Anatomic Layers Standard Anatomic Reference Embryologic Development Arterial Supply Venous Return Lymphatic system Nerves Physiology and Hormonal Influences Breast Exam Guidelines Breast Self-Examination Mammography Mammographic Views
Mammographic Examination Benign and Malignant Mammographic Features Calcifications Breast Sonography Sonographic Examination Patient History Positioning Transducer Pressure Scan Planes Annotation Stand-off Pad
Normal Sonographic Appearance Dynamic Examination Compression Echo Palpation Fermitus 3D/4D Breast Sonography Sonographic Features of Benign Disease Sonographic Features of Malignant Disease Breast Cysts
Skin thickening Nipple Discharge Sclerosing Adenosis Radial Scar Mondors Disease Precocious Puberty Gynecomastia Breast Cancer Epidemiology Risk Factors Non-Invasive Breast Cancer
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Lobular Carcinoma In Situ Invasive Breast Cancer Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Invasive Lobular Carcinoma Medullary Carcinoma Colloid Carcinoma Tubular Carcinoma Papillary Carcinoma Miscellaneous Cancer Topics Pagets Disease
Inflammatory Carcinoma Multifocal/Multicentric Cancer Male Breast Cancer Phyllodes Tumor Lymphoma Metastasis BIRADS categories Digital Mammography Computer Aided Detection (CAD) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Nuclear Medicine
PET Scan Ductography Ductoscopy Sentinel Node Procedure Cytology and Histology Breast Implants Types of Implants Implant Placement Imaging Implants Complications Implant Rupture
Role of Sonography in Invasive Procedures Cyst Aspiration Needle Localization Fine-Needle Aspiration Core Biopsy Vacuum-Assisted Biopsy Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrument Surgical Biopsy Specimen Imaging Breast Cancer Staging
Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery Reduction Mammoplasty TRAM flap Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Hormone Therapy Biologic Therapy Module one: Introduction Sonographic Terminology from the AIUM
(American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine) Acoustic Impedance- The resistance that a material offers to sound wave travel. Amplitude The strength or height of a sound wave measured in decibels. Anechoic- The appearance of having no internal echoes (ech0 free) on a sonographic image. Synonyms: echolucent, sonolucent. Artifact- an echo feature present or absent in a sonographic image that des not correspond to the
presence or absence of a real structure. Common artifacts in breast imaging include enhancement and shadowing. Attenuation- the reduction of intensity (and amplitude) of a sound wave as it travels through a material. Attenuation is due to absorption, reflection, and scattering. Complex- A structure in the body that contains both solid and cystic components. Cystic- any fluid-filled structure in the body.
Echogenic- A structure or medium that produces echoes. Echo Shadowing- decreased echo amplitude distal to the edge of a structure. This artifact results from refraction of the sound beam. Enhancement Increased echo amplitude returning from regions lying beyond an object that causes little or no attenuation of the sound beam (Typically a cystic structure). This artifact results in a brighter than normal appearance. Heterogenous a structure that has an uneven
texture (hypoechoic and hyperechoic echoes throughout). May be used to describe a mass or tissue in general. Synonym: non-uniform. Homogenous a structure that has a smooth, uniform texture. May be used to describe a mass or tissue in general. Hyperechoic- A region in a sonographic image where the echoes are brighter than normal or brighter than surrounding structures. Synonyms: echodense, sonodense, sonopaque. Hypoechoic a region in a sonographic image where the echoes are not as bright as normal or
are less bright than surrounding structures. Ipsilateral on the same side. Contralateral on the opposite side. Isoechoic having the same echogenicity as another structure or surrounding tissue. Noise- spurious echoes throughout the image. May cause echoes to be seen in cystic structures. Real-timeThe
scanning and display of sonographic images at a sufficiently rapid rate so that moving structures can be SEEN to move at their natural rate; frame rates of 15 frames per second or greater are considered real-time. Realtime imaging allows the sonographer to perform dynamic techniques while scanning to better interrogate breast structures. Reverberation a type of artifact causing linear
echoes parallel to a strong interface; sound is returned to the transducer than into the tissues repeatedly (bouncing artifact). Ring Down- a particular type of reverberation artifact in which numerous parallel echoes are seen for a considerable distance. Sensitivity the ability to diagnosis disease in a patient when disease is present. Shadowing- a reduction in echo amplitudes distal to a strongly attenuating or reflecting structure (typically caused by a dense, solid structure). This
artifact results in a less bright than normal appearance. Solid- A structure in the body that produces echoes. Sonodense the result of an attenuated sound beam traveling through a solid structure. Synonym: Hyperechoic, echodense, or sonopaque. Sonolucent- the result of an unattenuated sound beam traveling through a fluid-filled
