Eesti Elanikkonna Valmidus Kaitsta Ohustatud Linnuliike

Eesti Elanikkonna Valmidus Kaitsta Ohustatud Linnuliike

LANDOWNERS ATTITUDE TO THE RESTRICTIONS RELATED TO THE BIRD PROTECTION 2005 Hella Kaldaru Composing of current document is supported by EU LIFE programme (EAGLELIFE project) Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 1 Research method The current report bases on the survey that was carried out among the landowners whose properties are under restrictions due to the protection of endangered bird species living there. The research was conducted by telephone The sample size was 200 respondents The database for the sample was provided by the client The sample contains as the private owners, so the representatives of the forest districts and enterprises The persons, competent in the land problems of the company, forest district or family, were selected to respond the questions The fieldwork of the research took place in 2005, May, 17-20 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 2 Structure of sample. Approximate area of forest All respondents n=200 35 1-10 ha 11-20 ha 18 21-50 ha 15 5 51-100 ha 29 more than 100 ha Respondents type

Private owner 70 Forest district 17 Company 14 Working position 9 Owner 4 CEO of company Other (forest district manager etc.) 19 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 3 ABSTRACT According to the current survey restrictions concerning the protection of endangered bird species most often cover Lesser Spotted Eagle and Black Stork, and at forest districts most often Capercaillie (Great Grouse). The attitude of the vast majority of respondents to the restrictions is either rather or very positive, and only 4% are in straight opposition. The attitude mainly depends on economic interests, yet even the basic part of respondents from among enterprises and forest districts understand the need for restrictions. However, nearly a half of respondents from forest districts do not consider it to be well justified to create reservation areas round the nests a part of them would prefer reservation zones to reservation areas, and a part finds that the present tactics of Capercaillie protection is unreasonable. When 4% of respondents can see nothing good in restrictions, 30% can see nothing bad in them. activities are seen as the primary negative aspect, particularly for enterprises. Obstacles to economic Almost all respondents agree that eagles and Black Storks play important role in nature, yet a half of respondents dont

think there would be need for more reservation areas. The majority of respondents think that the main ways to protect eagles and Black Storks should include developing of compensation systems, and promoting of nature protection education and information. 1/5 of landowners think that birds can manage by themselves, and there is no need to do anything special for them. Although a half of respondents think they have enough general information about eagles and Black Storks, they are still expecting more actual information about their own protected bird species from the nature conservation organisations. A lot of landowners are disturbed by the fact that although the protected birds have left their territory, restrictions have not been renegotiated till today. The state might, firsthand, offer compensations, a propos larger ones, for unmanaged lands, also subsidiaries and substitution of lands, as well as easier and quicker office business. Enterprises are particularly interested in economical arrangements, and forest districts in receiving more detailed information. The private forest owners need, more than others, instruction materials how to manage their forests sparingly and maintain feeding areas. Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 4 Results-1 Landowners recruited to the sample mentioned totally 18 endangered bird species due to which restrictions were set on their lands. Some respondents, especially those from forest districts, mentioned the total of 4-5 and even more species. All respondents knew which species caused the establishing of restrictions, a couple of them did not wish to reveal it for some reason though. The species that were most often mentioned as the reasons for restrictions were Lesser Spotted Eagle and Black Stork, and above average also Sea-Eagle and Capercaillie. Those mentioning most bird species under protection were custodians of large forest areas, mostly respondents from forest districts. Goshawk, Fish Hawk and Golden Eagle were mentioned almost only by forest district respondents. Also the nesting of Capercaillie was known mainly by respondents of forest districts, somewhat less by enterprises, and practically not by private landowners. Restrictions of forest districts were most often related to Capercaillie and Black Stork, of private forest owners with Lesser Spotted Eagle. Majority of respondents (3/4) stated positive attitude towards setting restrictions to protect endangered bird species. The average evaluation was highest by private persons, and lowest by representatives of enterprises, although there were not big differences between the attitudes of these groups. The group of forest districts had largest differences in opinions with a large amount of very positive respondents (36%), and slightly above average negative ones (9%). Although the principal idea of any enterprise (incl. forestry or real estate companies) is to earn profit, the majority of respondents in the group of enterprises (82%) had positive attitude to restrictions. However, the dominating answer here was rather positive. As for the attitude of private persons, there was some difference depending on the size of their forest property: the owners of small properties were slightly more negative than the owners of larger properties but the difference was not very big though. More than a half of respondents (57%) thought it was justified to create reservation areas round the nests of Eagle or Black Stork, and only 25% was against it. A small part (5%) found, however, that such restriction was not justified on his/her property (mostly because the endangered species had already left it). The share of the respondents standing against restrictions was bigger in the group of forest districts (48%), but below average in the group of private landowners (19%). In the group of enterprises there were less people in straight opposition compared to forest districts, but several respondents here did not have any opinion (25%). Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 5 Results-2 Almost all respondents seeing good sides in reservation areas saw their main strength in the fact that they help to maintain endangered species (88% of respondents). 9% of respondents could not say any positive side of restrictions. In the group of forest districts respondents mentioned several times that reservation areas also mean that forests there are extra invigilated.

