right. In extreme cases, it may be necessary for a crew member to get out and direct traffic. Handling Blocked Traffic Try to plan ahead : if possible, during rush hours, construction and special events, use alternate routes.

Slow down before reaching blockage. Use siren intermittently. Be patient. Do not travel in opposing lanes unless you see traffic is cleared for at least one block. Negotiating Intersections Intersections are the most likely areas for fatal incidents. Before crossing an intersection, you must make sure there is an adequate gap in

traffic. Crossing an Intersection From a full stop, most vehicles require about four (4) seconds to cross a two (2) lane intersection that is 30 feet wide. For larger vehicles, time varies depending on size, weight, and the ability to accelerate. The operator should look left, then right, then left again before crossing.

Cars approaching from either direction should be at least six seconds from the intersection. Cars approaching from either direction should be at least six seconds from the intersection. 30 feet 6 Second Gap 34

6 Second Gap STOP Right Turns from an Intersection From a stop, it takes about six seconds to turn right and accelerate to 30 mph. When the operator begins the turn, any vehicle approaching from the left should be at least seven to eight seconds away from the intersection.

In faster traffic, a larger gap is required for safety. hen the operator begins the right hand turn, any vehicle app om the left should be 7-8 seconds away from the intersection 8 second gap STOP 34 2 second following distance

34 STOP In faster traffic, a larger gap is Left turns at intersections require a larger gap than right turns because of the need to cross traffic lanes. 9 Second Gap 30 MPH

STOP 11 1. What are the hazards in the following situation? 27 STOP What are the effects of following too closely when approaching an intersection?


STOP By dropping back to a safer following distance, the emergency vehicle driver can see all the potential hazards and one of the stop STOP 3. What are the hazards in

this situation? 34 STOP Building A B

STOP If the emergency vehicle does not slow down almost to a stop at the intersection, a collision is probable. 34 STOP

Building Vehicle B does not see or hear emergency vehicle. (The building blocks most of the siren sound.) A B

One useful trick is for the emergency vehicle operator to look under the wheels of truck A. He/she might see B in 4. What are the hazards in this situation? One Way

A STOP 27 B One Way A

STOP 27 B Driver A looks left before turning right. Driver A does not expect any oncoming traffic from the right. How can the emergency vehicle driver avoid such problems?

Sirens help here. One Way Never pull into an oncoming lane at an intersection. A

STOP 27 B Stay far enough behind the vehicle in front of the emergency vehicle (B) to

permit a good view of the Passing Other Vehicles First ask yourself if passing is necessary. How long does it take to pass? At highway speeds, a safe pass can be completed in 10 seconds. A 10-second pass requires 1/6 mile at 60 mph. Due to the possibility of an oncoming vehicle, operator must allow 1/3 mile of visible roadway

before initiating a pass. Passing Other Vehicles Learn to judge distances. Know the characteristics of your vehicle. Its accelerative capacity Its steering precision Its braking capability

Passing Other Vehicles Know indicators of unsafe conditions for passing.

Informational signs Bad weather/visibility Road markings Presence of roadways or driveways Road configuration--hills, blind curves Know your area Never pass a stopped car

(or line of cars) without first determining why it is stopped. Passing in the Emergency Mode Since motorists will attempt to pull over, the need to pass may be reduced. If conditions are questionable for passing, consider: How important is saving time?

Are you responding to an out-of-control fire in an apt. building or a brush fire in an isolated field? How much time will really be saved by passing? If passing is delayed for a few moments, might conditions improve? Lane markings may change. Traffic may thin out. Road configuration may improve (e.g. from curves to straight). Backing Up

Backing-up mishaps account for a large proportion of emergency vehicle incidents. Park so backing is minimized or eliminated. When the vehicle must be backed: Crew members shall be stationed in such a position as to assist the driver.

At night, use backup or rear-deck lights to illuminate the rear area behind the vehicle. Back up person should use appropriate hand signals. When the vehicle must be backed: Roll down the drivers window to allow direct communication w/backup person. Check for pedestrians and obstacles.