structure. Synonym: anechoic, echolucent Superficial- toward the body surface. Deep-away from the body surface or internal. Texture- the pattern of echoes seen from a mass or area of interest in the body. Homework: TAKE HOME TEST Case presentation: Mammogram and Ultrasound correlation 1. <25 y/o with DCIS 2. <25 y/o with Fibro adenoma
3. Woman with Pagets Disease 4. Woman with Micro-calcifications 5. Lobular Carcinoma in situ (LCIS) 6. Woman with multicentric cancers 7. Woman with multifocal cancers Breast Cyst - anechoic Complex Cyst Breast cyst edge shadowing and enhancement
Fibroadenoma homogeneous and isoechoic Cyst aspiration needle with reverberation Calcified breast mass - shadowing Echogenicity The ultrasound system sends high frequency sound waves into the breast which reflect off tissues and
boundaries. This reflection (echo) is represented on the image as a series of black, white, and gray areas based on the reflective nature of the tissue. If the tissue strongly reflects the sound, it will appear white (hyperechoic). If the tissue weakly reflects the sound, it will appear dark (hypoechoic). If the tissue provides no reflection of the sound, it will appear black (anechoic). This vocabulary is specific to Sonography and is described as the echogenicity of a structure/tissue. Echogenicites
Hyperechoic Coopers Ligament Hyperechoic Skin Hypoechoic relative to ligaments Module Two: Instrumentation Instrumentation Breast Sonography is extremely operator-dependent. Therefore, it is essential to use appropriate equipment
and be properly schooled in breast Sonography in order to achieve diagnostic accuracy. Sonographic images are created using the B-Mode (brightness) principle. This offers a gray scale image of the breast. The set-up of the ultrasound system (machine) should include selecting the most appropriate transducer and optimizing the depth, overall gain, TGC, output power, focus, and gray scale. Color and power Doppler techniques continue to play a useful role in breast imaging and also require fine adjustment.
Transducers Transducer selection is critical in breast imaging. Frequency A 10.0 18.0 MHz frequency is optimal Need high frequency probe for superior axial and lateral resolution (detail) while maintaining penetration to chest wall. A broadband transducer (wide frequency range) is optimal. Trade-off; High frequency probes yield superior image detail while losing penetration ability. Low
frequency probes penetrate deeper but lose image detail. Probe Design A linear Array transducer is optimal. Produces a rectangular image Allows direct contact scanning perpendicular to the chest wall. Accurate measurements can be recorded by avoiding beam divergence artifact (this is achieved with a rectangular image vs. a sector image). Interventional procedures (i.e., cyst aspiration, biopsy, and
needle localization, etc.) can be accurately guided with a linear array probe. A curved Array transducer may be used to supplement the sonographic examination if a mass is too large to fit on a linear image. Using the lower frequency curved array probe provides a larger field of view at the expense of lost resolution. A 1-D Linear or 1.5 D Matrix Array Transducer may be utilized Most linear array transducers used in breast
Sonography are 1-D arrays 1-D arrays have a single element stretched across the short axis of the probe. 1-D arrays offer a fixed focus in the elevation plane (short axis) 1.5 D matrix array transducers have multiple elements along the short axis of the probe. 1.5 D arrays offer some electronic focusing in the elevation plane. 2-D transducers are not currently available. Depth
Depth should be sufficient to visualize the breast tissue from skin to chest wall. Breast size will vary from one patient to the next. However, an imaging depth between 3 and 6 cm should be adequate. Imaging of the breast should include 1. skin 2. breast parenchyma 3. pectoral muscle 4. chest wall
For Previous Slide 1. 2. 3. 4. Skin Breast Parenchyma Pectoral Muscle Chest Wall Gain
Receiver gain is the amount of amplification applied to a returning echo. An echos brightness is controlled by gain. Gain is the most frequently adjusted control. It is optimized for each patient depending on several factors. These factors include breast size, thickness, and tissue density. There are typically three adjustments for gain on the ultrasound control panel: 1. Overall Gain 2. TGC 3. Auto Gain Optimization
OVERALL GAIN Controls the level of brightness of all echoes appearing on the image. The Sonographer has the ability to increase or decrease the overall brightness by using this control. TGC (Time Gain Compensation) Allows for brightness to be controlled at varying depths throughout the image. The top control adjusts brightness in the near field of the image. The bottom controls adjust
brightness in the far field. Auto Gain Optimization Most state-of-the-art ultrasound systems offer an Auto Gain Optimization control. This feature automatically optimizes the overall gain and TGC functions with each imaging area. If the overall affect does not produce an optimized image, the sonographer may still need to make fine adjustments with the overall gain and TGC.