The main unpleasant sides of restrictions were obstacles to landowners economic activities (47% of respondents). This fact is especially disturbing for enterprises where it was mentioned by 75% of respondents of this group. Also nearly a half of private forest owners (47%) brought it out as a negative side, at the same time 40% of private persons said that there were no unpleasant sides of restrictions for them. The group of forest districts most of all disapproved the restrictions related to Capercaillie (30% of the group), most often saying that Capercaillie is not willing to reside in deficient forests and, thus, moves to managed forests. Both in the group of enterprises ad forest districts there were respondents who thought the restrictions to be too inflexible. Both at this question, as well as at any other possible moment during the interviews they pointed out that on certain reservation areas there have not been any protected species for years, yet the restrictions still are in effect. The owners of smaller properties found several times that if they cannot use or move in their own forest, the land charge should be compensated or nullified. The landowners, more than population in large, agreed that Eagles and Black Storks play an important role in nature 93% agreed with it. 68% of respondents also agreed that protection of the nests of these species is a large obstacle for landowners earning profit. 25% of respondents disagreed with it, private landowners above average. 30% of forest districts did not have any opinion in this question. A really small amount of respondents believed that Eagles and Black Storks may affect fish and game reserves, 16% did not have any opinion. Respondents were most puzzled about the question of the amount of such birds in Estonia - 1/3 of all respondents could not give any answer about it, particularly those from enterprises. People from forest districts were more selfconfident here, but their opinions differed a lot maybe each of them proceeded from the current situation of his/her location. Private persons mostly offered the guess that their amount could be very small indeed. Opinions about the importance of the birds by those having positive or negative attitude to restrictions differed mainly in the question of the possible cause of economic loss that apparently is the major base for different attitudes. Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 6 Results-3 The means to protect Eagles and Black Storks most often brought out were developing a compensation system, distributing nature protection information and maintaining feeding areas each of them was pointed out as a main one by more than a half of respondents. The idea raising most objections was to create more reservation areas (48% against, 31% for). It was much more acceptable for private landowners (36%) than for the representatives of enterprises and forest districts (18%). In the group of forest districts information and trainings were considered the most important (91%) aspects. Compared to the others there were much less interested in compensation systems (52%). Compensations were significantly important in the group of enterprises (96%), but rather often for private persons as well (81%). Strengthening the control over fulfilling the regulations was a major request of 1/3 of respondents, the same amount did not have any opinion. 2/3 of representatives of forest districts did not consider such step necessary though. 1/5 of respondents thought that birds could manage by themselves and there was no need to do anything special for them. Least people sharing this opinion were in the group of enterprises. Nearly a half of respondents did not have any opinion on this. If respondents were asked to select the 2 most important of the listed means, then the ranking remained the same. More than a half of respondents considered the developing of a compensation system to be the most important, it was mentioned most often by enterprises, and most seldom by forest districts. The state was expected, firsthand, to offer compensations for unmanaged lands (73%) and rather a large than a moderate ones. More than a half of respondents wished to receive subsidiaries for feeding areas. 15% of respondents (incl. 27% of the forest districts) didnt expect any help from the state. No enterprise shared such an opinion, though. Enlargement of compensations is something that representatives of forest districts are interested in. Especially enterprises but also private persons are interested above average in possibility to sell the land to the state, or get substitution of land. Forest districts, more than other groups, expect additional information and flexibility from the state when setting restrictions. Respondents implicate to difficulties when applying for substitution of land, state bureaucracy, and expect understanding and regard to landowners.