Back SLOWLY (as if you are expecting to hit something). Constantly check mirrors for changes in the traffic situations or obstacles. Vehicle Clearances Know the height, width and length of the vehicle. (L & I Vertical Standard 305 requires the height of the vehicle to be posted on the dash.)

Know the turning radius, and length of front and rear overhangs. Maximum length 40, maximum width 86, maximum height 14 Know Normal Stopping Distances Assume 3/4 second driver 600

Sedans 500 400 Light trucks 300 200 Heavy 2axles

100 3-axles 0 Stopping Distance in Feet From 60 MPH reaction time.

Stopping distances on hard, dry surface, from 60 mph: Sedans - about 355 feet Light trucks - about 426 feet Heavy 2 axle - about 436 feet 3 axle - about 531 feet 60 MPH

60 MPH 34 1/6 Mile in 10 Seconds 1/6 Mile in 10 Seconds 1/3 Mile

Total distance used in 10 seconds by vehicles approaching each other at 60 mph. Lesson 6 Traffic Safety Protecting People While Stabilizing The Incident Lesson Objectives Upon Completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:

Perform an incident scene safety Risk Assessment Develop a Risk Management plan to address scene safety Identify stopping distances for various sizes of vehicles Identify components of a Temporary Traffic Control Zone Establish a safe working environment using effective traffic control devices Identifying, Assessing &

Managing Risk Upon approaching the scene: Identify hazards and develop a plan to protect the scene Identifying, Assessing & Managing Risk Expect other drivers to make mistakes Consider the type of roadway you will be working on (i.e. freeway vs. city street) Weather conditions (dry vs. wet road or good vs. poor visibility)

Time of day (or night) (scene and personal visibility and proper use of lighting) Identifying, Assessing & Managing Risk What is Risk Assessment? Assessing or determining the possibility of suffering harm or loss, and to what extent This is the first step in determining your plan of action

Identifying, Assessing & Managing Risk What is Risk Management? The development of strategy and tactical plans based on an accurate risk assessment taking into consideration current and potentially changing scene conditions Driver Reaction Time Components of reaction time Mental Processing Time:

Sensation Perception / Recognition Situational Awareness Response Selection Driver Reaction Time Components of reaction time Movement Time: The time required to perform the selected action

Driver Reaction Time Components of reaction time Device Response Time: The functional time of a mechanical device to activate Stopping Distances Dry Pavement Passenger Vehicle MPH

Ft. / Sec. Braking Deceleration Distance Perception Reaction Distance

Total Stopping Distance 30 44 43 66

109 40 59 76 88

164 50 73.3 119 110 229

60 88 172 132 303

70 102.7 234 154 388 80

117.3 305 176 481 Stopping Distances Dry Pavement

Passenger Vehicle Car MPH Ft. / Sec. Braking Deceleration Distance Perception Reaction

Distance Total Stopping Distance 60 Passenger Vehicle 303

60 Light Truck 426 60 Heavy 2 Axle

436 60 3 Axle 531 Stopping Distances The preceding charts do not take into consideration any

Human factors Or Vehicle Maintenance factors That may increase total stopping distance Stopping Distances Adverse weather and night time driving may also increase total stopping distance Temporary Traffic Control Zone Provides reasonably safe and efficient movement of traffic.

Reasonably protects workers, responders to traffic incidents, and their equipment. Temporary Traffic Control Zone Components of a TTC Zone 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. Advance Warning Area Transition Area Activity Area Buffer Space Termination Area Temporary Traffic Control Zone Advance Warning Area

Tells drivers what to expect ahead. Typical distances for placement of advance warning signs on high speed roadways should be longer because drivers are conditioned to uninterrupted flow. Temporary Traffic Control Zone Transition Area Moves traffic out of its normal path and away from the activity area.