Output Power Output power is the amount of voltage applied to the transducer to create a sound wave. This control determines the patients exposure to ultrasound energy. Therefore, the sonogphaer should consider prudent use of output power. All state-of-the-art sonographic systems, however, function at a safe power setting while operating at 100% output
power. Sonographers should remember the ALARA principle: Output power should be set As low as So, when should the sonographer decrease the output power? And, what happens to the image? What happens when the power is decreased? Answer: The image gets darker
Can the brightness be increased without increasing the power gain? Answer: Yes, by increasing the gain. Does increasing the gain have any effect on patient exposure to ultrasound energy? Answer: No
So, in THEORY If your image is too bright, decrease the output power. If your image is too dark, increase the receiver gain. In day-to-day practice, however, the output power is usually at 100%. The gain is most frequently used to adjust the image brightness. Focus Multi-focus or
variable (Adjustable) electronic focusing will achieve optimal breast detail. The use of multiple focal zones will provide excellent resolution of full depth of the image. This may significantly reduce the frame rate. Multiple focal zones, however, are still recommended. Trade-off: Multiple focal zones will yield the best resolution throughout the entire image at the expense of a slow frame rate.
Multiple focal zones Single focal zone (single focus) Elevation Plane focus Elevation plane focus is defined as the focus in the short axis or elevation plane (short side) of an electronic transducer.
1-D array transducers have a fixed (manufacturer set) elevation plane focus. 1.5 D array transducers have some electronic focusing in the elevation lane. Most probes used in breast imaging are conventional 1-D linear array transducers. Therefore, manufacturers create high frequency transducers with a shallow focus in the elevation plane and low frequency transducers with a deeper focus. A 10.0 to 18.0 MHz probe must be utilized for breast Sonography in order to obtain elevation plane focus at 1.0 to 2.0 cm depth. 10MHz =1.5 cm Elevation Plane Focus
Elevation Plane Focus Gray Scale Echoes returning from breast tissue are assigned to a specific shade of gray based on their echo strength. This function of the ultrasound system is known as Gray Scale Mapping or Dynamic Range. The sonographer controls the selection of the gray scale map or dynamic range by using the breast or small part examination preset or protocol control. Fine adjustments to the dynamic range may also be made during scanning.
Generally for Breast imaging, a broad gray scale map or dynamic range is used. This provides a wide range of gray shades to be displayed while demonstrating subtle tissue differences. A map with too few gray shades may not accurately demonstrate low-level echoes within a cyst or solid lesion. Artifacts Artifacts exist in breast sonography as they do imaging any other organ structure. Some artifacts have proven helpful and may aid in
determining certain characteristics about tissue. Artifacts also hinder imaging capabilities. Helpful artifacts Acoustic enhancement Generally associated with a cystic/benign lesion. Shadowing generally associated with a solid/
malignant lesion. Shadowing artifact with breast cancer Unwanted artifacts Reverberation artifactual linear echoes parallel to a strong interface. Has a distinct stepladder or venetian blind appearance. Side or Grating lobe Secondary sound sources off the main sound beam that place artifactual echoes within a cyst. Slice (section) Thickness Unwanted echoes from the thickness
of the sound beam in the elevation plane that place artifacts within a cyst. Nipple Shadowing shadowing in the subareolar region may be eliminated by angling the transducer posterior to the nipple or by using the rolled nipple technique. Volume Averaging decreases contrast resolution and spatial resolution (both axial and lateral). Places unwanted echoes in cysts. Doppler Conventional
Color Doppler and Power Doppler can be useful in evaluating breast tissues. Power Doppler is typically more sensitive to low velocity flow and offers no angle dependence. Neither is reliable, however, in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. Both benign and malignant masses may demonstrate internal flow characteristics. Both may also demonstrate a normal low velocity flow state (in comparison to surrounding tissues). Why use Doppler with breast imaging?
Doppler is helpful in distinguishing: Solid vs. Cystic Positive flow within a lesion confirms a solid nature. Inflamed vs. non-inflamed tissue- Doppler signal will increase due to increased flow to an inflammation. Complicated Cyst vs. complex cyst vs. intraductal papilloma Doppler signal will be absent in the debris of a complicated cyst but may be evident within the solid component of a complex cyst or intraductal papilloma. PRESSURE: Minimal transducer pressure should be
used with Doppler scanning techniques of the breast. The small vessels within the breast tissue are easily compressed. Doppler technique: In order to optimize Doppler imaging, the sonographer should establish a technique for low velocity flow states: This includes
1. Low velocity Scale 2. Low filter setting 3. Optimal Doppler Gain Setting 4. Increased PRF for high flow velocities. Solid or Cystic? Conventional color Doppler reveals solid mass Spatial compounding Uses compounding technique to combine ultrasound lines acquired from different scanning directions (angles). Improves tissue
differentiation, margin visualization, and internal architecture creating a smoother more realistic image. Advantages Clears cysts Reduces Speckle and other noise artifacts (clutter) Disadvantages
Reduces acoustic enhancement and shadowing artifact Elastography Elastography is a diagnostic method that evaluates the elastic properties of tissue. Breast tissues and masses vibrate or compress differently based on their firmness. It is well known that breast fat is highly elastic and compresses significantly. It is also known that benign
lesions tend to be soft (compressible) and malignant lesions tend to be hard (very firm and noncompressible. Therefore, elastography may have the potential to differentiate benign from malignant breast tumors (distinguish BIRADS 3 form BIRADS 4 lesions) and potentially reduce the number of biopsies. FIN
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