Nature protection organisations are, firsthand, expected to deliver information about each regions local birds (65%) this is requested by all respondent groups almost equally. Private persons and enterprises are interested in instruction materials, especially how to manage forests without any damage to the wild-life. Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 7 1. Endangered species that have caused restrictions to areas. All respondents n=200 32 Lesser Spotted Eagle 28 Black Stork White-tailed Eagle 17 Spotted Eagle 17 Capercaillie 17 Eagle 9 6 Goshawk Greater Spotted Eagle 4 Osprey 4 Golden Eagle 3 Common Buzzard 2 Kingfisher 1 Harrier

1 Corn Crake 1 Roller 1 White-head Woodpecker 1 Heron 1 Long-bill Curlew 1 Ural Owl 1 Great Snipe 1 no answer 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

% Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 8 1.a Endangered species that have caused restrictions to areas. By the type of respondents, n=respondents in the group Lesser Spotted Eagle Black Stork White- tailed Eagle Spotted Eagle Capercaillie Eagle Goshawk Greater Spotted Eagle Osprey Golden Eagle Common Buzzard Enterprise (n=28) Kingfisher Forest district (n=33) Harrier Corn Crake Private owner (n=139) Roller White-head Woodpecker Heron Long- bill Curlew Ural Owl Great Snipe no answer 0 20 40 % 60 80 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 100

9 1.b Endangered species that have caused restrictions to areas. By the attitude to the restrictions Lesser Spotted Eagle Black Stork White-tailed Eagle Spotted Eagle Capercaillie Eagle Goshawk Greater Spotted Eagle Positive attitude (n=148) Osprey Golden Eagle Common Buzzard Negative attitude (n=39) Kingfisher Harrier Corn Crake Roller White- head Woodpecker Heron Long-bill Curlew Ural Owl Great Snipe no answer 0 20 40 % 60 80 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 100 10 2. Respondents attitude to the restrictions Rather positive Completely positive (4)

Rather negative Completely negative (1) Cannot say Average on scale 1-4 All respondents -4 -16 Private owner -3 -17 Forest district -9 -12 Enterprise -4 -14 11- 100 ha -6 -80 -60 -40 -20 38 39 36 64 41 49 -16 20 3,12 9 3,17

3 3,06 2,96 33 40 3,22 8 30 38 0 7 18 32 -5 -12 1-10 ha 35 34 -1 -18 Above 100 ha %-100 39 3,07 4 7 60 3,06 80 100 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 11 3. The good aspects of the restrictions

(summarised answers to open question). n=all respondents the restrictions help to save the endangered species 88 the forest is better looked after 4 it increases the value of my forest 2 the compensations are paid to owners other 3 no good aspects 4 no answer 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 12 4. The unpleasant aspects of the restrictions (summarised answers to open question). n=all respondents It restrains the owner s business It restrains the owner s right of motion in the forest It restrains the owner s right of judgement

The restriction for the capercaillie is bad 47 13 12 5 5 5 The restrictions are too rigid The restriction is in force though there are no birds To cancel or compensate the land tax 4 Unsuffi cient information Compensation is unsuffi cient 4 3 The zone could be smaller The sale, rent and privatisation of the land are prevented The owner is restricted, the strangers not 3 It attracts too much attention to the forest 2 3 Too much restrictions Restrictions could depend on season 2 2 I do not like these species living on my forst Other 7 No unpleasant aspects 30 1 No answer 0

20 40 % 60 80 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 100 13 4.a The unpleasant aspects of the restrictions (summarised answers to open question). n=respondents in the group It restrains the owner s business It restrains the owner s right of motion in the forest It restrains the owner s right of judgement The restriction for the capercaillie is bad Restriction is too rigid The restriction is in force though there are no birds To cancel or compensate the land tax Unsuffi cient information Enterprise (n=28) Compensation is unsuffi cient The zone could be smaller The sale, rent and privatisation of the land is prevented The owner is restricted, the strangers not Forest district (n=33) It attracts too much attention to the forest Private owner (n=139) Too much restrictions Restrictions could depend on season I do not like these species living on my forst Other No unpleasant aspects 0 20