Temporary Traffic Control Zone Activity Area This is where the work takes place. This also includes your Buffer Space Temporary Traffic Control Zone Buffer Space Separates traffic from your work area.

Also provides some recovery area for an errant vehicle. Neither work nor equipment storage should occur in the Buffer Space. Temporary Traffic Control Zone Termination Area Returns traffic back to their normal path beyond the incident scene. Should include its own Buffer Space.

C o m p o n e n t P a rts of a T e m p o r a r y T r a ffic C o n tro l Z o n e F la g g e r A ID F la g g e r

a in rm Te n re A a re A

a a re A e ac Sp

tio r fe n tio si ity iv ct

A uf B an Tr ce an dv A

ar W ng ni A a re V e h ic le n e a r th e s h o u ld e r - - B lo c k a s m u c h o f

th e tr a ffic la n e a s n e c e s s a ry fo r e m e rg e n c y w o rk e r s a fe ty V e h ic le n e a r th e s h o u ld e r - - C o n s id e r m o v in g th e v e h ic le o ff th e r o a d w a y if it c a n b e d o n e s a fe ly

F la g g e r F la g g e r A ID SHO ULDER AREA V e h ic le s o n b o th s h o u ld e r s

- - U s e a ll a v a ila b le re s o u rc e s to c o n tr o l tr a ffic A ID F la g g e r A ID F la g g e r

M o v e v e h ic le s o ff th e r o a d w a y if it c a n b e s a fe ly done. D ia g r a m # 6 V e h ic le s o n a c u rv e - - A llo w fo r p le n ty o f A d v a n c e W a r n in g F la g g e r

AID F la g g e r In te r s e c tio n In c id e n t - - U s e a ll a v a ila b le re s o u rc e s fo r T T C Z o n e fo r p e rs o n n e l s a fe ty

e Polic AID Po lic e Po

lic e P ro te c t th e s c e n e w ith y o u r v e h ic le s - - U s e tr a in e d p e r s o n e ll to d ir e c t tr a ffic a s n e c e s s a ry D ia g r a m # 4

F r e e w a y In c id e n t - - C o n s id e r u s e o f D O T to a s s is t in tr a ffic c o n tr o l A ID A ID F r e e w a y In c id e n t - - C o n s id e r u s e o f D O T to a s s is t in

tr a ffic c o n tr o l AID AID V e h ic le s b lo c k in g a ll la n e s - - F o r e m e rg e n c y p e rs o n n e l s a fe ty , b lo c k th e r o a d w a y .

F la g g e r A ID F la g g e r D ia g r a m # 1 T r a ffic m a y b e r e r o u te d a lo n g th e s h o u ld e r if it is s a fe to d o s o a n d

th e re a re e n o u g h re s o u rc e s o n s c e n e to fa c ilita te th is T T C Z o n e . Traffic Control Devices Used to warn or guide road users Provides for the orderly movement of traffic Traffic Control Devices Should meet 5 basic requirements:

Fulfill a need Command attention Convey a clear, simple meaning Command respect from road users Give adequate time for proper response Channelizing Devices Traffic Cones Channelizing Devices

Minimize the possibility of the cones being blown over Double up on the cones to increase their weight if needed Channelizing Devices Traffic cones should have a retro reflective band that is no less than 4 inches in height Channelizing Devices

Minimum traffic cone height of 28 inches Channelizing Devices Placing a flare in front of the cone at night increases the visibility of the cone Placement of Traffic Control Devices The road user should have adequate time to make a proper response in both day and night conditions

Placement of Traffic Control Devices Should be in a uniform and consistent manner Placement of Traffic Control Devices Placement of Traffic Control Devices Your apparatus is also a traffic control device

Placement of Apparatus Place within the Activity Area Uniform and consistent with other traffic control devices Placement of Apparatus Physical protection barrier to secondary collisions

Protection of the pump operator Protection of the crews Protection of the citizens Placement of Apparatus Fire engines and other large apparatus Park at a 45 degree angle

