El Archivo Historico de la Municipalidad de Hidalgo del Parral
Independence in Spanish America, 1808-1826 Alienation of Americanos; exploitation of plebs Fear/Hope of social rebellion: Tupac Amaru (Peru, 1780s), Haiti (1791), Coro (Venezuela, 1795), Guanajuato (New Spain, 1810) Chaos in Spain: 1 invader, 2 cortes, 2 absolutists 4 independence movements, 4 regions New Spain: Hidalgo revolution to conservative coup Rio de la Plata: Early victory (1810), delayed peace
New Granada: One nation or three? Peru: 2 royalist armies, the last patriot victory (1826) Independence, not revolution Bolivar (1830): Independence is the only benefit we have gained, at the cost of everything else. Alienation of Americanos; exploitation of plebs Alienation of americanos by imperialism of Spanish monarchists and liberals. Exploitation of plebs 1760: If in all Spain one should picture the number of poor and wretched that there are, one would not find as many nor as denuded as in Mexico (City) alone.... Unfortunately in this city one finds two diametrically opposed extremes: great wealth and maximum
poverty. Great Fear/Hope of social rebellion: Tupac Amaru (Peru, 1780s) Haiti (1791) Coro (Venezuela, 1795) Guanajuato (New Spain, 1810) Chaos in Spain: Invasion, 2 parliaments, 2 attempts at absolutism
Effect of French Revolution on independence: regicide, not rights of man Napoleons invasion shattered the dynastic tie, not the struggle for liberty or democracy Spanish cortes, implacable imperialists refused colonial representation proportional to population, and other colonial demands Agustin Iturbide (1821): The Cortes seem determined to lose these possessions. Ferdinand VII (absolute monarch 1813-1820; 1823-1833) : learned nothing, forgot nothing harsh reprisals in Spain and Spanish America 1820 coup: Spain could no longer protect against revolt in America
4 independence movements, 4 regions New Spain, 4 phases: Hidalgo revolution (1810-11) Morelos disciplined polit-military campaign (1811-15) Guerrilla insurgencies on the periphery Conservative coup led by royalist commander, Augustin de Iturbide (1822) Rio de la Plata: Early victory (1810), delayed peace (18??) New Granada: One nation or three?
Peru: 2 royalist armies, the last patriot victory (1826) Cuba, always faithful isleuntil 1896. Slavery is worth an army of 100,000. Chihuahua GuanajuatoDolores Guadalajara Chronology, geography of the Hidalgo phase Sept. 16, 1810: beginning of insurrection at Dolores Sept. 28, 1810: sacking of Guanajuato Jan. 17, 1811:
defeat at Calderon bridge (Guadalajara) by Felix Calleja July 31, 1811 Hidalgo beheaded in Chihuahua Hidalgo handbill directed at Creoles (late 1810) Noble Americanos, only for God does one give ones life, but for the Gachupines, no, no, no. As they did not defend the Jesuits Sought to reassure
creoles that lives and property, even of Gachupines, would be respected. Hidalgos land reform, Dec. 15, 1810 in exchange for rents due, . . . lands must be handed over to the Naturales for cultivation because it is my will that their use be solely for the Naturales of their
respective Villages. The missing phase, 1815-1821 regional insurgencies on the periphery 1 2 4 Mexico City 3 5 1. Osorno 2. Ignacio
Rayon 3. Vicente Guerrero 4. Guadalupe Victoria 5. Servando Mier y Teran Simon Bolivar on independence 1830: Independence is the only benefit we have gained, at the cost of everything else. America is in
chaos. Independence, not revolution John Lynch, Spanish American Revolutions: Independence was a powerful yet finite force, which tore through Spanish America like a great storm, sweeping away the lines of attachment to Spain and the fabric of colonial government, but leaving intact the deeply rooted bases of colonial society. . . . [It was] a political revolution in which one ruling class displaced another. End
Another aspect that makes psychology fascinating and difficult. Explanations of behavior don't apply to everyone. Reciprocal determinism-extroverts may influence introverts to become more extroverted when together and that extroverted behavior feeds the extrovert to be even more extroverted. Behavior shaped...
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