40 % 60 80 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 100 14 4.b The unpleasant aspects of the restrictions (summarised answers to open question). By the attitude to the restrictions, n=respondents in the group It restrains the owner s business It restrains the owner s right of motion in the forest It restrains the owner s right of judgement The restriction for the capercaillie is bad The restrictions are too rigid The restriction is in force though there are no birds To cancel or compensate the land tax Unsuffi cient information Compensation is unsuffi cient Positive attitude (n=148) The zone could be smaller The sale, rent and privatisation of the land are prevented The owner is restricted, the strangers not Negative attitude (n=39) It attracts too much attention to the forest Too much restrictions Restrictions could depend on season I do not like these species living on my forst Other No unpleasant aspects 0 20 40 % 60

80 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 100 15 5. Respondents opinion of the role of Black Stork and eagles. All respondents n=200 Fairy disagree Fully disagree (1) Fairy agree Fully agree (4) Eagles and Black Stork play an important role in the nature -1 -4 28 Protection of the eagles and Black Storks` nests causes the landowners significant economic loss -7 -17 The number of eagles and Black Storks is small in Estonia 24 -8-11 27 As the powerful inhabitants of deep forests they symbolize the wild- life protection -13 -14 Eagles and Black Storks damage our fish and game reserves -100 % Cannot say -70 - 80 -60

-40 26 65 44 21 29 Average 1-4 3 3,14 8 34 2,90 19 2,86 1,23 -1031 16 -20 0 20 3,62 40 60 80 100 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 16 5.a Respondents opinion of the role of Black Stork and eagles. By the type of respondents, n=respondents in the

group Enterprise (n=28) Forest district (n=33) Private owner (n=139) Eagles and Black Stork play an important role in the nature Protection of the eagles and Black Storks` nests causes the landowners significant economic loss The number of eagles and Black Storks is small in Estonia As the powerful inhabitants of deep forests they symbolize the wild- life protection Eagles and Black Storks damage our fish and game reserves 1 2 3 4 Average on scale 1- 4 (1=fully disagree...4=fully agree) Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 17 5.b Respondents opinion of the role of Black Stork and eagles. by attitude to the restrictions, n=respondents in the group Positive attitude (n=148) Negative attitude (n=39) Protection of the eagles and Black Storks` nests causes the landowners significant economic loss Eagles and Black Storks damage our fish and game reserves The number of eagles and Black Storks is small in Estonia As the powerful inhabitants of deep forests they symbolize the wild- life protection Eagles and Black Stork play an important role in the nature 1 2 3

4 Average on scale 1-4 (1=fully disagree...4=fully agree) Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 18 6. What has to be done to protect the eagles and Black Stork. n=200 No Yes Cannot say Work out the compensation system -7 Distribute nature protection information, training -13 Maintain feeding areas 31 -35 - 80 -60 - 40 -20 25 36 -48 Nothing special- the birds can manage themselves 17 53 -30 Create more areas to protect the nests

16 70 -23 Strenghten the control over fulfilling the regulations % -100 78 21 0 35 22 45 20 40 60 80 100 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 19 6.a What has to be done to protect the eagles and Black Stork. By the respondentsgroups Enterprise (n=28) Forest district (n=33) Private owner (n=139) Work out the compensation system Distribute nature protection information, training Maintain feeding areas Strenghten the control over fulfilling the regulations Create more areas to protect the nests Nothing special- the birds can manage themselves 0

20 40 60 80 100 % Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 20 6.b What has to be done to protect the eagles and Black Stork. by attitude to the restrictions Positive attitude (n=148) Negative attitude (n=39) Work out the compensation system Distribute nature protection information, training Maintain feeding areas Strenghten the control over fulfilling the regulations Create more areas to protect the nests Nothing special- the birds can manage themselves 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 21 7. Is it necessary to create protected areas round the nests? Yes and I consider it is justifie d on my land as w ell Yes but it is not justifie d on my land All respondents