Exposes more surface area to absorb an impact from an errant vehicle Provides a wall of protection Placement of Apparatus Transport vehicles Park within the Activity Area Downstream or in the shadow of the fire engine

Placement of Apparatus Transport vehicles Downstream: Parallel with traffic Ease of loading gurney into vehicle Clear access to roadway when leaving for

transport Placement of Apparatus When the fire engine is to be staffed with a pump operator/engineer Park at a 45 degree angle with the pump panel (drivers side)

facing the Activity Area Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Common misconception: The more warning lights that are flashing, the better we can be seen Night Time Visibility At the incident scene

The reality is: The warning lights can be seen very well Drivers get drawn in to the lights Personnel visibility is reduced when they are overcome by excessive emergency lights Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Turn off all unnecessary warning lights Excessive warning lights may: Cause a distraction to drivers

~~~ Act as a deadly attraction to drivers who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Turn off all unnecessary headlights When parked at the scene Excessive headlights may: Be blinding to oncoming traffic and Cause personnel to be nearly invisible to oncoming

drivers when they stand or walk in-between the headlights and the oncoming traffic Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Turn off all unnecessary headlights when parked at the scene Night Time Visibility

At the incident scene Use vehicle mounted floodlights to light the scene Provides a safer working environment Reduces distraction to traffic drivers caused by warning lights Do not aim the floodlights into the path of traffic drivers Ensure the floodlighting does not produce a

disabling glare to traffic Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Use vehicle mounted floodlights to light the scene Key Elements of Personnel Safety

Training Practice traffic safety risk assessments Establish safe working environments Key Elements of Personnel Safety Emergency Responder Safety Apparel All personnel exposed to the risks of moving

traffic shall wear a high visibility vest day or night Key Elements of Personnel Safety Emergency Responder Safety Apparel Provides more retro-reflective area for better visibility than firefighting turnout gear

Visibility of personnel is increased during daylight hours with the use of a high visibility vest Its the law! Key Elements of Personnel Safety Incident Scene Traffic Barriers Should be appropriately placed giving consideration to:

Clearance of personnel from moving traffic Speed of traffic Duration and type of operations Time of day Volume of traffic Key Elements of Personnel Safety Speed Reduction

Minimizes vulnerability of personnel and can be accomplished by: Lane reduction Funneling traffic Uniformed officers or flaggers to control traffic Electronic signs DOT incident response vehicles Key Elements of

Personnel Safety The responsibility of safety is shared among all personnel from the moment the emergency brake is set until it is released to clear the scene after the incident Expect drivers to make mistakes and prepare for them Lesson 7

Apparatus Inspections A daily apparatus inspection should be performed in two stages. The primary inspection is a basic safety inspection to determine if the vehicle is ready to drive.

The secondary inspection checks the readiness of the vehicle and identifies possible points of failure. The Daily Inspection Primary Check overall condition of vehicle Check underneath

for leaking fluids Check tires, oil level, primer fluid, seat belts, adjust drivers seat and mirrors. Secondary Start apparatus and allow to warm up. Check all gauges,

exterior lighting, sirens, horns, windows, water tank level. Check all equipment, ladders, ropes, SCBAs, aid kits, oxygen, suction units, stretchers, mileage. Initial the inspection sheet.

The Weekly Inspection Bleed air tanks. Check undercarriage, transmission oil, water lines, windshield wipers, tires, batteries, ground ladders, portable equipment, SCBAs, first aid supplies, oxygen. Operate engine and pump. Initial the inspection sheet. Daily and Weekly Inspection Perform a daily and weekly inspection on

an apparatus Summary Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention Summary There is a lot to know about the operation of emergency vehicles. There is too much liability involved

not to know as much as we can. We must each do our part to protect the public and our co-workers. Summary Be mentally ready to drive Remember Due Regard Your responsible for your actions when you are behind the wheel! DRIVE SAFELY!!

Comments or Questions? Thank you!

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