-25 Private owner -19 Forest district -21 -80 -60 - 40 -20 0 4 14 45 33 46 7 20 Cannot say 5 14 62 -48 Enterprise %-100 57 No 40 25 60 80

100 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 22 7.a Is it necessary to create protected areas round the nests? By attitude to the restrictions Yes and I consider it is justified on my kand as well Positive attitude (n=148) Yes but it is not justified on my land 64 Negative attitude (n=39) 4 38 0 10 20 8 30 40 23 31 50 60 No Cannot say 9 23 70

80 90 100 % Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 23 8. Are You sufficiently informed about the eagles and Black Stork? Yes No, though I am interested in such an information I am not interested in such an information No answ er All respondents 45 Private owner 40 Forest district 20 4 27 36 0 4 2 55 70 Enterprise % 50 46 40 7

60 80 3 11 100 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 24 9. Which kind of help is expected from the state. n=200 No Yes Moderate compensation for the unmanaged land -14 Subsidiaries for the maintained feeding areas -15 Substitution of the (forest) land 72 -50 21 41 15 25 36 38 Other % -100 35

47 -35 Nothing special - 80 - 60 -40 - 20 14 51 -33 Possibility to sell the land to the state Cannot say 0 20 63 40 60 80 100 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 25 10. The most expected help from the state. n=200 Prompted answers Moderate compensation for the unmanaged land 73 Subsidiaries for the maintained feeding areas 51 47

Substitution of (forest) land Possibility to sell the land to the state 41 Nothing special 15 The answers, added by the respondents (summarised) Enlarge the compensation 38 Improve the distribution of the information Solve the problems with the substitution of the land More flexibility when setting regulations 8 6 4 Facilitate the applying for compensation etc. Understanding and regard for the owners, negotiations Exempt from the land tax 2 Proceed from the market prices 2 Other %0 3 3 8 20 40 60 80 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 100 26

10.a The most expected help from the state. n=respondents in the groups Enterprise (n=28) Forest district (n=33) Private owner (n=139) Moderate compensation for the unmanaged land Subsidiaries for the maintained feeding areas Substitution of (forest) land Possibility to sell the land to the state Other (summary of the verbatim): Nothing special Enlarge the compensation Improve the distribution of the information Solve the problems with the substitution of the land More flexibility when setting regulations Facilitate the applying for compensation etc. Understanding and regard for the owners, negotiations Exempt from the land tax Proceed from the market prices Other 0 20 40 60 80 Eesti % Ornitoloogiahing 100 27 11. The expected help from the nature protection organisations. All respondents n=200 Every- year information of the eagle or black stork living near- by 65 Need of instructions how to manage the feeding

areas 39 Need of instructions how to manage the forest protecting the nature 39 Nothing special 25 Other 15 Other (summary of verbatim): More information 10 Replacement of the protected areas with protected zones 2 Cooperation with the owners 2 Other 3 %0 20 40 60 80 100 Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 28 11.a The expected help from the nature protection organisations. n=respondents in the groups Enterprise (n=28)

Forest district (n=33) Private owner (n=139) Every-year information of the eagle or black stork living near-by Need of instructions how to manage the feeding areas Need of instructions how to manage the forest protecting the nature Nothing special Other (summary of verbatim): More information Replacement of the protected areas with protected zones Cooperation with the owners 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 29 12. The structure of the expectations and considerations, added by the respondents. All respondents n=200 More information 12 Out-dated restriction 7 More and reasonable protection 3 Diffi culties while communicating with the state 3

Glad for the protected area 2 No reason to restrict 2 Replace the protected areas with protected zones 2 Cooperation 2 Too strict restrictions 2 Restrictions according to season 1 Other 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 30

12.a The structure of the expectations and considerations, added by the respondents. by attitude to the restrictions. Positive attitude (n=148) Negative attitude (n=39) More information Out- dated restriction More and reasonable protection Diffi culties while communicating with the state Glad for the protected area No reason to restrict Replace the protected areas with protected zones Cooperation Too strict restrictions Restrictions according to season Other 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Eesti Ornitoloogiahing 31

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